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ERIC Documents Database Citations & Abstracts for Grade Repetition in Early Childhood Education

Instructions for ERIC Documents Access

Search Strategy:
Grade Repetition OR Social Promotion [as ERIC Descriptor/Identifier, with heavily weighted status]
Transitional Programs OR Extra Year Programs (Kindergarten) OR School Readiness OR Screening Tests OR Child Development [as ERIC Descriptors}
Early Childhood Education or Young Children OR Primary Education OR Kindergarten or Grade 1 [as ERIC Descriptors]
  EJ559367  CS754855
  Research vs. Practice: Kindergarten Retention and Student Readiness 
for First Grade.
  Peel, Betty B.
  Reading Improvement, v34 n4 p146-53 Win   1997
  ISSN: 0034-0510
  Document Type: JOURNAL ARTICLE (080);  RESEARCH REPORT (143)
  Examines whether retention continues to be embraced by North 
Carolina teachers.  Surveys (1) how many children were promoted but 
considered (by teachers) not ready for promotion; and (2) reasons 
given for retention and/or lack of readiness for first grade.  Notes 
that as many children were retained as were deemed not ready for 
first grade but were promoted anyway.  (PA)
  Descriptors: *Educational Practices; Educational Research; *Grade 
Repetition; *Kindergarten; Primary Education; *School Readiness; 
Teacher Attitudes; Teacher Surveys
  Identifiers: North Carolina

  EJ556611  CG551502
  Predicting Early School Success with Developmental and Social
Skills Screeners.
  Bain, Sherry K.; Agostin, Tracy McKee
  Psychology in the Schools, v34 n3 p219-28 Jul   1997
  ISSN: 0033-3085
  Document Type: JOURNAL ARTICLE (080);  RESEARCH REPORT (143)
  Identifies developmental, social skill, and problem behavior 
subdomains that best predict academic achievement and grade promotion 
or retention in the early school years.  Tests of 184 students at the 
end of kindergarten and then one year later indicate that social 
skills assessment should be included in kindergarten screening 
packages.  (RJM)
  Descriptors: *Academic Achievement; Child Development; Children; 
*Grade Repetition; *Interpersonal Competence; *Predictor Variables; 
Primary Education; *Screening Tests; Student Promotion

  EJ543408  PS526425
  Differences in Social Adjustment and Classroom Behavior between 
Children Retained in Kindergarten and Groups of Age and Grade Matched 
  Pianta, Robert C.; And Others
  Early Education and Development, v8 n2 p137-52 Apr 
  ISSN: 1040-9289
  Document Type: RESEARCH REPORT (143);  JOURNAL ARTICLE (080)
  Compared children retained in kindergarten with matched samples of 
age and grade mates, using teacher ratings as an index of their 
social and academic skills.  Found that retained children showed a 
reduction in behavior problems, specifically acting-out and shy-
anxious behaviors, but only slightly increased competence for task 
orientation across time.  (SD)
  Descriptors: Behavior Problems; Child Behavior; Comparative 
Analysis; Emotional Adjustment; *Grade Repetition; Kindergarten; *
Kindergarten Children; Low Achievement; Primary Education; School 
Readiness; *Social Adjustment; Social Behavior; *Student Adjustment; 
*Student Behavior; *Student Placement; Student Promotion; 

  ED414076  PS026085
  The Elementary School Performance and Adjustment of Children Who 
Enter Kindergarten Late or Repeat Kindergarten: Findings from 
National Surveys. National Household Education Survey. Statistical 
Analysis Report.
  Zill, Nicholas; Loomis, Laura Spencer; West, Jerry
  Westat, Inc., Rockville, MD.  1997
  Sponsoring Agency: National Center for Education Statistics (ED), 
Washington, DC.
  Available From: National Library of Education; phone: 800-424-1616; 
fax: 202-219-1696 (single copy, free).
  Document Type: RESEARCH REPORT (143)
  Some parents have chosen to delay their children's enrollment in 
kindergarten by a year because of individual differences in the pace 
and pattern of children's development.  In other situations, some 
schools recommend delaying a child's school entry based on 
"readiness" testing or require that some kindergartners attend 
kindergarten for a second year.  Data from the 1993 and 1995 National 
Household Education Surveys show that about one child in seven either 
entered kindergarten late or was required to repeat kindergarten.  
The surveys found similarities between these two categories of 
children, but also some notable differences pertaining to gender, 
race, and developmental delays.  The surveys found striking 
differences in later school performance (in grades one and two) 
between children who were held out of kindergarten and children who 
repeated kindergarten.  The performance of those who had been held 
out of kindergarten was found to be better in first and second grade 
than that of children who entered kindergarten at the prescribed age.  
In contrast, those who were required to repeat kindergarten were 
doing worse than their first- and second-grade peers.  First- and 
second-graders in 1993 who had repeated kindergarten were more likely 
than children who had not repeated kindergarten to receive negative 
feedback from their teachers.  When demographic, socioeconomic, and 
developmental factors were taken into account, the differences in 
school performance were reduced, but remained significant in the 1993 
survey.  In the 1995 survey, however, controlling for these 
background factors essentially eliminated the differences between 
student who were held out and other first- and second-graders.  The 
same was true of performance differences between the students who had 
been retained and other students.  The surveys did not find evidence 
that children who may have been at increased risk of experiencing 
difficulties in school benefited from (or were harmed by) delayed 
kindergarten entry.  The same was true of kindergarten retention.  
(Interview items from both years, analyses, and logistic regression 
model coefficients are appended.  Contains 44 references.) (HTH)
  Descriptors: Academic Achievement; Developmental Delays; *Grade 
Repetition; Grade 1; Grade 2; Individual Development; *Kindergarten; 
Kindergarten Children; *Performance Factors; Primary Education; 
Racial Differences; School Entrance Age; *School Readiness; Sex 
  Identifiers: *Delayed School Entry

  ED410063  PS025752
  Coming to School in Connecticut: Accepting Children As They Are. 
Issue Papers Developed by the Connecticut Early Childhood Education 
Council. Revised.
  Connecticut Early Childhood Education Council.  May 1996
  42p.; For earlier version, see ED 341 493.
  Document Type: EVALUATIVE REPORT (142)
  This document consists of seven policy issue papers developed by 
the Connecticut Early Childhood Education Council, an action-oriented 
coalition of statewide organizations concerned with early childhood 
education.  Members include teachers, school administrators, 
children's librarians, child care providers, Head Start directors, 
State Department of Education early childhood consultants, and 
teacher educators.  Definitions of several key terms and concepts are 
provided, including: developmental appropriateness, screening 
process, developmental screening tests, readiness tests, achievement 
tests, diagnostic tests, intelligence tests, readiness, transition, 
delayed entry, retention, and extra-year program.  The seven issue 
papers discuss: (1) readiness; (2) transition; (3) kindergarten 
entrance procedures; (4) developmental screening; (5) achievement 
testing; (6) retention; and (7) extra year programs.  Included in 
each paper are discussions of current educational practices related 
to the issue, answers to questions to consider about the issue, 
recommendations for policy changes, strategies for bringing about 
change, and a list of sources.  A total of 71 sources are provided. (LPP)
  Descriptors: *Achievement Tests; Definitions; Developmental Stages; 
Early Childhood Education; *Grade Repetition; Individual Differences; 
*Kindergarten; *School Entrance Age; *School Readiness; Screening Tests
  Identifiers: Age Appropriateness; Connecticut; *Developmental 
Screening; Developmentally Appropriate Programs; Educational Issues; 
*Extra Year Programs (Kindergarten)

  ED402025  PS024767
  Transitional First Grade, Retained, Held Out and Promoted Samples: 
An Explanatory Summary of Initial and Concomitant Longitudinal 
Academic and Behavioral Findings.
  Ferguson, Phil
  15 Oct 1996
  Document Type: RESEARCH REPORT (143)
  This 10-year study compared the achievement of 3 samples of 
students designated at-risk for school failure and 1 sample deemed 
not at risk, and followed a transitional first-grade school readiness 
program (SRP) population from prekindergarten through eighth grade to 
identify contextual factors associated with student progress.  At-
risk samples were students in a transitional first grade (SRP); 
students recommended for the transitional program but not placed (SRP-
NP); and students retained in kindergarten, first, or second grade 
(RET).  A sample of promoted students (PRO) was designated as non-
risk.  A group of students held out (HO) for a year prior to 
kindergarten had unknown risk status.  Data were collected through 
readiness tests, teacher ratings, parent surveys, standardized 
achievement tests, report cards, and other school records.  Outcomes 
were contrasted for comparative analysis between samples.  Results 
indicated that SRP students underachieved the PRO students on all 
salient measures from second grade onward.  They did not perform 
better than the SRP-NP group on any achievement measure.  SRP 
students rated as aggressive (close to 35 percent) had lower 
achievement than nonaggressive SRP students.  SRP students were 
subsequently referred to and placed into special education by second 
grade more often than PRO students, SRP-NP students, and HO students, 
but at the same rate as RET students.  The most significant early 
risk factors for poor achievement among SRP students were increased 
age and distinct aggressiveness.  Successful SRP students had higher 
initial achievement test scores and mothers with higher levels of 
education than nonsuccessful SRP students.  Initial kindergarten 
behavioral and parental factors were better predictors of second-
grade achievement than readiness measures.  Ratings of personal-
social deficits in kindergarten predicted lower seventh-grade grade 
point averages.  (Contains 131 references.) (KDFB)
  Descriptors: *Academic Achievement; Academic Failure; Comparative 
Analysis; *Grade Repetition; High Risk Students; Longitudinal Studies; 
Outcomes of Education; *Primary Education; Program Evaluation; 
Quasiexperimental Design; *School Entrance Age; School Readiness; 
Student Promotion; *Transitional Programs; Underachievement

  ED370190  EA025821
  Transition Classes: Alternative Learning Environments That 
Perpetuate Inappropriate Curriculum in Surrounding Grades.
  Ostrowski, Patricia Maslin
  Apr 1994
  24p.; Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American 
Educational Research Association (New Orleans, LA, April 4-8, 1994).
  Document Type: CONFERENCE PAPER (150);  RESEARCH REPORT (143)
  Many schools across the United States have created a new grade 
between kindergarten and first grade, called transition classes, to 
deal with low-achieving kindergarten and first-grade students.  Upon 
completion of the transition class, students return to a regular 
class, where they usually remain a year behind their age cohorts.  
This paper presents findings of a case study that examined how three 
New England school districts used transition programs to manage a 
problem of readiness and failure in the early primary grades.  Data 
were derived from: (1) a total of 53 interviews with administrators, 
support staff, teachers (kindergarten, pre-first grade, first grade, 
and second grade), and two groups of parents (those who enrolled 
their children in transition programs and those who refused); (2) 
observations of transition, kindergarten, first-grade, and second-
grade classes; and (3) document analysis.  Findings indicate that 
although the pre-one programs studied provide a developmentally 
appropriate learning environment, they perpetuate the continuation of 
a curriculum built on homogeneity and a lockstep system of grades and 
constitute a mild form of tracking that equals an extra year in 
school.  Recommendations are made to design the curriculum around 
Kliebard's metaphors of growth and travel; shift the burden of 
readiness from children to the schools; center the structure of 
elementary schools around parents and the community; empower 
teachers; utilize the inclusion model; and abolish the lockstep 
system of grades.  Two tables are included.  (LMI)
  Descriptors: *Grade Repetition; Kindergarten; Learning Readiness; 
*Low Achievement; Primary Education; *School Readiness; *Student 
Placement; Track System (Education)

  EJ493674  PS522636
  Transition Classes, a Growing Concern.
  Patton, Mary Martin; Wortham, Sue Clark
  Journal of Research in Childhood Education, v8 n1 p32-42 Fall-Win 
  ISSN: 0256-8543
  Document Type: RESEARCH REPORT (143);  JOURNAL ARTICLE (080)
  Examined the extent of extra-year programs for kindergarten 
students in Texas school districts; identified procedures and 
curricular interventions; and established the growth trend of these 
classes statewide.  Found that 39% of the 285 school districts 
responding had transition classes, and the trend for the state at-
large appeared to be one of growth.  (WP)
  Descriptors: Early Childhood Education; Educational Trends; *Grade 
Repetition; *Kindergarten; Preschool Curriculum; School Readiness; 
State Surveys; *Student Placement; *Transitional Programs
  Identifiers: Developmentally Appropriate Programs; Texas; 
Transition to School

  ED363440  PS021902
  Characteristics of Children Who Are "Behind" in School.
  McArthur, Edith K.; Bianchi, Suzanne M.
  Bureau of the Census (DOC), Suitland, Md.; National Center for 
Education Statistics (ED), Washington, DC.  Jul 1993
  24p.; Paper presented at the American Statistical Association Joint 
Statistical Meeting (San Francisco, CA, August 8-12, 1993).
  Document Type: RESEARCH REPORT (143);  CONFERENCE PAPER (150)
  Using a subsample of data relating to 4,668 first- and second-
graders and their families from the 1991 National Household Education 
Survey, a study examined different ways of measuring whether a child 
is behind in grade and compared these measures with data about 
children who are below modal grade levels.  Several profiles emerged.  
Children delayed in starting kindergarten tended to be non-black 
boys, born in the second half of the year, who lived in the Midwest, 
and whose parents had at least a high school education.  Children who 
repeated kindergarten tended to be boys, born in the second half of 
the year, who lived in the South or West, and who did not attend 
preschool.  Children who repeated first grade tended to be black 
boys, who did not attend preschool, and who lived in low-income 
households.  Children below modal grade level tended to be those in 
the above three categories (56 percent) as well as children who had 
neither delayed entry into school nor repeated kindergarten or first 
grade (42 percent).  The profile that dominates in this case is one 
of non-black boys, born in the third quarter of the year, who live in 
the South or Midwest, who did not attend preschool, and who had low 
household income.  (MDM)
  Descriptors: Academic Failure; *Age Grade Placement; Differences; 
Grade 1; *Grade Repetition; Kindergarten; National Surveys; Primary 
Education; Racial Differences; Regional Characteristics; *School 
Entrance Age; School Readiness; Sex Differences; Social Differences; 
Socioeconomic Influences; *Student Placement; Student Promotion; 
*Young Children
  Identifiers: *National Household Education Survey

  EJ450523  PS519662
  Doing Harm by Doing Good: Iatrogenic Effects of Early Childhood 
Enrollment and Promotion Policies.
  Meisels, Samuel J.
  Early Childhood Research Quarterly, v7 n2 p155-74 Jun 
  Special Issue: Research on Kindergarten.
  ISSN: 0885-2006
  Document Type: JOURNAL ARTICLE (080);  REVIEW LITERATURE (070);  
  Recent emphases on school readiness and standardized testing have 
resulted in educational practices with negative consequences for 
children.  These practices include a higher school entry age, grade 
retention, transition programs, and the practice of enrolling 
children in kindergarten when they are six, rather than five, years old.(BC)
  Descriptors: Academic Achievement; *Educational Practices; 
*Educational Trends; Enrollment; *Grade Repetition; Kindergarten; 
Primary Education; *School Entrance Age; *School Readiness; 
Standardized Tests; *Transitional Programs
  Identifiers: *Iatrogenic Effects

  ED357894  PS021564
  A Review of the Effects of Extra-Year Kindergarten Programs and 
Transitional First Grades.
  Karweit, Nancy L.; Wasik, Barbara A.
  Center for Research on Effective Schooling for Disadvantaged 
Students, Baltimore, MD.  Nov 1992
  Sponsoring Agency: Office of Educational Research and Improvement 
(ED), Washington, DC.
  Document Type: REVIEW LITERATURE (070)
  This review examines the effects of three educational practices on 
children's readiness for first grade.  The practices, kindergarten 
retention, developmental kindergarten, and transitional first grade, 
are intended to provide children with an early extra year to give 
them more time to prepare academically and socially for regular first-
grade classrooms.  The review is primarily based on studies that 
compared students who were placed in these programs with students who 
were recommended for placement but whose parents refused to place 
them in the program.  The studies employed same-grade or same-age 
comparisons.  Three studies on kindergarten retention indicated that 
there was a favorable result of retention on children's academic 
achievement in the year of retention, but that the effects did not 
persist.  Two longitudinal studies of developmental kindergartens 
revealed a similar pattern of positive effects on children's academic 
achievement in the year spent in developmental kindergarten, followed 
by a fading of positive effects over time.  The results of the seven 
studies reviewed on transitional first grades did not support the 
practice's long-term effectiveness as an educational intervention.  
The review concludes that none of the practices was more effective 
than simple promotion.  Whether given an extra year or promoted, 
children with academic and maturation problems continued to have 
academic difficulties through the elementary grades.  (TJQ)
  Descriptors: Ability Grouping; *Academic Achievement; Academic 
Failure; Grade 1; *Grade Repetition; High Risk Students; 
*Kindergarten; *Kindergarten Children; Literature Reviews; Primary 
Education; *School Readiness; *Transitional Programs
  Identifiers: *Extra Year Programs (Kindergarten)

  EJ433431  PS518903
  Retaining Children: Is It the Right Decision?
  Nason, R. Beth
  Childhood Education, v67 n5 p300-04   1991
  Theme Issue: Are Schools Really for Kids?
  ISSN: 0009-4056
  Document Type: JOURNAL ARTICLE (080);  REVIEW LITERATURE (070)
  Reviews research concerning the effects of retention of 
kindergarten and first grade students and alternatives to such 
retention.  (BB)
  Descriptors: Academic Achievement; *Elementary School Students; 
*Elementary School Teachers; *Grade 1; *Grade Repetition; 
*Kindergarten Children; Literature Reviews; *Outcomes of Education; 
Primary Education; Public Education; School Entrance Age; School 
Readiness Tests; Self Concept; Transitional Programs
  Identifiers: *Developmentally Appropriate Programs; Nongraded 

  ED334056  RC018269
  Kindergarten Retention. Burning Issues Series.
  National Preschool Coordination Project, San Diego, CA.; San Diego 
County Office of Education, CA.  1991
  Sponsoring Agency: California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. 
Office of Migrant Education.
  Document Type: REVIEW LITERATURE (070)
  This information packet contains nine articles that outline current 
trends in kindergarten retention/exclusion and their negative impact 
on student outcomes, particularly for high risk students.  The 1980s 
saw increasing numbers of children required to repeat kindergarten, 
attend a transitional grade before first grade, or wait an extra year 
before starting school.  Disproportionate numbers of these children 
have not attended preschool or are male, young compared to 
classmates, or members of minority groups.  Advocates believe that 
kindergarten retention prevents school failure caused by immaturity 
and, thus, is different from retention in later grades.  However, 
research findings reveal that kindergarten retention has the same 
negative effects as later retention: low self-esteem, poor attitudes 
toward school, and increased risk of becoming a high school dropout.  
In addition, controlled studies that followed retained children as 
far as the fifth grade found that they performed no better 
academically than "unready" children whose parents had insisted on 
promotion.  The increasing academic demands of kindergarten and first 
grade are inconsistent with the normal development of 5- and 6-year-
olds.  Ironically, retention and exclusion, intended to protect 
children from inappropriate expectations, actually contribute to the 
escalation of demands, thereby placing more children at risk.  As the 
average age and experience of kindergarten students rise, teachers 
find it difficult to teach to the normal 5-year-olds in the class.  
Administrators respond by advancing the cutoff date for school 
entrance.  A more developmentally appropriate curriculum is needed in 
the early grades.  (SV)
  Descriptors: *Grade Repetition; *High Risk Students; *Kindergarten; 
Kindergarten Children; Migrant Children; *Minority Group Children; 
Potential Dropouts; Primary Education; Reading Readiness; School 
Entrance Age; *School Readiness; School Readiness Tests; Student 
Development; Student Promotion; Teacher Expectations of Students; 
*Transitional Programs; Young Children

  ED318542  PS018713
  The Use of the Gesell Screen in the Placement of Young Children: A 
Research Review.
  Beryl Buck Inst. for Education, San Rafael, CA.  [1989
  Available From: Beryl Buck Institute for Education, P.O. Box 4950, 
San Rafael, CA 94903 (free).
  Document Type: REVIEW LITERATURE (070)
  Target Audience: Administrators; Teachers; Parents; Practitioners
  This research review summarizes the current research literature 
regarding Gesell screening.  It also explores the controversy over 
whether developmentally unready children should be held out of 
kindergarten, retained at the end of the kindergarten year, or placed 
in pre-kindergarten or pre-first grade classes.  A seven-page 
bibliography on developmental screening and retention is included.(PCB)
  Descriptors: Admission (School); *Early Childhood Education; *Grade 
Repetition; Individual Development; *School Readiness; *Screening 
Tests; *Student Placement; *Transitional Programs; Young Children
  Identifiers: *Gesell Developmental Tests

  EJ375728  UD513768
  Flunking Kindergarten: Escalating Curriculum Leaves Many Behind.
  Shepard, Lorrie A.; Smith, Mary Lee
  American Educator: The Professional Journal of the American 
Federation of Teachers, v12 n2 p34-38 Sum   1988
  Document Type: JOURNAL ARTICLE (080);  PROJECT DESCRIPTION (141);  
  Study of kindergarten retention in Colorado reveals the following: 
(1) kindergarten retention does nothing to boost subsequent academic 
achievement; (2) regardless of what it is called, kindergarten 
retention creates a social stigma; and (3) kindergarten retention 
feeds the escalation of inappropriate academic demand in first grade.  
Policy implications are discussed.  (BJV)
  Descriptors: *Academic Failure; Child Development; Curriculum 
Development; *Early Childhood Education; *Grade Repetition; 
*Kindergarten; Kindergarten Children; Preschool Education; Primary 
Education; Theory Practice Relationship; *Young Children
  Identifiers: Stigma

  ED303278  PS017804
  Retention/Promotion/Transition in the Early Grades: A Research 
  Newman, Joan A.
  Educational Service District 189, Mt. Vernon, Wash.
  Apr 1988
  Document Type: REVIEW LITERATURE (070)
  In general, retention at any grade level has not improved student 
achievement or social adjustment.  Skimpy data on transition rooms 
seem to indicate that they are not very successful either.  The 
reasons that have been given to explain why retention has not worked 
range from the school's inability to diagnose student needs to rigid 
curriculum and modes of instruction which have not addressed the 
culture, style, or initial skill level of incoming children.  Mere 
repetition of a given grade has only served to widen the gap between 
retained and promoted children.  When retention has worked, it has 
been in the earliest grades, when diagnosis has been careful and 
accurate; special resources have been applied; and individual needs 
and styles have been given close attention.  Sections of this 
research brief: (1) provide background information on nonpromotion; 
(2) probe related issues; (3) outline decision models for retention-
promotion policies; and (4) indicate alternatives to retention.  (RH)
  Descriptors: *Decision Making; Early Childhood Education; 
*Educational Policy; Educational Practices; *Grade Repetition; 
*Models; *Student Promotion; *Transitional Programs

  ED296787  PS017437
  A Review of Research Literature on the Effects of Pupil Retention.
  Towner, Daniel R.
  21 Jul 1988
  47p.; Exit Paper, Indiana University at South Bend.
  Document Type: REVIEW LITERATURE (070);  BIBLIOGRAPHY (131);  
  Target Audience: Practitioners
  Based on research selected from a search of the ERIC database, this 
literature review covers material that concerns academic achievement 
of retained students, social and psychological effects of retention, 
and recommendations for educators making retention decisions.  After 
a definition of terms, 31 articles are extensively annotated.  Most 
research suggested that retention did not significantly improve 
academic achievement.  Existing data did not support competency-based 
promotions.  Delay of school entry and use of special transition 
classes were ineffective in bolstering achievement scores.  (RH)
  Descriptors: *Academic Achievement; Annotated Bibliographies; 
*Educational Practices; Elementary Education; *Elementary School 
Students; *Grade Repetition; Guidelines; Literature Reviews; 
*Psychological Patterns; *Social Development

  EJ342574  EA520513
  Synthesis of Research on School Readiness and Kindergarten 
  Shepard, Lorrie A.; Smith, Mary Lee
  Educational Leadership, v44 n3 p78-86 Nov   1986
  For related articles, see this issue.
  Document Type: JOURNAL ARTICLE (080);  EVALUATIVE REPORT (142);  
  Target Audience: Practitioners; Policymakers; Researchers
  Summarizes school readiness and retention research issues, 
including youngest first graders' performance, entrance age policies, 
voluntary decisions to wait an extra year, assessment of children's 
readiness, and the negative effects of kindergarten and first-grade 
retention.  Concludes that age disadvantages are seldom serious and 
usually disappear by the third grade.  Cites 52 references.  (MLHH)
  Descriptors: *Age Differences; *Cognitive Development; *Grade 
Repetition; Kindergarten; Primary Education; *School Readiness; 
*Testing; *Young Children

  ED261776  PS015255
  Nonpromotion of Primary Grade Students: A Teacher's Guide.
  Murphy, Georgene M.
  Jun 1985
  Document Type: NON-CLASSROOM MATERIAL (055);  BIBLIOGRAPHY (131);  
  Target Audience: Teachers; Practitioners
  This teacher's guide reviews the literature on grade retention and 
promotion to help teachers make decisions concerning students in the 
primary grades.  A brief introduction provides a statement of the 
problem; outlines the purpose, organization, and limitations of the 
study; and presents a glossary.  Annotated citations for 34 studies 
are subsequently offered, and findings are summarized.  The research 
was found to be inconclusive as to advantages or disadvantages of 
nonpromotion; however, cautions are issued against indiscriminate 
retention.  Recommendations are made for selective retention, pupil 
identification, and retention decision procedures.  (RH)
  Descriptors: Annotated Bibliographies; *Elementary School Students; 
Glossaries; *Grade Repetition; Guidelines; Literature Reviews; 
Primary Education; *Student Needs; Student Promotion; *Teacher 
  Identifiers: *Social Promotion

  EJ386004  PS516488
  How Best to Protect Children from Inappropriate School 
Expectations, Practices, and Policies.
  Bredekamp, Sue; Shepard, Lorrie
  Young Children, v44 n3 p14-24 Mar   1989
  Document Type: JOURNAL ARTICLE (080);  PROJECT DESCRIPTION (141);  
  Describes ways in which well-intentioned efforts to protect young 
children from inappropriate school practices have had the opposite 
effect.  Readiness testing, retention, transition classes, tracking, 
and increased entrance age are discussed.  Alternative strategies are 
proposed.  (BB)
  Descriptors: Educational Strategies; *Elementary School Students; 
Expectation; *Grade Repetition; Kindergarten; *Kindergarten Children; 
Predictive Validity; Primary Education; *School Entrance Age; *School 
Readiness Tests; Screening Tests; *Transitional Programs
  Identifiers: *Developmentally Appropriate Practices

  ED323245  TM015450
  Longitudinal Effects of Retention and Promotion in Kindergarten on 
Academic Achievement.
  Banerji, Madhabi
  Florida Journal of Educational Research, v30 n1 p59-72 Fall 1988
  Document Type: JOURNAL ARTICLE (080);  RESEARCH REPORT (143)
  Same-year and same-grade comparisons were made of a matched sample 
of students who had been retained in kindergarten for a second year 
and who had been promoted after 1 year from kindergarten within the 
Pasco County (Florida) School System.  Retained subjects (n=34) 
consisted of kindergarten students enrolled in the system's 
developmental kindergartens during the 1984-85 academic year.  The 
developmental program constitutes a component of the state-legislated 
Primary Education Program for at-risk students.  A matched group of 
non-retained subjects (n=33) was used as a control.  Longitudinal 
performance in first, second, and third grades was studied using 
standardized test scores in reading and mathematics, and students' 
performances were compared using multivariate analyses and Bonferroni 
comparisons.  For both the same-year and the same-grade comparisons, 
significant group effects were found in reading; however, significant 
group effects were found in mathematics only for same-grade 
comparisons.  Significant interaction effects were found for both 
disciplines.  Results underscore the possibility that an 
individualized education plan during the retained year could be 
partly responsible for the improvement in performance for retainees.  
Five data tables and four graphs are included.  (Author/TJH)
  Descriptors: *Academic Achievement; Child Development; Comparative 
Analysis; *Grade Repetition; Individualized Education Programs; *
Kindergarten Children; Longitudinal Studies; Mathematics Achievement; 
Primary Education; *Program Evaluation; Reading Achievement; 
*Remedial Programs; Student Development; *Student Promotion
  Identifiers: Pasco County School District FL; *Primary Education 
Program FL; School Effects

  ED297884  PS017525
  Two Years of Kindergarten: Ethical and Curricular Considerations.
  Billman, Jean
  Document Type: POSITION PAPER (120)
  Using tests that are neither reliable nor valid, school districts 
are currently categorizing large numbers of children as unready for 
entrance into kindergarten and first grade.  Parents are being asked 
to wait a year before sending their children to public school classes 
or to place them in a pre-kindergarten class.  Other children 
complete kindergarten but are retained or placed in a transition 
class before they can proceed to first grade.  Affecting one-fourth 
to one-third of all children, these procedures are disturbing and 
unjustified, as discussions of birthdate effects on early school 
success, screening tests, exclusionary practices, retention and 
transition classes, and changes in the kindergarten curriculum over 
the last 20 years show.  Data indicate that setting up barriers to 
access to educational settings does not benefit the children excluded 
or retained.  Curriculum and entrance policies must be changed so 
that kindergarten can become an environment that accepts all 5-year-
olds and helps them to pass on to first grade.  Schools must accept 
diversity in all spheres of development and employ well-trained 
teachers who use appropriate strategies to help all children succeed 
in the early years of schooling.  (RH)
  Descriptors: Educational Practices; *Elementary School Curriculum; 
*Grade Repetition; *Kindergarten; Predictive Validity; Primary 
Education; *School Entrance Age; *Screening Tests; Test Reliability; 
*Transitional Programs

  EJ364550  CG533245
  Effects of Kindergarten Retention at the End of First Grade.
  Shepard, Lorrie A.; Smith, Mary Lee
  Psychology in the Schools, v24 n4 p346-57 Oct   1987
  Document Type: JOURNAL ARTICLE (080);  RESEARCH REPORT (143)
  Compared two groups of children who were equally unready for school 
at start of kindergarten: one group (N=40) was retained in 
kindergarten and the other group (N=40) was not retained.  When 
compared after completion of first grade no differences were found on 
outcome measures of reading achievement, math achievement, social 
maturity, learner self-concept, or attention.  (Author/ABL)
  Descriptors: *Elementary Education; Grade 1; *Grade Repetition; 
*Instructional Effectiveness; *Kindergarten; *Kindergarten Children; 
*School Readiness

  EJ306358  CG527146
  The Effects of Developmental Placement and Early Retention on 
Children's Later Scores on Standardized Tests.
  May, Deborah C.; Welch, Edward L.
  Psychology in the Schools, v21 n3 p381-85 Jul   1984
  Document Type: JOURNAL ARTICLE (080);  RESEARCH REPORT (143)
  Examined the relationship between early school retention as a 
result of preschool and kindergarten developmental testing and 
children's later academic achievement (N=223).  Results showed 
children who scored as immature on the Gesell Screening Test and who 
were retained a year had the lowest scores on all measures.  (JAC)
  Descriptors: Academic Achievement; Elementary Education; Elementary 
School Students; *Grade Repetition; Maturity Tests; Preschool Tests; 
*School Readiness; Student Development; *Student Placement
  Identifiers: *Gesell Developmental Tests

  ED248459  CS007682
  A Study of the Effects of a Pre-First Grade Transitional Class as 
Compared with First Grade Retention on Reading Achievement.
  Zinski, Joanne Pica
  Florida Educational Research and Development Council, Inc., 
  Florida Educational Research and Development Council Research 
Bulletin, v17 n1 Sum 1983  1983
  Available From: FERDC, P.O. Box 506, Sanibel, FL 33957 ($3.00).
  Document Type: RESEARCH REPORT (143);  SERIAL (022)
  A study was conducted to determine if participation in a pre-first 
grade transactional program would be more effective than grade 
repetition in enhancing first grade readiness.  The transition 
program emphasized the acquisition of academic and behavioral skills 
necessary for a successful first grade experience.  Students in the 
program were trained to sit at desks for increasing periods of time, 
work independently of the teacher, listen to and follow directions, 
and copy from the board.  Reading instruction stressed visual and 
auditory discrimination of letters and sounds, letter-sound 
associations, and other readiness skills.  The Language Experience in 
Reading and Peabody Language Kits were also used in the program.  The 
design of the study was an ex post facto comparison of two groups.  
Transition repeater students were compared to nontransition repeaters 
at the end of their second first grade year on standardized reading 
and language achievement tests and on reading levels in the Holt 
series.  Results indicated no significant difference in scores of the 
two groups on the reading and language tests.  Teacher ratings of 
student performance also showed no significant differences in the two 
groups.  (FL)
  Descriptors: Comparative Analysis; *Grade Repetition; *High Risk 
Students; Primary Education; Program Content; *Program Effectiveness; 
Program Evaluation; Reading Achievement; *Reading Research; School 
Holding Power; *School Readiness; Transitional Programs

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