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Fairness in Testing

Date compiled:12-10-95 Compiled by:Heather M. Van Inwegen INDEX 1) Introduction 2) Internet Resources Gopher - 4 Listservs - 3 Telnet - none WWW - 5 Optional: Electronic Journals and Newsletters - 3 FTP - none Other - none 3) ERIC Resources ERIC Clearinghouses - 2 ERIC Citations - 10 ERIC Digests - 3 4) How to Retrieve ERIC Journal Articles and Documents 5) Hard Copy Resources Encyclopedias/Directories - none Full-Length Studies - 3 Indexes - none Reviews - none Directories - none Biographical Sources - none Bibliographies - 1 Periodicals - 5 Government Sources - 1 Geographical Sources - none Statistical Sources - none Associations - 1 Videos - 3 Databases - 1


Testing is a primary tool of education. Regardless of its form, testing must center on the fair use of tests scores, rather than on the scores themselves. The focus of this InfoGuide is on the general practices and guidelines that K-12 educators can perform to ensure that students will be assessed in a fair and equal manner. This assessment may not take the form of traditional tests. Alternate means of educational assessment are focused on including authentic assessment, portfolios, and student evaluation along with how to use the results of traditional testing methods to evaluate students in a fair manner.


Gopher Site:

Arizona State University Gopher URL: gopher://gopher.asu.edu This lengthy article "Educational Assessment Reassessed: The Usefulness of Standardized and Alternative Measures of Student Achievement as Indicators for the Assessment of Educational Outcomes" by William L. Sanders and Sandra P. Horn discusses the debate on standardized testing and alternative means of assessment and advocates the use of multiple indicators of student learning, including those provided by standardized tests. A well thought out and researched paper with a list of references. **Instructions** gopher.asu.edu -->ASU Campus-Wide Information/ -->Education Policy Analysis Archive -->Archives (Full Text of All Articles) -->EPAA v3.6 National Center for Research on Evaluation, Standards, and Student Testing (CRESST) URL: gopher://gopher.spinoza.cse.ucla.edu The goal of the UCLA Center for the Study of Evaluation (CSE) is to improve the quality of education in America through systematic evaluation practices. From the above menu, you can view or search a variety of areas including CSE/CRESST Technical Reports, News Letters, and Alternative Assessment Databases. **Instructions** gopher.spinoza.cse.ucla.edu -->CRESST/UCLA - Research on Evaluation and Testing National Council on Measurement in Education (NCME) URL:gopher://gopher.assessment.iupui.edu The NCME is committed to the continual improvement of testing and measurement practices in education. Although many of its members are college faculty, much of the information provided can help k-12 educators, especially the section under Testing Tips and Issues with topics like "Reliability of Test Scores", and "How Difficult Should a Test Be." **Instructions** gopher.assessment.iupui.edu -->National Council on Measurement in Education (NCME)/ -->Testing Tips and Issues Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory (NWREL) URL:gopher://gopher.nwrel.org The Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory is an independent, educational research and development institution whose mission is to work with schools and communities to improve educational outcomes for children, youth, and adults. On the menu page for Evaluation and Assessment, you are given a number of bibliographies you can assess in the areas of reading assessment, mathematics and science assessment, alternative assessment in mathematics and science, and portfolio assessment. **Instructions** gopher.nwrel.org -->NWREL Program and Content Areas -->Evaluation and Assessment/


K12ASSESS-L Goal is to provide educators with fast, convenient, and topical electronic discussion forum focusing on issues related to educational assessment in grades k-12. **Instructions** To subscribe, send an email to: mailserv#064;lists.cua.edu. In the body of the message, type: Subscribe K12ASSESS-L AERA-D American Educational Research Association Division D. Studies educational measurement and research methodology. **Instructions** To subscribe, send an email to: LISTSERV#064;ASUACAD.BITNET In the body of the message, type: Subscribe AERA-D EDPOLYAN The Education Policy Analysis Forum is a discussion forum on all aspects of education policy but they tough upon testing and assessment quite frequently. **Instructions** To subscribe, send an email to: LISTSERV#064;ASUACAD In the body of the message, type: subscribe EDPOLYAN

World Wide Web (WWW)

Buros Institute of Mental Measurements URL: http://www.unl.edu/buros/home.html Homepage of the Buros Institute of Mental Measurements. Their mission is to provide professional assistance, expertise and information to users of commercially published tests and to promote meaningful and appropriate test selection, utilization, and practice. News, articles, links and email are all headings on this page. Among the articles listed is "The Code of Fair Testing Practices in Education" and under digest articles is "Standards for Teachers Competence in Educational Assessment of Students." Center for Research on Evaluation, Standards, and Student Testing URL: http://www.cse.ucla.edu/CRESSThome.html Homepage of the Center on Evaluation, Standards, and Student Testing. From this page you can access their publications (CRESST Line Newsletter, Evaluation Comment Newsletter) back to 1991. General interest papers and technical reports are also available. You can also order two videos from them: "Portfolio Assessment" and "Assessing the Whole Child" (see video section of this InfoGuide). You can also access other education and evaluation sites from here. This site is easy to navigate and contains the most comprehensive information on testing/assessment. North Central Regional Educational Laboratory URL: http://cedar.cic.net/ncrel/ NCREL is a not-for-profit organization devoted to "researching and implementing best practices in public schools so that all students achieve standards of educational excellence." If you click on NCREL Program Areas and Staff, you can see a list of curriculum, instruction, assessment and evaluation program staff. This list gives you the individuals area of specialty and their e-mail addresses so you can contact them. Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory URL: http://www.nwrel.org NWREL is an independent, nonprofit, educational research and development laboratory. Their mission is to "work with schools and communities to improve educational outcomes for children, youth, and adults. This site contains some information on programs regarding fairness in testing and puts out a newsletter, Equity Issues that focuses on gender and racial discrimination issues. They have a program specifically for Mathematical and science assessment that is useful. A list of other educational sites is also given. Pathways to School Improvement URL: http://cedar.cic.net/ncrel/sdrs/pathwayg.html You can assess this site from the NCREL homepage but it is such a useful site, I am listing is separately. By clicking on "topics" and then "assessment' under "teaching" you can find a list of critical issues in asssessment. Besides listing upcoming articles, current articles are available. In the article "Integrating Assessment and Instruction in Ways that Support Learning" you can hear what teachers have done in regard to this issue. You can also click on some key phrases, like alternative assessment, and be led to another list of information on the topic. This is a great source and easy to navigate.

Electronic Journals & Newsletters

The CRESST Line Newsletter URL: http://www.cse.ucla.edu/Publications/CLdirectory.html The CRESST Line Newsletter addresses many issues relating to testing. Some issues are designated to one topic (portfolio use, standards). Published twice-a-year, you can download issues from as far back a Fall 1991. Evaluation Comment Newsletters URL: http://www.cse.ucla.edu/publications/evalcomment.html The Evaluation Comment Newsletters are published once-a-year and cover topics like "What Works in Performance Assessment", "Portfolio Assessment: Whose Work Is It?", and "Assessment Questions: Equity Answers." You can download copies of this newsletter back to Winter 1991. Daily Report Card URL: http://www.utopia.com/mailings/reportcard/ The Daily Report card is a summary of news in K-12 education that is produced thrice-weekly by the National Education Goals Panel. Even though this journal is devoted to all the news in K-12 education, they hit upon testing and assessment often.


ERIC Clearinghouses

Clearinghouse on Assessment and Evaluation Catholic University of America 210 O'Boyle Hall Washington, DC 20064-4035 Telephone: 202-319-5120; 800: 800-464-ERIC (3742) FAX: 202-319-6692 Internet: eric_ae#064;cua.edu Gopher: gopher.cua.edu ->Special Resources URL: http://ericae.net Adjunct ERIC Clearinghouse for the Test Collection Educational Testing Services (ETS) ETS Test Collection Rosedale and Carter Raods Princeton, New Jersey 08541 Telephone: 609-734-5737 Fax: 609-683-7186 Internet: mhalpem#064;rosedale.org

ERIC Citations

The ERIC database is accessible from the AskERIC Virtual Library URL: gopher://ericir.syr.edu:70/11/Database URL: http://ericir.syr.edu/ERIC/eric.html


Type: gopher ericir.syr.edu --> ERIC Bibliographic Database (RIE and CIJE) Or Type: telnet ericir.syr.edu login: gopher (hit enter to bypass password) --> ERIC Bibliographic Database (RIE and CIJE) Examples of useful search terms include: fair* and test*, assess*, portfolio, EJ502694 FairTest: Charting a Course for Testing Reform. Zappardino, Pamela H. Clearing House; v68 n4 p248-52 Mar-Apr 1995 Presents examples of test bias and test misuse. Discusses FairTest (National Center for Fair and Open Testing) program areas and initiates at the elementary, secondary, and higher education levels. Discusses keeping the community informed. 5p. EJ500587 Adjustment in Assessment Scores and Their Usage: A Taxonomy and Evaluation of Methods. Kehoe, Jerard F.; Tenopyr, Mary L. Psychological Assessment; v6 n4 p291-303 Dec 1994 Methods of adjusting group differences in assessment and test scores are described, classified, and evaluated. Investigations of the relationship between intended use of test scores and the appropriate meaning of scores is essential for fair test treatment in assessment. 13p. EJ436999 Complex, Performance-Based Assessment: Expectations and Validation Criteria. Linn, Robert L.; and others Educational Researcher; v20 n8 p15-21 Nov 1991 Increasing emphasis on assessment and concern about assessment techniques have stirred interest in alternative assessment forms, for which evidence is needed about consequences, transfer of performance on specific assessment tests, and assessment fairness. Criteria concerning consequences, fairness, transfer generalizability, cognitive complexity, content quality, content coverage, meaningfulness, and cost efficiency are presented. 6p ED374163 Preparing Students for Testing: Should We Promote Test Wiseness? EREAPA Publication Series No. 93-1. Wheeler, Patricia H.; Haertel, Geneva D. Test-taking skills and methods used to prepare students for taking an examination are independent of knowledge and skills in the content area being tested. Test-taking skills do not give students the correct answers, but do allow the student to concentrate on answering questions without being confused by the mechanics of the test. Students who lack test-taking skills should be identified, and helped to become test wise, through ethically and educationally sound techniques. Tests should be fair and appropriate and should be scored in a proper manner. Teaching test-taking skills is not a quick remedy for poor instruction and insufficient learning, but it can help the student in learning, interpersonal relationships, work activities, and other situations they will encounter throughout life. A list of 24 resources on preparing students for testing, an ERIC digest on test-taking skills, and a Department of Education publication on test taking are attached. (Contains 28 references.) (SLD) 1993 ED367684 Assessment Questions: Equity Answers. Proceedings of the 1993 CRESST Conference (Los Angeles, California, September 12-14, 1993). Evaluation Comment. Rothman, Robert Focusing on one of the critical questions in the shift to new forms of assessment, researchers, policymakers, and teachers met at the 1993 Center for Research on Evaluation, Standards, and Student Testing (CRESST) to consider equity in assessment. The opening remarks of CRESST co-director Robert Linn stressed that equity is at the center of debates over assessment and new standards. Synopses of the remarks of a number of speakers are grouped under the following headings: (1) the definition of equity; (2) the evaluation of the fairness of assessments; (3) data from large-scale assessment programs; (4) costs of performance assessment; (5) equity and assessment design; (6) portfolios; (7) group assessment; (8) equity and the interpretation of assessment results; (9) equity and the research agenda; and (10) reports from working groups on the design of equity-sensitive performance assessments. The concluding remarks of Adam Urbanski of the Rochester (New York) Teachers Association pointed out that reforming schools is a long and difficult process that must involve the entire community. A list of CRESST and Center for the Study of Evaluation reports available is included. (SLD) 1994 ED352376 K-12 Testing Fact Sheet. This paper contends that much of the time and money devoted to standardized testing in the United States is misspent. Too many tests are poorly constructed, unreliable, and unevenly administered. Multiple-choice tests cannot measure thinking skills or real problem-solving ability. In addition, many examinations are biased racially, culturally, linguistically, and by social class and gender. Use of these flawed tests leads to inaccurate and inappropriate decisions for individual children and harms the entire educational system because standardized tests provide little useful information for educational improvement. The National Center for Fair and Open Testing (FairTest) urges changes in the use of tests to eliminate mass testing of young children for readiness, placement, and promotion. No decisions about a child should be made primarily on the basis of test scores and tests must be no more than one small part of an assessment. Valid and comprehensive unbiased alternatives must be developed. These themes are expanded on in the following sections: (1) "What's Wrong with Standardized Tests?"; (2) "Tests Used in K-12"; (3) "Better Options for Assessing Education"; (4) "Alternatives in the States"; (5) "Excerpts from the Statement of the Campaign for Genuine Accountability"; and (6) "FairTest Goals and Principles." (SLD) 1992 ED352375 How Standardized Testing Damages Education. Despite the many limitations of standardized tests, schools use them to determine if children are ready for school, to group students for instruction, to diagnose learning disabilities and other handicaps, and to guide and control the curriculum and teaching methods. No test is good enough to serve as the sole or primary basis for important educational decisions for an individual child, and test content is a very poor basis for determining curriculum content and teaching methods. Students from low-income and minority groups are more likely to be retained in grade or placed in a lower track, while those from white middle and upper income groups are more likely to be given educationally advantageous placements. Because raising the test score is so often the single most important indicator of school improvement, teaching comes to resemble testing more and more. Teaching to the test can only improve student capabilities and knowledge if the test is good. Better methods than standardized tests for educational improvement and accountability already exist in assessment measures based on student performance. These methods of assessment are as reliable as are standardized multiple-choice tests and are used successfully in other nations. (SLD) 1992 ED376203 An Investigation of Students' Affective Responses to Alternative Assessment Formats. Despite the number of studies investigating affective aspects of test taking, little is known about how students perceive the kinds of extended performance assessments currently being developed for state and local testing programs. This paper presents two studies that address these issues. In the first, hands-on science tasks were administered to 20 sixth-grade and 29 fifth-grade students who thought aloud as they performed each task and answered interview questions afterward. In the other study, mathematics items were administered in three formats (multiple choice, short-answer constructed response, and extended problems) to 29 high school students who were interviewed after completing the items in each format. Results of both studies indicate a great deal of variability in the affective responses of students to novel assessment formats, and they suggest some possible influences on these responses, including the importance of the nature of engagement and students' perceptions of validity and fairness. Three tables and one figure present study findings. (Contains 16 references.) (SLD) 1994 ED360388 Performance Assessment. Policy Bulletin, No. PB-B13. Buechler, Mark At the root of the performance assessment movement is fairly widespread dissatisfaction with high-stakes multiple-choice tests. Many critics of multiple-choice tests argue that to improve instruction, tests themselves will have to improve. Hundreds of schools around the country are already experimenting with performance assessments, and many states are also experimenting with performance assessment. The states farthest along the road to performance assessment are Connecticut and Vermont. Vermont is the first state to use portfolios as part of a statewide assessment program. Among the advantages of performance assessments are the authenticity of what they say about what is assessed, the ways in which they offer students genuine intellectual challenges, and the opportunity they offer for restructuring schools. Problems with performance assessments are recognized in the areas of scoring, validity, instruction versus accountability, time constraints and teacher resistance, and cost. Those who decide to explore performance assessments can benefit from the experience of those who have already worked in this area. A supplement lists 27 resources for those interested in performance assessment, as well as organizations active in the field and state contact people. (SLD) 1992 ED333051 Performance Assessment: What's Out There and How Useful Is It Really? Arter, Judy "Some observations are offered about alternative assessment devices, performance assessments in particular. The act of conducting alternative assessment does not automatically ensure good assessment. Users must become knowledgeable consumers of published alternative assessment tools and developers of local and classroom assessments. Performance and other alternative assessments are a useful part of the assessment arsenal; they must be carefully integrated into large-scale assessments and the public must become educated consumers of the information offered by alternative assessment. Annotated bibliographies of 117 articles about alternative assessment gathered by the Test Center of the Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory are included in the following areas: (1) mathematics; (2) reading; and (3) portfolios. Charts summarize assessment instruments, anthologies, achievement tests in speaking and listening, and educational agencies interested in alternative assessment. Criteria for selecting and reviewing assessment tools in speaking and learning are also summarized in tabular form. 1991

ERIC Digests

The full-text database of ERIC Digests are accessible from the AskERIC Virtual Library. URL: gopher://ericir.syr.edu:70/11/Digests **Instructions** Type: gopher ericir.syr.edu --> ERIC Digests File Or Type: telnet ericir.syr.edu login: gopher (hit enter to bypass password) --> ERIC Digests Files Examples of useful search terms include: test*, fair*, assess*, portfolio ED338705 The Center for Research on Evaluation, Standards, and Student Testing (CRESST). ERIC/TM Digest. Baker, Eva L.; Linn, Robert L. "The Center for Research on Evaluation, Standards, and Student Testing (CRESST) attempts to advance the understanding of educational quality by research and development on the design, implementation, analysis, and use of assessment information. CRESST's research programs are directed at five major goals: (1) provide leadership to improve assessment policy and practice at the national, state, and local levels; (2) improve the quality, sensitivity, and fairness of student performance assessments; (3) improve the validity of models and indicators for judging the quality of schools; (4) improve understanding of assessment development, implementation, and effects as they occur in school practice; and (5) improve understanding of assessment policy and its contribution to educational improvement. An expanded set of criteria are being developed and refined for judging the validity of educational assessment. Research currently focuses on the following programs: (1) Program 1, building the infrastructure for improved assessment; (2) Program 2, designs for learning-based assessment (prototypes and models); and (3) Program 3, collaborative development and improvement of assessments in practice. The CRESST team is composed of researchers from the: (1) Center for Study of Evaluation at the University of California (Los Angeles); (2) University of Colorado; (3) RAND Corporation; (4) University of Chicago (Illinois); (5) University of California (Santa Barbara); and (6) University of Pittsburgh (Pennsylvania). (SLD)" 1991 ED351150 The Portfolio and Its Use: Developmentally Appropriate Assessment of Young Children. ERIC Digest. Grace, Cathy Educators use the term "authentic assessment" to refer to the practice of realistic student involvement in the evaluation of student achievement. Authentic assessments are performance-based and instructionally appropriate. One method of authentic assessment is the assembly and review of a portfolio of a student's work. The portfolio is a record of a child's process of learning, and includes work samples, records of observations, and screening tests. Ideally, a portfolio includes observations in the following forms: (1) anecdotal records, which are useful for recording spontaneous events; (2) checklists or inventories, which should be based on the development associated with the acquisition of skills; (3) rating scales, which are used to measure behavior that has several components; (4) children's responses to questions; and (5) screening tests, which identify children's skills. Besides containing a wide variety of work samples, portfolios used in early childhood education should contain a statement of purpose. Once the material in a portfolio is organized by chronological order and category, the teacher can evaluate the child's achievements. Portfolios are not meant for comparing children to each other, but for documenting individual children's progress over time. The use of portfolios also provides teachers with a built-in system for planning parent-teacher conferences. (BC) 1992 ED328611 The Case for Authentic Assessment. ERIC Digest. Wiggins, Grant Based on material prepared for the California Assessment Program, an argument in favor of authentic assessment is presented, and authentic assessment is contrasted with traditional standardized tests. An assessment is authentic when student performance on intellectual tasks is directly examined. Comparatively, traditional assessment relies on indirect or proxy items. Issues addressed include cost, effort and time requirements, and public suspicions regarding the objectivity of authentic assessment. It is contended that a move toward more authentic tasks and outcomes improves teaching and learning. In authentic assessments, students have greater clarity about their obligations and are asked to master more engaging tasks, and teachers can see assessment results as meaningful and useful for improving instruction. Conventional testing is probably adequate if the aim is to monitor performance. However, tests must be composed of exemplary tasks, criteria, and standards if the goal is to improve performance across the board. A five-item list of additional reading materials is included. (TJH); 1990

4. How to Retrieve ERIC Journal Articles and Documents

References with an EJ (ERIC Journal) number are available through the originating journal, interlibrary loan services, or article reproduction clearinghouses: UMI (800) 248-0360 and ISI (800) 523-1850. References with ED (ERIC Documents) are available in ERIC microfiche collections at more than 825 locations worldwide. Documents can also be ordered through EDRS: (800) 443-ERIC.

5. Hard Copy Resources

Full-Length Studies

Implementing Performance Assessment: A Guide to Classroom, School and Social Reform. FairTest. 1995 This 56 page handbook is written for teachers, parents, school administrators, policymakers and education reform activists. Topics covered include observations, projects and tasks, performances, portfolios and equity issues. A comprehensive bibliography of follow-up sources is included along with ways in which people with different relationships to schools can help change how students are assessed and educated. The Fractured Marketplace for Standardized Testing. Walter M. Haney, George F Madaus, Robert Lyons. Kluwer Academic. 1993. Topics include "The Testing Industry", "The Extent of the Marketplace for Tests and Social Investment in Educational Testing", "The Structure of the Testing Industry and Implications for the Quality of Tests and Test Use", "Test Validity",and "Alternative Strategies that might be Employed to Improve the Use and Prevent the Misuse of Tests as Instruments of Social and Educational Policy." Even though there is a section on military testing, the majority of this book will give educators a better understanding of the history and future of standardized tests. SAT's and Iowa Tests are covered. The use of charts and graphs help to understand the findings of the studies. A large bibliography is included. Assessing Student Performance: Exploring the Purpose and Limits of Testing. Grant P. Wiggins. Jossey-Bass. 1993. The focus of this book is to consider what testing should involve if the students intellectual and moral interests are primary. The book is aimed at teachers, school administrators with curriculum and testing responsibilities, and others with a stake in better testing. Grant believes that student assessment should improve performance, not just monitor of audit it, and testing should be only a small facet of assessment. A great source for teachers to understand and change how they assess students. A comprehensive bibliography is included.


Culture-Fair Tests. Annotated Bibliography of Tests. Test Collection, Educational Testing Services. 1990. Fifty-six tests included in this bibliography are designed as culture fair by the publisher. Culture fair or culture free tests are defined as having freedom form verbal, content, or emotional loadings that differ among cultures. All ages are represented.


FairTest Examiner FairTest. Cambridge, MA A quarterly newsletter that discusses contains news on the testing reform movement and reports on lawsuits, research, policy changes, new exams, and conferences. An excellent source which is not as technical as some of the following journals. Studies in Educational Evaluation Arieh Lewy. Pergamon Press. Evaluation of educational approaches and concerns related to the evaluation of students constitutes the focus of this journal. Applied Measurement in Education Lawrence Erlbaum Assocs. This journal is intended for both practitioners and researchers who "are interested in research likely to have an impact on education measurement practices." It includes reviews of measurement approaches, new strategies, and original thought. Educational Measurement: issues and practice John J. Fremer. National Council on Measurement in Education Educational measurement in all its forms is covered , as well as various views and opinions. A section called "ITEMS" covers a wide range of assessment training. Journal of Educational Measurement Mark Reckase. National Council on Measurement in Education Journals mission is to "promote greater understanding and improved measurement techniques in education." Extremely technical and extensive use of statistics is common.

Government Sources

Testing in American Schools: Asking the Right Questions. U.S. Congress Office of Technology Assessment. U.S. Government Printing Office. 1992. A comprehensive report on educational testing with an emphasis on new approaches. Chapters include Policy Options, Testing in Transition, Educational Testing Policy, A History of Educational Testing in the United States, How Other Countries Test, Standardized Tests in Schools, Performance Assessment, and Information Technologies and Testing. The use of charts, graphs and a 37 page separate summary book make this 300+ page booklet an excellent source.


National Center for Fair and Open Testing 342 Broadway Cambridge, MA 02139 Telephone: 617-864-4810 Seeks to ensure that the 100 million standardized tests administered annually are fair, open and educationally sound. Works to eliminate racially, culturally, and sexually biased questions on standardized tests, including aptitude tests, intelligence tests, and professional certification exams, by removing questions that measure culturally specific information rather than certain knowledge differences.


The Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory (NWREL) in Portland, OR, has developed a 14-module, 45-hour introductory video series on classroom assessment. Topics include helping teachers integrate teaching and testing; writing good items for paper-and-pencil tests; measuring thinking; assessing reading, writing, mathematics, and science; using sound grading practices; understanding standardized tests; and using portfolios. Each video workshop averages three hours in length and costs $125. To learn more about classroom assessment training, contact NWREL at 1-800-547-6339. To order videotapes, contact IOX, 5301 Beethoven Street, Suite 109, Los Angeles, CA 90066-7061; (310) 822- 3275. The National Center for Research on Evaluation, Standards, and Student Testing has produced a 10-minute videotape called "Portfolio Assessment and High Technology" for school districts, principals, and teachers interested in building portfolio programs. Issues such as developing standards for portfolios, selecting pieces, and involving parents in the portfolio process are covered. The tape is $10. To order, contact UCLA/CRESST, 405 Hilgard Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 90024-1522; (310) 206-1532. "Assessing the Whole Child" is a personal, impassioned portrait of how teacher Charlotte Higuchi uses performance-based assessments in her classroom of diverse 3rd- and 4th-grade students. "What I get from performance-based assessments is the child," says Higuchi, "standardized tests will never give you that." Narrated by Patrick Stewart, this 18-minute video production shows students participating in a variety of performance assessments including portfolios, self-evaluations, exhibitions, and journals, all used by Higuchi to assess the progress of her students. Each assessment shows student-teacher communication and classroom interaction, emphasizing small-group collaboration. Included in each video is a teacher oriented handbook that discusses what teachers need in order to effectively implement performance assessment. The tape and booklet is $15. To order, contact UCLA/CRESST, 405 Hilgard Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 90024-1522; (310) 206-1532.


Containing listings from over 250 developers of new assessments, the "Alternative Assessments in Practice" database will be of special use to teachers, school district administrators, assessment developers and others interested in new methods for assessing student growth. The database contains detailed information about each assessment, including subject matter and skills measured, assessment type and purpose, scoring characteristics, and availability of the assessment. The cost is $15 and includes an easy-to-use Hypercard program for Apple Macintosh computers, a single double-density disk, a 50-page manual with comprehensive, step-by-step illustrations, and a built-in on-line help feature. To order, call Kim Hurst at (310) 206-1532 or E-mail her at kim#064;cse.ucla.edu.

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