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Learning Styles

Date compiled: 12-1-95 Compiled by: Catherine Anderson Original Version: Jane Verostek;12/93 Huimin Hou; 4/95 INDEX 1) Introduction 2) Internet Resources Gopher [5] Listservs [3] Telnet [1] WWW [13] Optional: Electronic Journals and Newsletters [2] FTP [# or none] Other [# or none] 3) ERIC Resources ERIC Clearinghouses [3] ERIC Citations [13] ERIC Digests [3 4) How to Retreive ERIC Journal Articles and Documents 5) Hard Copy Resources Encyclopedias/Directories [2] Full-Length Studies [# or none] Indexes [4] Reviews [1] Directories [# or none] Biographical Sources [# or none] Bibliographies [4] Periodicals [# or none] Government Sources [# or none] Geographical Sources [# or none] Statistical Sources [# or none]


Educators believe that an individual's style of learning, if accommodated, can result in improved attitudes toward learning and an increase in productivity, academic achievement, and creativity. This InfoGuide is an attempt to share electronic resources on theories, research, programs, and techniques in the area of learning styles, covering learning style models (theories & research in personality, information-processing, social interaction, and instructional preference),learning style diagnosis (learning style inventories), learning style counseling,and learning styles and technology.


Gopher Site:

The Center for Excellence in Education (CEE) at Indiana University URL: gopher://cee.indiana.edu.:70/11/National_Demonstration_Program/ Technology_for_Restructuring CEE contains information on technology's role in implementing learning styles differentiated instruction and multiple intelligence.

** Instructions **

gopher cee.indiana.edu --> National Demonstration Program --> Technology for Restructuring --> Learning Styles University of Maryland URL: gopher://info.umd.edu:3000/7?learning This site contains information on service, workshops, and conferences concerning learning and learning disability. **Instruction** gopher info.umd.edu --> Educational Resources --> Academic Resources By Topic --> Disability Resources --> Events --> Information On Policy and People The Pennsylvania State University URL: gopher://psupena.psu.edu:70/7%24k?learning This site contains many documents on research on learning styles and strategies.

** Instructions **

gopher://psupena.psu.edu --> Alphabetical Keyword Lists/ --> L --> LEARNING/ St. John's University URL: gopher://sjuvm.stjohns.edu:1070/1%7EQ This site contains a wealth of resources on learning styles. **Instructions** gopher://sjuvm.stjohns.edu --> Education and Teaching Resources --> Learning Style


ALTLEARN Alternative Approaches to Learning ALTLEARN discussion list is broadly concerned with learning strategies at all levels. **Instructions** To subscribe, address an email message to: listserv#064;sjuvm.bitnet or listserv#064;sjuvm.stjohns.edu In the body of the message, type: Subscribe ALTLEARN EDSTYLE The Learning Styles Theory and Research List EDSTYLE list discusses all forms of information about learning styles.

** Instructions **

To subscribe, address an email message to: listserv#064;sjuvm.bitnet or listserv#064;sjuvm.stjohns.edu In the body of the message, types: Subscribe EDSTYLE LEARNING The Learning E-conference The Learning E-conference is an electronic forum for discussing child-centered learning. It is intended to provide a meeting place in cyberspace in which to advance our understanding of the processes of learning, and to share personal experiences and practical suggestions to help in the great adventure we share with our children. Members must agree with the Charter of the Learning e-conference to subscribe. A copy of the Charter is available from the moderator. **Instruction** To subscribe, address an email message to: listserv#064;sea.east.sun.com In the body of the message, type: Subscribe LEARNING


The Pennsylvania State University PENpages & Teacher*PAGES URL: telnet psupen.psu.edu The site provides access to online catalog of resources on learning styles. **Instruction** Telnet psupen.psu.edu when connect press return. At Username prompt type the abbreviation of your state (i.e. NY) and press return.

World Wide Web (WWW)

Learning Styles URL: http://www.fwl.org:80/edtech/learning.html Defines Howard Gardner's 7 styles of intelligence. One A.D.D. Place-Home URL: http://www.iquest.net/greatconnect/oneaddplace/mitool.html Provides information on multiple intelligence including effective skills and strategies. Home sIte to Attention Deficit Disorder. Broad Horizons URL: http://www.metronet.com/~horizon/broadhm.htm Broad Horizons publishes information on a variety of topics, including education. This site addresses both activities for specific learning styles as well as multiple intelligence. **Instructions** Type http://www.metronet.com/~horizon/broad.htm

------>Activities for specific Learning Styles or

Education URL: http://uxl.cso.uiuc.edu/~rthomas/hot/education.html A good hypertext site that allows you to access the Learning Research and Development Center, the education gopher at St. John's, and the Learning Styles Network newsletter Multiple Intelligence and School Reform URL: http://K12.cnidr.org:90/edref.mi.intro.html This site covers the theory of Multiple Intelligences, Dr. Gardner, Educational Reform, and Harvard's Project Zero Compensatory Education Plan, Bell's Independent School District, Bell's Texas URL: http://www.sedl.org/rural/countrystars/txpractices.html#RT FToC1 The Bell's independent school district proposes that " If children don't learn the way we teach, then we must teach them the way they learn." Describes their compensatory education program for elementary, middle and secondary schools. Learning Research and Development Center, University of Pittsburgh URL: http://www.lrdc.pitt.edu/ Learning Research and Development Center. The mission of the center is to "broaden scientific insights into all aspects of learning and to support the use of research in instructional settings as varied as classrooms, industries, and musuems. St John's University, Jamaica, New York URL: http://sjuvm.stjohns.edu/sjustuff.html Excellent source. Wealth of information including bibliographies, conferences, and the Learning Styles Network Newsletter. Learning Styles Inventory URL: http://www.gse.rmitt.edu.au/~rsedc/learn.html Personalized learning style questionnaire. GeoLinks- Minnesota Alliance for Geographic Education URL: http://www.macalester.edu/geography/mage/ A K-12 Geography Curriculum Development Tool which has thousands of lessons that can be selected in numerous ways, including by learning style. ASCD URL: http://www.ascd.org/abouta.html ASCD is an international, nonprofit organization providing professional development in curriculum and supervision;encouraging research, evaluation, and theory development; and disseminating information on education on issues such as inclusion, parental involvement, and learning styles.

Electronic Journals & Newsletters

LEARNING Learning is published semi-annually by the National Research Center on Student Learning (NRCSL), part of the University of Pittsburgh's Learning Research and Development Center (LRDC). NRCSL researchers --including cognitive psychologists, social scientists, linguists, and practicing educators --explore the key processes that take place during successful learning and identify the core ingredients of teaching excellence across the school curriculum.

** Instructions **

To receive the newsletter, (1) send a message with your name and affiliation to the email address Learning#064;vms.cis.pitt.edu; or (2) write to Learning Research and Development Center, University of Pittsburgh, 3939 O'Hara Street, Pittsburgh PA 15260. EDUPAGE Edupage is published three times weekly by Educom. It summarizes leading newsstories that are pertinent to the field of education. **Instructions** To subscribe, address an email message to : listproc#064;educom.edu In the body of the message, type: Subscribe EDUPAGE


ERIC Clearinghouses

Clearinghouse on Assessment and Evaluation The Catholic University of America 210 O'Boyle Hall Washington, DC 20064 Toll Free: (800) 464-3742 Telephone: 202/319-5120 Fax: (202) 319-6692 Internet: eric_ae#064;cua.edu ERIC Clearinghouse on DISABILITIES AND GIFTED EDUCATION (EC) Council for Exceptional Children (CEC) 1920 Association Drive Reston, Virginia 22091-1589 Telephone: 703-264-9474 FAX: 703-264-9494 Internet: ericec#064;inet.ed.gov ERIC Clearinghouse on COUNSELING AND STUDENT SERVICES (CG) University of NORTH CAROLINA AT GREENSBORO School of Education Greensboro, North Carolina 27412-5001 Telephone: 919-334-4114 800: 800-414-9769 FAX: 919-334-4116 Internet: ericcass#064;iris.uncg.edu

ERIC Citations

The ERIC database is accessible from the AskERIC Virtual Library URL: gopher://ericir.syr.edu:70/11/Database URL: http://ericir.syr.edu/ERIC/eric.html


Type: gopher ericir.syr.edu --> ERIC Bibliographic Database (RIE and CIJE) Or Type: telnet ericir.syr.edu login: gopher (hit enter to bypass password) --> ERIC Bibliographic Database (RIE and CIJE) Examples of useful search terms include: Learning styles, learning modalities, learning processing, learning strategies, learning theories, multiple intelligence, multisensory learning, instructional preference, personality, individual difference, affective objectives, cognitive styles, Dunn and Dunn, Kolb. EJ498613 Filipczak, Bob Different Strokes: Learning Styles in the Classroom. 1995 Training; v32 n3 p43-48 Mar 1995 Defines the four most widely recognized learning styles and discusses the need to adapt one's training style to fit the trainees. Also stresses the importance of understanding one's own learning preferences and those of coworkers. (JOW) EJ479907 Rothschild, Jacqueline; Piland, William E. Intercorrelates of Postsecondary Students' Learning Styles and Personality Traits. 1994 Community College Journal of Research and Practice; v18 n2 p177 88 Mar Apr 1994 Describes a study investigating the learning styles and personality types of community college and private university students. Identifies three broad types of learners (cooperative, independent, and competitive), suggesting significant correlations between experimenting personality types and learning style preferences. Discusses the role of faculty in addressing each type of learner. (24 references.) (MAB) EJ475821 Hodges, Helene A Consumer's Guide to Learning Styles Programs. 1994 School Administrator; v51 n1 p14 18 Jan 1994 To find out about learning styles programs and instruments, educators can contact the Arizona State University's Educational Information System, perform an ERIC search,or request information from educational associations, organizations, and experts. This article advises on choosing learning style models, designing supportive environments, implementing changes, balancing student needs, and identifying inappropriate applications. (Contains 12 references.) (MLH) EJ475820 Guild, Pat Making Sense of Learning Styles. 1994 School Administrator; v51 n1 p8 13 Jan 1994 Researchers and practitioners agree that learning styles stem from a nature/nurture combination; students of all styles can be successful learners; students are more successful when using their style strengths; and diverse teaching styles are essential. This article discusses implementation issues, cultural factors, alternative teaching styles, sample programs, and assessment problems. Resources are listed. (MLH) EJ444015 Freeman, Michael K.; Whitson, Donna L An Overview of Learning Style Models and Their Implications for Practice.; 1992 Journal of Adult Education; v20 n2 p11-18 Spr 1992 Reviews models of learning style, cognitive style, and thinking style and makes recommendations: (1) style preferences are not unchangeable; (2) style refers to learner actions not ability; (3) learning should be considered broader than cognitive achievement; and (4) teachers should adopt a bilateral approach to influencing student actions. (SK) EJ484129 Cambell, Melvin; Burton, VirLynn Learning in Their Own Style. 1994 Science and Children; v31 n7 p22-24,39 Apr 1994 Presents a unit approach that utilizes Howard Gardner's seven intelligences (Linguistic, Logical/mathematical, Spatial, Music, Kinesthetic/body, Intrapersonal, and Interpersonal). Students are given a list of activities and make a contract to complete a certain number on the list. A sample unit for fifth graders on the bodily systems is provided. (PR) EJ479200 Klavas, Angela Greensboro, North Carolina: Learning Style Program Boosts Achievement and Test Scores. 1994 Clearing House; v67 n3 p149-51 Jan-Feb 1994 Describes how a North Carolina elementary school altered teaching methods to suit the varied learning styles of the students based on the results of a learning styles inventory. Discusses changes made based on students' perceptual preferences, time of day preferences, environmental preferences, and sociological preferences. Notes that discipline problems dropped dramatically and test scores rose precipitously. (RS) EJ461544 Dunn, Rita Learning Styles of the Multiculturally Diverse. 1993 Emergency Librarian; v20 n4 p24-32 Mar-Apr 1993 Discusses the findings of multicultural research using the Learning Style Inventory and the Productivity Environmental Preference Survey. Differences in learning style among students and young adults of differing ethnic groups, between male and female students, between high achievers and underachievers, and between the gifted and nongifted are discussed. (47 references) (EA). ED382722 1995 Learning Styles and Culturally Diverse Students: A Literature Review. Irvine, Jacqueline Jordan; York, Darlene Eleanor The concept of learning styles is based on the theory that an individual responds to educational experiences with consistent behavior and performance patterns. The complexity of the construct, the psychometric problems related to its measurement, and the enigmatic relationship between culture and the teaching and learning process means that the body of research on learning styles must be interpreted and applied carefully.Analyses presented in this paper suggest that the widespread conclusions in the literature that African American, Hispanic American, and Indian students are field-dependent learners who prosper academically when taught with field-dependent teaching strategies are premature and conjectural. Research does not support the supposition that members of a particular ethnic group have the same learning style. The body of research does have implications for enhancing the academic achievement of culturally diverse students by reminding teachers to be alert to individual students'learning styles as well as their own actionsand methods in reference to their students' cultural experiences and preferred learning environments. (Contains 102 references.) (SLD) ED370910 1994 Culturally Specific Learning Styles: Some Suggestions for Teachers. Sandhu, Daya S. This paper examines the importance of culturally-specific learning styles within the context of the Kentucky Education Reform Act of 1990. The Act posits that all students can learn, that students learn differently, and that students learn better when they are taught utilizing their preferred learning modalities. A review of the literature indicates that all cultures, communities, and families can be divided into two major dimensions--traditional and modern--in terms of gender roles, family identity, sense of community, family identification, time orientation, age status, importance of tradition, subservience to convention and authority, and spirituality/religion. Teachers need to understand the cultural style of students; to use a proactive approach to reach out to those students whose values and needs differ from the mainstream; to exhort the message that "to be different means to be distinct but not inferior"; and to accommodate students with differing needs and priorities by changing the learning style. ED379593 1994 Learning Styles: Strategies for Successful Teaching. Cherney, Elaine E. For those educators who work with college students either as teachers, advisors, or in learning centers, the construct of learning style can be a powerful tool in their interactions with students. Educators can sometimes tune in to students' styles by listening to the verbs the students use. An informal assessment of students' learning styles is to have them write one paragraph on how they learn best. Once the students have an understanding of their particular styles it is easier to help them understand how to utilize their learning strengths and strengthen their less dominant modalities. Once students understand style it becomes much easier to help them adjust and cope with style differences. (Contains a self-assessment instrument, a description of time management strategies for different learning styles, and four questions for teachers to ask themselves the next time they give their class an assignment.) Contains five references.(RS) ED381459 1994 Communicating with Middle Childhood Students of Varied Learning Styles: Social Studies and Language Arts-Related Strategies that Work. Crane, Anne; And Others This paper contains a variety of instructional strategies and a review of research related to different learning styles. A learning styles inventory, style profiles, and information regarding some types of activities for students with different learning styles are included. Two sample lesson plans introduce and describe the inductive learning strategy technique. A description of the Readers Theater strategy with accompanying illustrations also is included. The lessons are designed for grade 7 but could be modified for other grade levels and curricular areas. (EH) ED340744 1991 Learning Styles and Schools: Making It Happen.; McCarthy, Bernice; The 4MAT system of instructional change is described. The 4MAT system is an eight-step cycle of instruction that capitalizes on individual learning styles and brain-dominance processing preference. Four major learning styles are recognized: (1) imaginative; (2) analytic; (3) common sense; and (4) dynamic. Because in each style there are people with right-mode, left-mode, and whole-brain dominance, the 4MAT system uses techniques for each mode throughout the learning styles. The 4MAT system is conceptualized as a four-quadrant circle that makes an eight-step learning cycle. It is recommended that the cycle be used in school districts for at least two years to see benefits for students and teachers. Evaluations are ongoing for 16 school districts in the United States and Canada committed to the 4MAT system. Emphasis in successive quadrants is on personal meaning, content and curriculum, usefulness, and creativity. Moving through the cycle, teachers examine their own learning style preferences, and in so doing they become more sensitive to student learning styles and instructional needs. In quadrant form, in the second year of 4MAT implementation, evaluation practices change as learners are brought to accept greater responsibility for self-evaluation. It is also possible to use the 4MAT process as a system approach, with roles for principals, teachers, and students in each quadrant. Eight figures illustrate the discussion, and a 13-item bibliography is included. (SLD)

ERIC Digests

The full-text database of ERIC Digests are accessible from the AskERIC Virtual Library. URL: gopher://ericir.syr.edu:70/11/Digests **Instructions** Type: gopher ericir.syr.edu --> ERIC Digests File Or Type: telnet ericir.syr.edu login: gopher (hit enter to bypass password) --> ERIC Digests Files Examples of useful search terms include: Learning styles, Learning processing, Personality, Instructional Preference, Cognitive styles, Active learning, Multisensory learning, Individual Difference, Multiple Intelligence ED335175 May 1991 American Indian/Alaskan Native Learning Styles:Research and Practice ERIC Digest Swisher, Karen Educators of American Indian and Alaskan Native students are concerned for a growing number of students who do not find school a meaningful place. These students are becoming "school wweary." Studies of learning style among Native students provide some clues about this phenomenon, and this Digest presents a brief review of that literature. It includes a definition, specific examples, cautions about overgeneralizing learning style research, and suggestions for classroom practice. ED301143 88 Learning Styles ERIC Digest Claxon, Charles S.:Murrell, Patricia H. Teaching and learning practices in higher education urgently need improvement--witness the recommendations of several national commissions on higher education and the difficulties the faculty face with a diverse preparation of today's students. Learning style is a concept that can be important in this movement, not only in informing teaching practices but also in bringing to the surface issues that help faculty and administrators think more deeply about their roles and the organizational culture in which they carry out their responsibilities. ED341890 31 Dec 91 Learning Styles Counseling. ERIC Digest Griggs, Shirley. Increasinly, educational leaders are recognizing the process of learning is critically important and understanding the way individuals learn is the key to educational improvement. Shortcomings of education in general have been addressed in a "Nation at Risk" (national Commission on Excellence in Education, 1983) and "An Imperiled Generation: Saving Urban Schools" (carnegie Foundation, 1988). Evidence Abounds that the educational establishment in the United States is comparatively behind that of selected Western European and Asian nations in teaching youth the knowledge base and skills necessary to compete in a highly technical era.

4. How to Retrieve ERIC Journal Articles and Documents

References with an EJ (ERIC Journal) number are available through the originating journal, interlibrary loan services, or article reproduction clearinghouses: UMI (800) 248-0360 and ISI (800) 523-1850. References with ED (ERIC Documents) are available in ERIC microfich collections at more than 825 locations worldwide. Documents can also be ordered through EDRS: (800) 443-ERIC.

5. Hard Copy Resources


The International Encyclopedia of Education Husen, T. & Postlethwaite, T.N., (ed.), Elsevier Science Ltd., 1994. The encyclopedia covers basic information on learning styles in the area of cognitive styles and learning, learning process, learning environment, and learning strategies. American Educators' Encyclopedia Dejnozka, E.L. & Kapel, D.E. (ed.), Westport, Conn: Greenwood Press It's a one-volume work containing 2,000 short articles based on names and terms frequently found in literature of professional education.


Resources in Education ERIC, Office of Educational Research & Improvement. Education Index The H.W. Wilson Company. EI is a quarterly index to educational publications in English. It includes periodical index, yearbooks, and monographs. Exceptional Child Education Resources ECER journal is a quarterly publication of abstract that has been added most recently to the ECER database. It is designed as information resources for teachers, administrators, researchers, teacher educators, psychologists, and others concerned with issues related to disabilities and giftedness. Social Sciences Citation Index Institute for Scientific Information, Inc.. The SSCI is a calender year inde, coving indexes of almost every discipline in the social sciences. Learning style related information can be found in the subject Educational Research.


ARBA Guide to Education Brewer, D.J. (ed.), Littleton, CO: Libraries Unlimited, 1985 ARBA lists more than 450 reference publications in the field of education. It offers evaluations of the cited works. It also includes full bibliographic information and prices.


Current Bibliographical Source in Education 2nd Paris: UNESCO, 1984 It includes bibliographies of books, periodical articles, documents, reports, conference proceedings, and registers of research including doctoral and other thesis. Sex Difference & Learning: an annotated bibliography of education research, 1979-89 New York, Garland Pub.


Perceptual & Motor Skills Bahavior Engineering Associations It's a bimonthly journal covering articles on perception, motor skills, and general methodology. The approach is interdisciplinary, including such field as anthropology, physical education, physical therapy, etc.. Learning styles Associations Simulation & Gaming Sage Periodical Press It is a journal of the Association for Business Simulation and Experiential Learning. The Education Forum Kappa Delta Pi It publishes original inquiries, discourses, and discussions of contemporary issues, problems, and possibilities in education. Elementary School Guidance and Counseling American Association for Counseling and Development It is concerned with guidance and counseling of elementary or middle school students in their education. Exceptional Children Council for Exceptional Children It features articles on professional issues of concerns special educators, and on the education and development of exceptional students. Gifted Children Quarterly National Association for Gifted Children It publishes articles on the theory and research related to the psychology and education of gifted and talented children. Journal of Educational Psychology American Psychology Association It features articles reporting original research and theoretical work dealing with learning and cognition as they relate to problems of instruction. Journal of Reading, Writing and Learning Disabilities International This bimonthly periodical explores research directly related to reading, writing and learning disabilities. Teaching Exceptional Children Council for Exceptional Children This journal serves teachers of handicapped and gifted children. It features articles that deal with practical methods and materials for classroom use.

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