QUESTION/PROBLEM: Bilingual Special Education Assessmentlast updated January 16, 1998
What are recommended assessment practices for identifying the presence of learning disabilities in bilingual or limited-English-speaking children?
In the diagnosis of special educational needs, what are the implications of students' cultural differences or bilingualism or limited-English-speaking status?
What are general resources regarding educational policies and classroom practices for bilingual special education?
Table of Contents
A project of the The Region III Comprehensive Center at George Washington University's Center for Equity and Excellence in Education (CEEE) and the ERIC Clearinghouse on Assessment and Evaluation, the CEEE Test Database is a collection of abstracts and descriptions of almost 200 tests commonly used with Limited English Proficent students.
Assessment & Accountability [in Bilingual Education]
Identification and Assessment of Culturally and Linguistically Diverse
Students with Disabilities, 1993-1996
The assessment of bilingual pupils: observations from recent Welsh experiences by Dylan V.
Jones, September 1997
ERIC DOCUMENTS CITATIONS FOR BILINGUAL SPECIAL EDUCATION ASSESSMENT
EJ513519 EC612637 Assessment of Students with Learning Disabilities: Current Issues and Future Directions. Scruggs, Thomas E.; Mastropieri, Margo A. Diagnostique, v20 n1-4 p17-31 199 1995 ISSN: 0737-2477 Available From: UMI Document Type: JOURNAL ARTICLE (080); REVIEW LITERATURE (070) Current issues in the assessment of students with learning disabilities are identified, including use of physiological and neuropsychological measures, discrepancy criteria, curriculum-based measurement, dynamic assessment, performance and portfolio assessment, and assessment of learning disabilities in bilingual and multicultural contexts. (Author/DB) Descriptors: Bilingual Education; Competency Based Education; Curriculum Based Assessment; *Disability Identification; Educational Trends; Elementary Secondary Education; *Evaluation Methods; *Learning Disabilities; Limited English Speaking; Multicultural Education; Portfolio Assessment; *Student Evaluation; Trend Analysis Identifiers: Discrepancy Formulas; Dynamic Assessment EJ511759 EC612222 The Social Construction of Ability and Disability: I. Profile Types of Latino Children Identified as Language Learning Disabled. Ruiz, Nadeen T. Journal of Learning Disabilities, v28 n8 p476-90 Oct 1995 ISSN: 0022-2194 Available From: UMI Document Type: JOURNAL ARTICLE (080); RESEARCH REPORT (143) An ethnographic study of one elementary bilingual special education classroom found three profile types of students, ranging from severe language learning disabilities to normal abilities. Results show the inadequacy of the medical model and support a contextual performance view that acknowledges the role of instructional context in revealing the range of students' communicative and academic competence. (Author/DB) Descriptors: *Ability Identification; Bilingual Education; *Context Effect; *Disability Identification; Elementary Education; Ethnography; Evaluation Methods; Language Impairments; *Learning Disabilities; *Limited English Speaking; Models; *Performance Factors; Severity (of Disability); Special Needs Students; Student Evaluation ED379917 FL022759 Instructional Assessment. An Integrative Approach to Evaluating Student Performance. Fradd, Sandra Homlar; And Others 1994 509p. ISBN: 0-201-53964-0 Available From: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, Rt. 128, Reading, MA 01867 ($28.95). Document Type: TEACHING GUIDE (052); RESEARCH REPORT (143) Target Audience: Teachers; Administrators; Practitioners This book meets a critical assessment need which is the need to develop legally and educationally defensible assessment procedures for use with non-English language background students who are still in the process of learning English. The purpose of this text is to provide educators with both the information on which to make effective educational decisions and the knowledge and insight to enable them to apply this information in both theoretical and practical contexts. The chapters in this volume are: Chapter 1, "Concepts of Instructional Assessment"; Chapter 2, "Understanding Second Language Performance"; Chapter 3, "Assessing Oral Language Performance"; Chapter 4, "Differentiating Language Disorders from the Effects of Limited Opportunities for Language Learning"; Chapter 5, "Towards an Integrative Academic Performance Assessment"; Chapter 6, "Assessing Academic Performance through Contextualized Measures"; Chapter 7, "Advocacy in the Assessment Process"; Chapter 8: "Identifying Special Needs"; and Chapter 9 "Using Assessment Information To Promote Instructional Effectiveness." An appendix with guidelines for instructional assessment is included. (Contains 671 references.) (CK) Descriptors: *Decision Making; *Educational Diagnosis; English (Second Language); *Evaluation Methods; *Evaluation Research; Information Utilization; Instructional Effectiveness; Learning Disabilities; Limited English Speaking; Oral Language; Problem Solving; Second Language Instruction; Second Language Learning; Special Needs Students; Student Evaluation; *Teacher Effectiveness EJ429883 EC600946 Meeting the Needs of Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Exceptional Learners: Prereferral to Mainstreaming. Hoover, John J.; Collier, Catherine Teacher Education and Special Education, v14 n1 p30-34 Win 1991 Available From: UMI Document Type: JOURNAL ARTICLE (080); PROJECT DESCRIPTION (141); REVIEW LITERATURE (070) Target Audience: Teachers; Practitioners This article discusses prereferral intervention, mainstreaming, and appropriate education for culturally and linguistically diverse exceptional learners. One approach for addressing prereferral intervention at district or school building levels is described, emphasizing the need to expand training to meet the needs of minority non-Hispanic students in special and mainstream classes. (Author/PB) Descriptors: *Disabilities; Elementary Secondary Education; Intervention; *Mainstreaming; *Minority Group Children; Non English Speaking; Teaching Methods Identifiers: Bilingual Special Education; *Prereferral Intervention EJ429881 EC600944 POWER: A Process for Meeting the Instructional Needs of Handicapped Language-Minority Students. Fradd, Sandra H.; Bermudez, Andrea B. Teacher Education and Special Education, v14 n1 p19-24 Win 1991 Available From: UMI Document Type: JOURNAL ARTICLE (080); PROJECT DESCRIPTION (141) Target Audience: Teachers; Practitioners A field-tested instruction and assessment model is described that fosters development of second-language skills by integrating writing with listening, speaking, reading, and problem solving. The model draws upon elements of process-oriented instruction, whole language learning, cooperative learning, cognitive mapping, and reading and writing across the curriculum. (Author/PB) Descriptors: Classroom Techniques; Cognitive Mapping; Cooperative Learning; *Disabilities; Educational Diagnosis; Elementary Secondary Education; Second Language Learning; *Special Education; Student Evaluation; *Teaching Methods; Whole Language Approach; Writing Across the Curriculum Identifiers: Bilingual Special Education EJ429884 EC600947 Assessment and Intervention Model for the Bilingual Exceptional Student (AIM for the BESt). Ortiz, Alba A.; Wilkinson, Cheryl Yelich Teacher Education and Special Education, v14 n1 p35-42 Win 1991 Available From: UMI Document Type: JOURNAL ARTICLE (080); PROJECT DESCRIPTION (141) Target Audience: Practitioners This article describes a service delivery system for limited English proficiency students in regular and special education programs using problem-solving teams and criterion-referenced and/or curriculum-based assessment, with an emphasis on reciprocal interaction teaching. Goals include improved academic performance and more reliable referral of such students. (Author/PB) Descriptors: *Disabilities; Educational Diagnosis; Elementary Secondary Education; *Handicap Identification; *Limited English Speaking; Mainstreaming; Minority Group Children; Problem Solving; *Regular and Special Education Relationship; Student Evaluation; Test Bias Identifiers: Bilingual Special Education ED343770 RC018629 American Indians and Alaska Natives with Disabilities. Johnson, Marilyn J. [1991 43p.; In: Indian Nations At Risk Task Force Commissioned Papers. See RC 018 612. Document Type: REVIEW LITERATURE (070) American Indian and Alaska Native children with special needs experience the same ineffective and inefficient services as other minority language children. This paper discusses the special needs of Native children, assessment and curriculum issues, and recommendations for improvement. It provides statistics for various categories of handicaps and for Native preschool children, school- aged children, and adults. Some conditions affecting Native children at high rates are described: learning disabilities, fetal alcohol syndrome, communication disorders, hearing impairments, and meningitis. Support for the education of disabled persons has been secured through legislation, particularly P.L. 94-142, which outlines procedures for screening, referral, assessment, placement, and staffing. Nevertheless, assessment practices have been criticized. Particularly relevant for Native students are criticisms related to cultural and linguistic test bias, the creation of self- fulfilling prophecies, and the widespread use and misuse of standardized tests. Alternative assessment practices include academic task analysis, pluralistic assessment, culture-fair procedures, an advocacy-oriented model, and addition of a sociocultural dimension. Curriculum issues and recommendations are related to bilingual special education, the Regular Education Initiative, early childhood education, reading instruction, mathematics instruction, and functional life skills. Also discussed are teacher shortages, parent and community involvement, the need for preschool programs, and future Native programming needs. This paper contains over 150 references. (SV) Descriptors: Alaska Natives; *American Indian Education; American Indians; *Curriculum Development; *Disabilities; *Educational Diagnosis; Elementary Secondary Education; *Special Education; Special Needs Students; *Student Evaluation; Student Placement; Teaching Methods Identifiers: Bilingual Special Education; Education for All Handicapped Children Act EJ429885 EC600948 Assessment Concerns: A Study of Cultural Differences, Teacher Concepts, and Inappropriate Labeling. Jacobs, Lila Teacher Education and Special Education, v14 n1 p43-48 Win 1991 Available From: UMI Document Type: JOURNAL ARTICLE (080); RESEARCH REPORT (143) Target Audience: Teachers; Practitioners An ethnographic study is reported using participant and nonparticipant observations, interviews, and analysis of school files on 77 Hmong students to probe factors affecting tendencies to incorrectly label Hmong students as learning disabled. Case studies are discussed in the context of Hmong history, refugees' experiences, and language factors. (Author/PB) Descriptors: Bias; Case Studies; Educational Diagnosis; Elementary Secondary Education; Ethnography; Handicap Identification; *Hmong People; Labeling (of Persons); *Learning Disabilities; Minority Group Children; *Non English Speaking; Refugees; *Social Bias ED329094 EC300090 Bilingual Learning Disability Services in Illinois--A Myth?: A Look at Policy. Assaf-Keller, Miryam Oct 1990 42p.; Paper presented at the Council for Exceptional Children Symposium on Culturally Diverse Exceptional Children (Albuquerque, NM, October 18-20, 1990). Document Type: CONFERENCE PAPER (150) This paper reviews statutes and recommended practices established by the Illinois State Board of Education for the identification of learning disabilities (LD) in culturally and linguistically diverse exceptional (CLDE) students, and reports the findings of a survey on LD bilingual services provided to Hispanic students in the Chicago (Illinois) Public Schools and surrounding districts. Such assessment variables as discrepancy criteria, processing criteria, and sociocultural factors are considered. The paper discusses the prevalence of Hispanic students enrolled in bilingual special education and possible factors impacting on their level of representation. A survey of 20 Chicago and area public schools, with approximately a 50% return rate, collected data on the types of services provided to CLDE students in LD. The study focused on types of programs, length of existence of the programs, numbers of students enrolled, professionals involved in the utilization of standardized tests for LD identification, criteria utilized for LD identification, instruments utilized for language proficiency evaluations, instruments and procedures utilized for educational assessments, and instructional materials utilized for the instruction of academic subjects. The paper concludes that state-mandated nondiscriminatory assessment and placement procedures are not being exercised, and that program availability appears to be the determinant factor in student placement. (Approximately 75 references) (JDD) Descriptors: *Bilingual Education; Cultural Differences; Educational Diagnosis; Educational Discrimination; Educational Policy; Educational Practices; Elementary Secondary Education; *Handicap Identification; Hispanic Americans; Incidence; Language Handicaps; *Learning Disabilities; Limited English Speaking; Program Implementation; State Programs; *State Standards; Student Placement Identifiers: Chicago Public Schools IL; *Illinois ED321427 EC222033 Assessing the Language Difficulties of Hispanic Bilingual Students. Abstract 23: Research & Resources on Special Education. Aug 1989 8p. Available From: ERIC/OSEP Special Project on Interagency Information Dissemination, Council for Exceptional Children, 1920 Association Dr., Reston, VA 22091 ($1.00 each, minimum order $5.00). Document Type: BIBLIOGRAPHY (131); SERIAL (022); ERIC PRODUCT (071) Target Audience: Practitioners; Researchers This research summary identifies major factors affecting the validity of language assessments in bilingual students. The four factors include: (1) determining which language is dominant and in which language the child should be tested; (2) recognizing that bilingual children may use language in a way that is qualitatively different from that of monolingual children; (3) recognizing the influence of cultural differences and the local environment; and (4) overcoming the insufficiencies of existing diagnostic instruments. Literature-based recommendations for selecting a battery of language assessments are offered, and research needs are listed. A 35-item bibliography on assessing language disorders in bilingual students accompanies the research summary. (JDD) Descriptors: *Bilingual Students; Cultural Differences; Diagnostic Tests; Elementary Secondary Education; *Evaluation Methods; *Handicap Identification; Hispanic Americans; *Language Handicaps; *Language Tests; Research Needs; Student Evaluation; Test Bias; Testing Problems EJ400670 EC221583 Adaptation of a Screening Test for Bilingual and Bidialectal Populations. Norris, Marylee K.; And Others Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, v20 n4 p381-90 Oct 1989 Document Type: JOURNAL ARTICLE (080); RESEARCH REPORT (143) Target Audience: Practitioners; Researchers An adaptation of the Hannah-Gardner Test of Verbal and Nonverbal Language Functioning was developed to be used in screening the language skills of 540 low-income Black, English-dominant Hispanic, and Anglo preschool children. The procedures used to calculate local norms and other issues involved in screening minority populations are discussed. (Author/JDD) Descriptors: Bilingual Students; Handicap Identification; *Learning Disabilities; Limited English Speaking; *Local Norms; Minority Group Children; *Nonstandard Dialects; Nonverbal Ability; Preschool Children; Preschool Education; *Screening Tests; Testing Problems; *Test Norms; *Verbal Ability Identifiers: *Hannah Gardner Test of Nonverbal Verbal Lang Funct EJ399084 EC221176 Language Disorder or Difference? Assessing the Language Skills of Hispanic Students. Langdon, Henriette W. Exceptional Children, v56 n2 p160-67 Oct 1989 Special Issue: Meeting the Multicultural Needs of the Hispanic Students in Special Education. Document Type: RESEARCH REPORT (143); JOURNAL ARTICLE (080); NON- CLASSROOM MATERIAL (055) Target Audience: Practitioners Seventeen bilingual speech and language pathologists submitted assessment reports on 51 limited-English-proficiency students and 44 Anglo students with suspected language disorders. Analysis indicated that a heavy diagnostic emphasis continues to be placed on results of discrete-point tests. A protocol to assess limited-English-speaking students suspected of a language or learning disability is offered. (Author/MSE) Descriptors: *Educational Diagnosis; Elementary Secondary Education; *Hispanic Americans; *Language Skills; *Learning Disabilities; * Limited English Speaking; Spanish Speaking; *Test Use EJ399080 EC221172 Defining Mild Disabilities with Language-Minority Students. Rueda, Robert Exceptional Children, v56 n2 p121-28 Oct 1989 Special Issue: Meeting the Multicultural Needs of the Hispanic Students in Special Education. Document Type: PROJECT DESCRIPTION (141); POSITION PAPER (120); JOURNAL ARTICLE (080) Target Audience: Practitioners A discussion of special education placement of language-minority students with mild disabilities focuses on current eligibility criteria, proposing that problems in assessment, diagnosis, and placement reflect problems with larger issues in special education, especially continuing reliance on the psychometric paradigm. Reform attempts are categorized as system maintenance, improvement, or restructuring. (Author/MSE) Descriptors: *Educational Change; *Educational Diagnosis; Elementary Secondary Education; Eligibility; *Limited English Speaking; *Mild Disabilities; Special Education; *Student Placement; Testing Problems EJ399079 EC221171 A Theoretical Framework for Bilingual Special Education. Cummins, Jim Exceptional Children, v56 n2 p111-19 Oct 1989 Special Issue: Meeting the Multicultural Needs of the Hispanic Students in Special Education. Available From: UMI Document Type: PROJECT DESCRIPTION (141); JOURNAL ARTICLE (080) Target Audience: Practitioners A theoretical matrix for conceptualizing issues within bilingual special education is outlined. Issues addressed include the difficulty of distinguishing learning disabilities from second- language-learning problems, nondiscriminatory assessment of language and intellectual skills, effects of bilingual interactions at home and school, and appropriate pedagogy and intervention. (Author/MSE) Descriptors: *Bilingual Education; Bilingualism; *Disabilities; Educational Theories; Elementary Secondary Education; *Handicap Identification; High Risk Students; *Intervention; Learning Disabilities; Learning Problems; *Second Language Learning; Social Discrimination; *Special Education Identifiers: *Bilingual Special Education EJ393730 EC220440 A Socio-Cultural Framework for the Assessment of Chinese Children with Special Needs. Lee, Alice Topics in Language Disorders, v9 n3 p38-44 Jun 1989 Theme Issue: Language Assessment and Intervention with LEP Children: Implications from an Asian/Pacific Perspective. Document Type: JOURNAL ARTICLE (080); PROJECT DESCRIPTION (141); NON-CLASSROOM MATERIAL (055) Target Audience: Practitioners Subcultural differences existing among various Chinese immigrant groups are described, through examination of such cultural characteristics as languages, religions, philosophy, and family life. Two case studies reveal the difficulties inherent in conducting educational evaluations of Chinese children with special needs. (JDD) Descriptors: *Chinese Americans; Cultural Background; *Cultural Differences; *Disabilities; *Educational Diagnosis; Elementary Education; *Handicap Identification; *Limited English Speaking; Sociocultural Patterns ED309591 EC220582 Preventing Inappropriate Referrals of Language Minority Students to Special Education. Occasional Papers in Bilingual Education. Garcia, Shernaz B.; Ortiz, Alba A. NCBE New Focus, n5 Jun 1988 Jun 1988 13p. Document Type: REVIEW LITERATURE (070); PROJECT DESCRIPTION (141); SERIAL (022) It is often difficult to distinguish those students with learning problems due to individual differences in learning styles or achievement difficulties from those students with specific disorders; failure to do so sometimes results in inappropriate referral of language minority students to special education. It also contributes to disproportionate representation of those students in special education. These children suffer from the stigma of being labelled handicapped and may lose ground academically. Formal prereferral intervention is recommended, governed by a clearly articulated set of procedures followed by all personnel. Teacher assistance teams can be used to facilitate prereferral problem-solving. This process provides valuable insights for classroom teachers and team members regarding potential sources of student difficulties and can help distinguish learning problem types. At each step of the process, specific questions should address such issues as the problem; curricula and instructional materials; teacher characteristics; teaching style; teacher expectations and perceptions; student characteristics such as language proficiency, culture, and socioeconomic status; exposure to the curriculum; evaluation of instructional effectiveness; and alternative interventions. Prereferral intervention in which the major objective is to improve the effectiveness of regular education is a cost-effective approach. (MSE) Descriptors: *Educational Diagnosis; Elementary Secondary Education; English (Second Language); *Handicap Identification; Instructional Effectiveness; Intervention; *Learning Problems; *Limited English Speaking; Referral; School Policy; Special Education; *Student Placement Identifiers: *Prereferral Intervention ED300979 EC211274 Sociocultural Issues in the Assessment and Classroom Teaching of Language Minority Students. Crosscultural Special Education Series, Volume 3. Sue, Stanley Apr 1988 36p.; The document was produced by Resources in Special Education. For volumes 1 and 2 of this series, see EC 211 272-273. Available From: Resources in Special Education, 650 University Ave., Room 201, Sacramento, CA 05825. Document Type: NON-CLASSROOM MATERIAL (055) Target Audience: Teachers; Practitioners This guide examines problems in the assessment, evaluation, and teaching of language minority children who come from diverse sociocultural backgrounds. School systems must find valid means to assess linguistic minority students and must offer instructional approaches that can facilitate growth and development. General guidelines for assessment include understanding the referral question, selecting assessment tools based upon reliability and validity, using caution in interpreting test results, employing more than one measure, and avoiding inferences not warranted by the tests. The guidelines are applicable when using such assessment tools as observations, interviews, objective personality inventories, or projectives. Sociocultural influences are likely to have a major impact on the student's performance on intellectual assessment, on evaluations of learning disabilities, and on the measurement of socioemotional adjustment. Care must be taken so that assessment procedures accurately measure the characteristic of interest rather than sociocultural factors. Teachers can provide an educational atmosphere that enhances the growth and development of all students by understanding their own as well as their students' cultural backgrounds, by incorporating ethnically diverse teaching materials in class, and by helping parents to become actively involved in the education of their children. References are included. (JDD) Descriptors: Bilingual Students; *Communication Disorders; Cultural Context; *Cultural Influences; Educational Diagnosis; Elementary Secondary Education; English (Second Language); *Evaluation Methods; *Limited English Speaking; Minority Groups; *Sociocultural Patterns; *Student Evaluation; Teaching Methods ED293679 RC016591 Bilingual Special Education Is Appropriate for Mexican-American Children with Mildly Handicapping Conditions. ERIC Digest. Rodriguez, Richard F. Jan 1988 15p. Document Type: POSITION PAPER (120); ERIC PRODUCT (071) Target Audience: Practitioners Mexican American children have made poor progress in special education programs as currently structured. Existing data appear to indicate that minority children, particularly Mexican American, continue to be placed in special education out of proportion to their numbers in the general population. Although the Education for All Handicapped Children Act (PL 94-142) requires that each child referred to special education receive a comprehensive assessment using valid tests administered in the child's dominant language, current assessment practices lead to mislabelling and misplacing Mexican American students. Lack of trained personnel makes it impossible to provide appropriate services to bilingual special education children as mandated by PL 94-142. The development of instructional programs is hampered by lack of knowledge about the learning styles and cognitive development in minority group, bilingual children. Comprehensive, evaluated programs taking these factors into account have not been developed or proven effective for minority group handicapped children. A school district's philosophy of bilingual education and the type of language instruction provided will have a major impact on bilingual special education students. Parental involvement in a child's total educational program has recently become a principle intervention strategy and should be used with minority group parents. (JHZ) Descriptors: *Bilingual Education; Educational Diagnosis; Educational Needs; Elementary Secondary Education; *Instructional Development; Limited English Speaking; Mexican American Education; *Mexican Americans; *Mild Disabilities; Minority Group Teachers; *Parent Role; Parent School Relationship; Preservice Teacher Education; *Special Education; Teacher Education Curriculum; Teacher Qualifications Identifiers: ERIC Digests ED339785 UD028454 Psychoeducational Assessment of Minority Group Children: A Casebook. Jones, Reginald L. 1988 426p. ISBN: 0-943539-00-5 Available From: Cobb and Henry Publishers, P.O. Box 4900, Berkeley, CA 94704-4900 ($39.95). Document Type: BOOK (010); COLLECTION (020) This volume presents an introduction and 14 case studies by various authors on psychoeducational procedures for assessing minority group children. Included are the following papers: (1) "Psychoeducational Assessment of Minority Group Children: Issues and Perspectives" (R. L. Jones); (2) "Dynamic Assessment: The Learning Potential Assessment Device" (H. C. Haywood); (3) "The Use of Budoff's Learning Potential Assessment Techniques with a Mexican-American, Moderately Handicapped Student" (R. M. Hausman); (4) "Rudy Garcia: A SOMPA Case Study" (J. A. Morrison); (5) "The Texas Environmental Adaptation Measure: Test Development and Standardization, and a Case Study" (L. S. Scott and A. T. Fisher); (6) "The Behavioral Assessment of Conduct Disorder in a Black Child" (W. A. Anderson, Jr.); (7) "Behavioral Assessment and Special Education Evaluation: A Successful and Necessary Marriage" (J. M. Taylor); (8) "Nondiscriminatory Assessment and Informal Data Gathering: The Case of Gonzaldo L." (H. T. Cervantes); (9) "Gloria: A Bilingual/Learning Disabled Student" (H. W. Langdon); (10) "An Alternative Model for Identification of Potentially Gifted Students: A Case Study" (M. G. Dabney); (11) "Adaptation of the Learning Potential Assessment Strategy to Special Education Diagnostic Classroom Settings" (R. M. Hausman); (12) "Nonbiased Assessment of the Preschool Child" (M. L. McEvoy and D. W. Barnett); (13) "Case Study of an Emotionally Disturbed Eskimo Boy--Utuk" (D. L. McIntosh and H. G. W. Bischoff); (14) "Informal Assessment of Intellectual Ability Using Piagetian Tasks" (L. Taylor); and (15) "Using Student Performance Data in Academics: A Pragmatic and Defensible Approach to Non-Discriminatory Assessment" (M. R. Shinn and G. A. Tindal). Biographical sketches of the authors and author and subject indexes are included. (JB) Descriptors: Adjustment (to Environment); Behavioral Science Research; Bilingual Education; Case Studies; *Educational Diagnosis; Elementary Secondary Education; Group Testing; *Handicap Identification; *Minority Group Children; *Psychoeducational Methods; *Psychological Evaluation; Student Evaluation; Test Bias Identifiers: Dynamic Assessment ED300978 EC211273 The Nature of Bilingualism: Implications for Special Education. Crosscultural Special Education Series, Volume 2. Ruiz, Nadeen T. Jan 1988 43p.; The document was produced by Resources in Special Education. For volumes 1 and 3 of this series, see EC 211 272-274. Available From: Resources in Special Education, 650 University Ave., Room 201, Sacramento, CA 05825. Document Type: NON-CLASSROOM MATERIAL (055); REVIEW LITERATURE (070) Target Audience: Teachers; Practitioners This monograph presents language factors related to bilingualism, to assist educators to distinguish normal phenomena due to bilingualism from symptoms of a handicapping condition. The first section, called "The Nature of Bilingualism," discusses the diversity of bilingual students and their dynamic use of two languages, focusing on simultaneous and sequential bilingual children, first language acquisition in bilingual children, language varieties, language loss, codeswitching, and cognitive development in bilingual children. The section entitled "Second Language Development" explores the role of primary language interference; the similarity between the processes of first and second language acquisition; the rate of second language acquisition; and the factors of age, access to peers, cultural group membership, personality and individual strategies, motivation and attitude, and formal instruction in English as a second language. The final section, "Language Proficiency," examines relative language proficiency and language dominance, presents a model of bilingual proficiency, and reviews the problems of comparably limited bilingual children. A list of 64 references is appended. (JDD) Descriptors: *Bilingualism; Code Switching (Language); Cognitive Development; *Communication Disorders; Elementary Secondary Education; *Handicap Identification; Interference (Language); Language Acquisition; Language Dominance; *Language Proficiency; Language Skill Attrition; *Limited English Speaking; Models; *Second Language Learning ED300977 EC211272 Bilingual and Special Education: Procedural Manual for Program Administrators. Crosscultural Special Education Series, Volume 1. Vasquez-Chairez, Maria Apr 1988 69p.; The document was produced by Resources in Special Education. For volumes 2 and 3 of this series, see EC 211 273-274. Available From: Resources in Special Education, 650 University Ave., Room 201, Sacramento, CA 05825 ($10.00). Document Type: NON-CLASSROOM MATERIAL (055) Target Audience: Administrators; Practitioners This handbook clarifies how to meet legal requirements when the same student population qualifies for both bilingual and special education programs. Legal streamlining of existing California- mandated requirements for bilingual and special education is emphasized. The handbook begins with a discussion of the difficulties encountered when providing educational services to pupils with limited English proficiency who demonstrate academic deficiencies, and outlines procedures for distinguishing between a true disability and a language difference. Types of bilingualism and their effect on school achievement are examined. The use of the Student Study Team is suggested in the student referral process; such teams combine regular education teachers and specialists working together to develop an intervention plan emphasizing parent and student involvement. A detailed comparison of bilingual and special education law is presented. Specific legal requirements of California bilingual laws and special education laws are paralleled to assist in efficiently implementing the legislation. The handbook then presents administrative steps that combine two separate laws into one single procedure from the point of referral to placement. Appendices discuss: (1) methods for ascertaining legal compliance, and (2) sunset program provisions for five California special education and bilingual education programs. (JDD) Descriptors: Bilingual Education; *Compliance (Legal); *Disabilities; Educational Administration; Elementary Secondary Education; Eligibility; *Handicap Identification; Intervention; Legal Problems; Legal Responsibility; *Limited English Speaking; Referral; *Special Education; State Legislation; State Programs; *Student Placement Identifiers: *California EJ391040 RC507332 The Relative Importance of Language and Culture in Making Assessment Decisions about Hispanic Students Referred to Special Education. Metz, Isaura Barrera NABE: The Journal for the National Association for Bilingual Education, v12 n3 p191-218 Spr 1988 Document Type: JOURNAL ARTICLE (080); RESEARCH REPORT (143) Finds that seven educational diagnosticians: did not give equal consideration to student language and culture variables in four decisions about bilingual special education assessment methods, varied in reliability across decisions, and showed higher reliability when aware of own decision making processes. Contains 20 references and 10 statistical tables. (SV) Descriptors: Bilingual Education; *Decision Making; *Educational Diagnosis; Educational Research; Elementary Secondary Education; Methods Research; School Psychologists; Special Education Identifiers: *Bilingual Special Education; *Simulated Cases Questionnaire ED301604 TM012611 Relationships among Language Proficiency, Language of Test Administration and Special Education Eligibility for Bilingual Hispanic Students with Suspected Learning Disabilities. Wilkinson, Cheryl Yelich; Holtzman, Wayne H., Jr. Apr 1988 31p.; Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (New Orleans, LA, April 5-9, 1988). Document Type: CONFERENCE PAPER (150); RESEARCH REPORT (143) The relationship between the relative language proficiencies of bilingual children and their scores on tests administered in one or both languages was studied in students referred to special education because of suspected learning disabilities. Bilingual Hispanic students (25 males and 15 females) in grades 2 through 4 from an urban school district, who had been referred to special education and were considered as limited English proficient, were assessed using intelligence and achievement tests in English and Spanish. Only a moderate relationship was found between language proficiency and IQ and achievement test scores. Most test means did not differ for Spanish- and English-dominant children. Most of the children demonstrated fairly equal proficiency in both languages. Stronger relationships might have been obtained for children whose proficiency in one language much exceeded their proficiency in the other. The effect of the language of test administration on IQ scores was difficult to assess. However, between 9% and 17% of the group qualified for learning-disabled services on the basis of English (but not Spanish) scores; thus, underscoring the need to consider native language assessment for all bilingual children. Twelve data tables and one graph conclude the document. (SLD) Descriptors: Achievement Tests; Bilingual Education; *Bilingual Students; Diagnostic Tests; Elementary Education; Eligibility; English; *Hispanic Americans; Intelligence Tests; Language Dominance; *Language Proficiency; Language Tests; *Learning Disabilities; Limited English Speaking; Spanish Speaking; *Special Education; Test Bias; *Testing EJ366047 EC201637 Sociocultural Considerations When Referring Minority Children for Learning Disabilities. Collier, Catherine; Hoover, John J. Learning Disabilities Focus, v3 n1 p39-45 Fall 1987 Document Type: JOURNAL ARTICLE (080); REVIEW LITERATURE (070); POSITION PAPER (120) Target Audience: Practitioners The article discusses sociocultural considerations in dealing with culturally and linguistically different children referred for specific learning disabilities. Some behaviors which appear to indicate a learning disability may, in fact, be normal for the child's cultural background or may be a byproduct of the acculturative process. (Author/DB) Descriptors: *Cultural Differences; *Educational Diagnosis; Elementary Secondary Education; *Handicap Identification; *Limited English Speaking; *Minority Groups; *Student Evaluation ED303953 EC212150 Program Suggestions for the Provision of Special Education Services to Limited English Proficient Students in Michigan Schools. [1987 43p. Document Type: NON-CLASSROOM MATERIAL (055) Target Audience: Practitioners This document outlines processes necessary for the identification of and the educational planning for limited English proficient students who may be eligible for special education programs in Michigan. The importance of avoiding inappropriate referrals and misdiagnoses due to misinterpretation of cultural and linguistic diversity is stressed. The process involved in determining student placement encompasses seven steps: child study team consultation, referral, evaluation, meeting to develop the individualized education plan (IEP), delivery of programs and services, IEP annual review, and 3-year reevaluation. This guide outlines procedures for pre- referral; referral; evaluation, focusing on language proficiency and dominance, determination of the influences of cultural differences, utilizing translators/interpreters, assessing academic functioning levels of the student in both languages, assessing affective and behavioral components related to the suspected handicap, and special education assignment; continuum of services in both special education and bilingual or English as a second language programs; instructional techniques; and funding sources. (JDD) Descriptors: Cultural Background; *Disabilities; *Educational Diagnosis; *Educational Planning; Elementary Secondary Education; *Handicap Identification; *Limited English Speaking; Referral; Special Education; Student Evaluation; *Student Placement Identifiers: *Michigan ED288896 TM870632 Test Resource Guide, 1987. 1987 366p. Document Type: NON-CLASSROOM MATERIAL (055); BOOK-PRODUCT REVIEW (072) Target Audience: Practitioners The Test Resource Guide (TRG) is designed to provide professionals in the New York City (New York) Public Schools with a compendium of assessment devices for use in decision making; specifically, determining eligibility for special education services, planning an instructional program, and charting progress. The introduction to TRG describes: (1) testing procedures; (2) the psycho-educational model of assessment adopted by the New York City Board of Education; (3) standards for achieving quality assessments; and (4) the uses, development, and organization of TRG. This guide may be used as part of the assessment planning phase to help select appropriate tests, as a tool for increasing professional awareness of available tests across a number of domains, and as a staff development tool. Approximately 340 pages of test reviews and information are presented. Test reviews include the following items: intended purpose of the test, description, norm data, reliability, validity, and a section containing special alerts, effective uses, and comments. A wide range of tests are reviewed: tests of academic functioning (achievement batteries, readiness, reading, language arts, mathematics), adaptive behavior, cognitive functioning, communication and language, perceptual and motor functioning, social-emotional assessment, bilingual-limited English proficiency, and vocational assessment. State and federal laws and regulations are discussed. Chancellor's regulations are appended, as well as a publisher's directory, glossary, and bibliography. (MDE) Descriptors: Academic Achievement; *Diagnostic Tests; *Disabilities; Educational Diagnosis; Educational Testing; Elementary Secondary Education; Handicap Identification; *Limited English Speaking; Non English Speaking; *Special Education; Test Interpretation; *Test Reviews; Test Selection; Test Use; *Vocational Evaluation Identifiers: Education for All Handicapped Children Act; New York City Board of Education; School Based Support Teams EJ349287 EC191680 Policy Issues Associated with Serving Bilingual Exceptional Children. Garcia, Shernaz B.; Yates, James R. Journal of Reading, Writing, and Learning Disabilities International, v2 n2 p123-37 1986 Document Type: JOURNAL ARTICLE (080); POSITION PAPER (120) Target Audience: Policymakers Considered in this article addressing the policy issues of educational services to bilingual exceptional children are: characteristics of Hispanic learning disabled students, special education policy and practice, program availability, personnel, identification and placement, programs, and professional development. (DB) Descriptors: *Bilingual Students; *Disabilities; *Educational Needs; *Educational Policy; Elementary Secondary Education; Handicap Identification; Hispanic Americans; Learning Disabilities; Professional Development; *Program Development; *Student Placement ED322701 EC231893 Handicapped Language Minority Students: Past, Present and Future. Rangel, Elizabeth S. 4 Apr 1986 34p.; Master's Research Paper, Georgetown University. Appendixes A and D contain small/broken type. Best copy available. Document Type: REVIEW LITERATURE (070); POSITION PAPER (120); THESIS (042) The paper provides a current and historical overview of the educational inequities suffered by handicapped language minority students and explores the future of bilingual special education. The review covers such areas as a pending court case, the lack of laws dealing specifically with bilingual special education, overrepresentation of language minority students in special education classes, the inappropriate use and interpretation of standardized tests with this population, litigation concerning discriminatory procedures for intelligence quotient testing, and increasing underrepresentation in some areas of language minority children in programs for the mildly handicapped. A proposal is offered which advocates the use of bilingual special education to serve handicapped language minority students. Considered are myths (e.g., the bilingual child will suffer mental fatigue) and counter arguments (e.g., bilingualism may result in increased mental flexibility) concerning educational effects of bilingualism. Research is reviewed supporting the value of a bilingual approach with handicapped students, including the mentally retarded, and recent trends in government support for bilingual special education are noted. Appendixes provide supporting detail concerning student placement in special education, court cases, and research on the positive effects of bilingualism. Contains 50 references. (DB) Descriptors: *Bilingual Education; Court Litigation; *Disabilities; Educational Legislation; Elementary Secondary Education; *Limited English Speaking; Minority Groups; Non English Speaking; *Special Education; Student Evaluation; *Student Placement; Test Bias Identifiers: *Bilingual Special Education ED292280 EC202063 Characteristics of Limited English Proficient Hispanic Students Served in Programs for the Speech and Language Handicapped: Implications for Policy, Practice and Research. Part III. Ortiz, Alba A.; And Others 30 Sep 1986 85p.; For Part I, see ED 267 578; Part II, see ED 290 309. Document Type: RESEARCH REPORT (143) This document is Part III of a research study examining special education service delivery for limited English proficient (LEP) Hispanic students who have been placed in programs for the learning- disabled, speech handicapped, and mentally retarded. The objectives of Part III of this study were: (1) identify the characteristics of Hispanic students referred, assessed, and placed in speech and/or language handicapped programs; (2) examine district policies and practices governing special education services for LEP students; (3) determine implications for improving policies and practices in the referral, assessment, and placement of these students; and (4) suggest future research directions. Speech and or/language handicapped LEP Hispanic students (n=124) in grades 2-5 in three large urban school districts in central Texas provided the sample. Descriptive statistical procedures were used to analyze data on student demography, referral, eligibility, speech and language evaluations, and placement. Results indicated that the procedures used by speech and language pathologists in the identification and diagnosis of communication disorders virtually ignored students' LEP status. Analysis of school district policies showed that little information was provided concerning safeguards to protect LEP students from being inappropriately placed in special education. Preliminary recommendations for delineating policy and improving practice are offered. A 90-item reference list is included. (JDD) Descriptors: Board of Education Policy; Communication Disorders; *Delivery Systems; *Disabilities; Educational Diagnosis; Educational Practices; Elementary Education; *Handicap Identification; *Hispanic Americans; Language Proficiency; Learning Disabilities; *Limited English Speaking; Referral; School Districts; Spanish Speaking; Special Education; Speech Handicaps; Speech Pathology; Student Evaluation; *Student Placement; Therapists Identifiers: Texas ED252986 EC171319 Decision Models to Assist in Assessment Procedures for Bilingual Exceptional Children. Holtzman, Wayne H., Jr.; Mendoza, Patricia Aug 1984 11p.; Paper presented at Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association (92nd, Toronto, Canada, August 24-28, 1984). Document Type: CONFERENCE PAPER (150); NON-CLASSROOM MATERIAL (055) The reasons for overrepresentation of Hispanic children in the learning disability service category are examined, and two assessment models designed to accommodate the needs of limited English proficient (LEP) and bilingual exceptional children are analyzed. The first model, a modification of J. Tucker's model, proposes parent consultation at every stage of the assessment process and relies on a variety of different types of data from different sources. P. Mendoza's Coordinated Service Delivery Model is also described, and its advantages are noted to include delineation of procedural safeguards at the preassessment stage to validate referral of culturally/linguistically different students or LEP students. This model emphasizes determination of specific levels of language proficiency through a comprehensive language assessment. It is suggested that an integration of two models holds the most promise. (CL) Descriptors: Bilingual Education; *Cultural Differences; Decision Making; Elementary Secondary Education; *Learning Disabilities; *Limited English Speaking; *Models; Non English Speaking; *Spanish Speaking; Special Education; *Student Evaluation; *Student Placement ED312811 EC221269 Performance of Hispanic Educable Mentally Retarded, Learning Disabled, and Nonclassified Students on the WISC-RM, SOMPA, and S- KABC: Short-Term Study One. Final Report. Rueda, Robert; And Others [1985 184p.; Paper presented at the Annual Convention of the Council for Exceptional Children (67th, San Francisco, CA, April 3-7, 1989). Product of Handicapped-Minority Research Institute. Document Type: CONFERENCE PAPER (150); RESEARCH REPORT (143); NON- CLASSROOM MATERIAL (055) Target Audience: Researchers The study examined performance of limited-English proficient Hispanic students on a battery of psychometric instruments designed to appropriately assess linguistic minority students. Subjects consisted of three groups: 44 nonhandicapped, 45 learning-disabled, and 39 mildly mentally retarded elementary-level students. Instruments included the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children Revised, Mexicano; Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children--Spanish Edition; and Physical Dexterity Tasks and Bender Visual Motor Gestalt Test of the System of Multicultural Pluralistic Assessment. Results indicated that the psychometric properties of the instruments were within acceptable ranges for use with students such as those in the sample. In addition, in general, the patterns of scores on the instruments were in the expected directions, given the diagnostic classifications assigned to the students in the school setting. A second part of the analysis utilized California state eligibility criteria to calculate the numbers of students in the school-assigned diagnostic groups who met the state requirements for these designations. Results indicated large discrepancies between the school-assigned categories and the categories suggested through the use of the study instruments in conjunction with applicable state guidelines. Appendices include a manual for the determination of a severe discrepancy between intellectual ability and achievement as defined by California regulations. (Author/JDD) Descriptors: Classification; *Cognitive Measurement; Educational Diagnosis; Elementary Education; Evaluation Methods; *Hispanic Americans; *Learning Disabilities; *Limited English Speaking; *Mild Mental Retardation; Performance; *Student Evaluation; Testing Identifiers: California; Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children (Spanish); System of Multicultural Pluralistic Assessment; Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Child Rev Mexicano EJ305223 CG527036 Assumptions and Interpretations of the SOMPA in Estimating Learning Potential. Brooks, Benjamin L.; Hosie, Thomas W. Counselor Education and Supervision, v23 n4 p290-99 Jun 1984 Document Type: JOURNAL ARTICLE (080); GENERAL REPORT (140) Focuses on the interpretation of the Sociocultural Scales and Estimated Learning Potential scales of the System of Multicultural Pluralistic Assessment by counselors making placement decisions. Presents case examples illustrating assumptions counselors must make and controversial aspects of the system. (JAC) Descriptors: *Academic Aptitude; Culture Fair Tests; Diagnostic Tests; Educational Diagnosis; Elementary Secondary Education; Eligibility; Special Education; *Student Evaluation; Students; *Test Interpretation Identifiers: *Estimated Learning Potential; Sociocultural Scales; *System of Multicultural Pluralistic Assessment EJ294994 EA517395 The LD Label and the Spanish-Dominant Secondary Student. Ainsa, Trisha NASSP Bulletin, v68 n470 p105-09 Mar 1984 Document Type: GENERAL REPORT (140) After identifying shared characteristics that cause some Spanish- dominant students to be inappropriately labeled learning disabled, the author recommends strategies for addressing such students' educational needs. (MJL) Descriptors: *Educational Diagnosis; *English (Second Language); Labeling (of Persons); *Learning Disabilities; *Limited English Speaking; Secondary Education; *Secondary School Students; *Spanish Speaking; Student Characteristics ED254987 EC172038 The Role of Language Assessment Data in Diagnosis and Intervention for Linguistically/Culturally Different Students. Maldonado-Colon, Elba Aug 1984 27p.; Paper presented at the Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association (92nd, Toronto, Canada, August 24-28, 1984). Document Type: CONFERENCE PAPER (150); RESEARCH REPORT (143) Findings are reviewed from a descriptive study which evaluated special education placement of Hispanic students. A clinical case study approach was used to analyze student characteristics from individual program folders, and policy and practice were examined. The appropriateness of the data, expertise of the professionals, and the role of the languages of the bilingual and limited English proficient (LEP) students were examined. Findings revealed that: the linguistic characteristics of Hispanics, bilingual, and LEP students were evaluated with the same instrumentation used for native English speakers; a minimal role was ascribed to the native language in the evaluation process; English speech and language production and poor academic performance along with teacher referral were the most significant variables determining special education placement; and professionals' data analysis demonstrated limited professional abilities and knowledge related to special linguistic and culturally different populations. Recommendations are offered for professionals, including greater emphasis in teacher preparation programs on working with linguistically/culturally different students; additional training for diagnosticians; and increased focus on identifying best practices for referral, assessment, diagnosis, placement, and intervention of bilingual and LEP students. (CL) Descriptors: Cultural Differences; *Diagnostic Tests; *Educational Diagnosis; Elementary Education; *Limited English Speaking; Spanish Speaking; Special Education; Student Evaluation; Student Placement; *Test Bias; Testing Problems; *Test Use Identifiers: *Placement in Special Education EJ282740 EC152146 Multicultural Considerations in Assessment and Treatment of Learning Disabilities. Lynch, Eleanor W.; Lewis, Rena B. Learning Disabilities: An Interdisciplinary Journal, v1 n8 p93-103 Aug 1982 Document Type: JOURNAL ARTICLE (080); POSITION PAPER (120); RESEARCH REPORT (143) Some of the critical factors that have prevented equitable treatment of the minority student with learning disabilities are considered. Attention is directed to definitional issues, discriminatory practices in special education, issues in identification and assessment, treatment considerations, and difficulties inherent in the differentiation of learning disability and cultural differences. (Author/SEW) Descriptors: Change Strategies; *Cultural Differences; Diagnostic Teaching; Educational Diagnosis; Educational Discrimination; Elementary Secondary Education; Handicap Identification; *Learning Disabilities; *Minority Groups; Parent Attitudes; Parent School Relationship; *Student Evaluation ED231596 RC014206 Bilingual Special Education Resource Guide. Thomas, Carol H., Ed.; Thomas, James L., Ed. 1982 201p. Available From: The Oryx Press, 2214 N. Central at Encanto, Phoenix, AZ 85004 ($25.00). Document Type: REVIEW LITERATURE (070); NON-CLASSROOM MATERIAL (055); COLLECTION (020) Target Audience: Practitioners Intended as a resource guide for individuals involved with educational programming for the bilingual special child, the book's two parts include seven articles and essays by experienced professionals and a list of 343 sources of information and assistance. The book commences with a fact sheet on bilingual education for exceptional children. Part I of the book deals with such subjects as issues and concerns related to the education of exceptional bilingual students, assessment of the bilingual handicapped student, curriculum development for culturally different exceptional children, the children's social and emotional needs, communication with parents, career opportunities for bilingual special children, and teacher education. Part II lists 5 funding agencies, 29 agencies dealing with special education/handicapped issues, 22 national and regional centers, 49 desegregation assistance centers and training institutes, 18 teacher training programs, 22 bilingual/bicultural special education training projects, 2 networks, 12 indexes and databases, and 15 journals and newsletters. The book concludes with a directory of 101 individuals to consult for expert assistance, a listing of 68 producers and distributors of materials, and a 165-item bibliography of resources for further study. (NQA) Descriptors: Agencies; *Bilingual Education; *Bilingual Students; Curriculum Development; *Disabilities; Educational Diagnosis; Elementary Secondary Education; Employment Opportunities; Exceptional Persons; Federal Programs; *Information Sources; *Minority Group Children; Parent Participation; Psychological Needs; Resource Materials; *Special Education; Teacher Education Identifiers: Culturally Different Students ED220675 CE033620 Identify and Diagnose Exceptional Students. Module L-2 of Category L--Serving Students with Special/Exceptional Needs. Professional Teacher Education Module Series. Bell, Jennifer A. 1982 52p.; For related documents, see CE 033 619. Available From: American Association for Vocational Instructional Materials, 120 Driftmier Engineering Center, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602. Document Type: INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIAL (051) Target Audience: Practitioners; Students This module, one in a series of performance-based teacher educational learning packages, focuses on skills that vocational educators and other occupational trainers need to create learning environments that are accessible, accommodating, and equitable in meeting instructional needs of exceptional students. The purpose of the module is to give educators skill in identifying those students who have special instructional needs and in diagnosing what those needs are. Introductory material provides terminal and enabling objectives, prerequisites, necessary resources, terminology, and general information. The main portion of the guide includes four learning experiences based on the enabling objectives. Each of the first three learning experiences includes educational activities with information sheets, case studies, and self evaluation forms. Optional activities are also provided. Completion of the first three study sections should lead to achievement of the terminal objective administered in the fourth and final learning experience that includes a teacher-performance assessment form. (YLB) Descriptors: Adults; Adult Vocational Education; Behavioral Objectives; Case Studies; *Competency Based Teacher Education; Diagnostic Teaching; Disabilities; *Educational Diagnosis; *Exceptional Persons; Gifted; *Handicap Identification; Higher Education; Individualized Instruction; Informal Assessment; Job Skills; Learning Activities; Learning Modules; Limited English Speaking; Minority Groups; *Needs Assessment; Nontraditional Occupations; Retraining; Student Evaluation; Student Needs; Talent Identification; Teacher Evaluation; Teaching Skills; Vocational Education; *Vocational Education Teachers Identifiers: Special Needs Students ED219946 FL013095 Procedures for Assessing Learning Problems of Students with Limited English Proficiency. Freytes, Celeste E. 1982 22p. Available From: Not available separately; see FL 013 091. Document Type: NON-CLASSROOM MATERIAL (055) A procedure for identifying students with limited English proficiency who have special needs is presented and a procedure for assessment is described. Before implementing an assessment process, the students and their special needs must be identified. A five-step identification process is recommended, which considers the child's task failure, identification of problems not primarily due to learning problems, the physiological component, the discrepancy component or intra-individual differences in performance, and discovery of the child's preferred learning style. When the special needs have been identified, a four-step assessment procedure can be undertaken. The four steps involve the following components: (1) content areas or the specific knowledge-based skills needed to learn effectively; (2) sociocultural factors, which provide a frame of reference for looking into different learning styles; (3) socio- economic dimensions; and (4) assessment strategies. Finally, some observations are made on assessment instruments and the bilingual child. Appendices provide references for the criteria for test selection; a form, "Criteria for Test Selection"; and references of annotated bibliographies of tests for use with bilingual students. (AMH) Descriptors: *Bilingual Education; *Bilingual Students; *Diagnostic Tests; *Educational Diagnosis; Elementary Education; *Learning Disabilities; *Limited English Speaking; Student Needs ED302990 EC211877 A Guide to Working with Minority Language Students in Special Education. Gelb, Steven [1982 39p. Document Type: NON-CLASSROOM MATERIAL (055) Target Audience: Teachers; Practitioners This monograph provides special educators with guidelines to help them succeed in their work with minority language students. It emphasizes the necessity for bringing the social context into educational planning, in its discussion of such topics as the history of limited English proficient (LEP) children in special education, classroom needs of LEP handicapped children, methods of working with minority language parents, and issues in the assessment of LEP children. An introductory chapter discusses the diversity among LEP children and the achievement of LEP children in schools. An historical perspective on minority language students and special education focuses on the growth of ungraded classes for "backward" children between 1900 and 1920, the rise of intelligence tests and their use on LEP children, overrepresentation of minority children in special education, and current efforts toward change. Classroom needs call for consideration of assimilationism versus pluralism, teacher attitudes, cross-cultural communication, motivation, multicultural curriculum, and teaching English as a second language. Assessment of minority language students requires standardized testing as well as nonstandardized measures of language proficiency in both the child's first and second languages, measures of adaptive behavior, and naturalistic observations of the child in various settings. (JDD) Descriptors: *Bilingual Education; *Disabilities; *Educational History; Elementary Secondary Education; English (Second Language); *Handicap Identification; Intelligence Tests; *Limited English Speaking; Minority Groups; Multicultural Education; Parent Participation; Special Education; Student Evaluation; *Student Needs ED229892 EC151667 Second Year Validation Studies of the Brockton Battery: A Special Needs Assessment for Linguistic Minority Students. (The Tests of Reading Readiness and the Scales of Adaptive Behavior). Sennett, Kenneth H. 1982 159p.; Paper presented at the Council for Exceptional Children National Topical Conference on Bilingual Special Education (Phoenix, AZ, October 31-November 2, 1982). Print is light and broken. For related information, see ED 204 882. Document Type: CONFERENCE PAPER (150); EVALUATIVE REPORT (142); TEST, QUESTIONNAIRE (160) Procedures are described to determine reliability and validity of the Brockton (Massachusetts) Battery's Tests of Reading Readiness and the Adaptive Behavior Scales, which were developed to assess performance levels of Hispanic, Portuguese, and Cape Verdean normal and high risk children. Among reasons given for development of the instruments are availability of few tests with an appropriate Spanish vocabulary, few in Portuguese, and none in Crioulo, a Portuguese- African dialect used by 212 local children from the Cape Verdean Islands. Discussed are the statistical analyses of the 2 year validation studies involving reliability and validity correlation between results achieved by 55 first grade Hispanic and Cape Verdean students on the 15 Reading Readiness Tests and the Holt Mastery Tests. Use of the "Predictive Index" to refer grade 1 children from bilingual programs to special education evaluation is outlined. Explained are development and validation of "Adaptive Behavior Scales" for age levels 2 through 14 for self maintenance which examines four behavioral areas: (1) membership in a peer group, (2) membership in a family, (3) membership in a community group, and (4) consumer activities. Appendixes, which constitute half the document, include statistical tables and the tests in the three languages. (MC) Descriptors: *Adaptive Behavior (of Disabled); Bilingual Education; Cultural Differences; *Disabilities; Early Childhood Education; Elementary Secondary Education; Handicap Identification; Limited English Speaking; Non English Speaking; Portuguese; *Reading Readiness Tests; Spanish Speaking; Statistical Analysis; Test Construction; *Test Reliability; *Test Validity Identifiers: *Brockton Battery; *Cape Verdeans
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