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Block Scheduling [ERIC Descriptor]
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  EJ560956  EA534439
  Anatomy of an Educational Failure.
  Lonardi, Emilie M.
  School Administrator, v55 n3 p28-31 Mar   1998
  ISSN: 0036-6439
  An administrative team member/restructuring facilitator analyzes 
the failure of a block scheduling reform in a small, suburban 
district.  The prevailing dynamics that obstructed success were fear 
of change, propagandizing of data, and a culture of complacency.  
These problems could have been avoided by training staff to work in 
longer periods, marketing new ideas to the community, and developing 
a collaborative work culture.  (MLH)
  Descriptors: *Block Scheduling; *Central Office Administrators; 
*Change Strategies; *Failure; High Schools; Program Implementation; 
*Resistance to Change; Suburban Schools; *Teacher Attitudes; Work 

  EJ560937  EA534402
  Breaking Away from Tradition: The Farmington High School 
Restructuring Experience.
  Hackman, Donald G.; Waters, David L.
  NASSP Bulletin, v82 n596 p83-92 Mar   1998
  ISSN: 0192-6365
  After nearly two years' experience with the interdisciplinary 
studies program, career pathways, and alternating-day 10-block 
schedule, the Farmington (Missouri) High School faculty is pleased 
with their progress.  Student and teacher surveys indicate an ongoing 
need for improvements to meet all students' learning needs.  This 
schedule is not for every school.  Teachers need extensive staff 
development and common planning times.  (MLH)
  Descriptors: *Block Scheduling; High Schools; *Interdisciplinary 
Approach; Planning; Program Effectiveness; Staff Development

  EJ560933  EA534398
  High Failure Rates in Required Mathematics Courses: Can a Modified 
Block Schedule Be Part of the Cure? A "Bulletin" Special.
  Rettig, Michael D.; Canady, Robert Lynn
  NASSP Bulletin, v82 n596 p56-65 Mar   1998
  ISSN: 0192-6365
  Document Type: JOURNAL ARTICLE (080);  EVALUATIVE REPORT (142)
  To allow variable amounts of time for students to complete Algebra 
I, a gateway course, schools must address four issues: curriculum, 
instructional methods, assessment, and scheduling.  The Algebra I 
curriculum should be divided into four parts; assessments should be 
designed to measure students' mastery of each part.  Also, a two-
period block of time (90 minutes) should be allocated within the 
school schedule.  (MLH)
  Descriptors: *Algebra; Block Scheduling; *Failure; High Schools; 
*Mathematics Achievement; *Student Needs; *Time Factors (Learning)

  EJ560857  EA534246
  The Trouble with Block.
  Howard, Elizabeth
  American School Board Journal, v185 n1 p35-36 Jan   1998
  ISSN: 0003-0953
  Document Type: JOURNAL ARTICLE (080);  EVALUATIVE REPORT (142)
  Describes the pitfalls of block scheduling and outlines questions 
to consider before implementing a block plan.  (LMI)
  Descriptors: *Block Scheduling; *Educational Planning; Elementary 
Secondary Education; *Instructional Effectiveness; Outcomes of 
Education; *Time Blocks; *Time Factors (Learning)

  EJ560856  EA534245
  Learning on the Block. Research.
  Black, Susan
  American School Board Journal, v185 n1 p32-34 Jan   1998
  ISSN: 0003-0953
  Describes the ways in which block scheduling can decrease school-
day interruptions, reduce discipline problems, and help students who 
need more time and a slower pace.  Also describes block schedules' 
effects on students and teachers.  Sidebars offer guidelines for 
block scheduling and selected references.  (LMI)
  Descriptors: *Block Scheduling; Elementary Secondary Education; 
Flexible Scheduling; *School Restructuring; *School Schedules; *Time 
Blocks; *Time Factors (Learning)

  ED420106  EA029077
  Block Scheduling: Does It Make a Difference? A High School Case 
  McCoy, Mary Helen S.
  25p.; Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Southwest 
Educational Research Association (Houston, TX, January 23-25, 1998).
  Document Type: RESEARCH REPORT (143);  CONFERENCE PAPER (150)
  To offer insights into scheduling strategies, this paper presents 
the effects of block scheduling in one rural public secondary school.  
This case study revolves around three questions: (1) "What prompted 
the school's move to block scheduling?"; (2) "How was block 
scheduling implemented?"; and (3) "How has block scheduling affected 
perceptions of school climate, academics/instruction, and 
time/materials management for students, teachers, administrators, and 
guidance personnel?" Interviews were conducted at the school with 
students, teachers, and administrative/counseling personnel.  Results 
revealed several themes: block scheduling helped students feel more 
empowered about learning, and teachers reported more empowerment in 
their instructional role.  More assigned homework was being 
completed, and teachers indicated satisfaction about the demands on 
their time.  Findings indicate that block scheduling basically 
benefited all students equally, regardless of ability level, attitude 
toward school, and degree of school success.  Students' tardiness 
decreased and their management of books, materials, and schoolwork 
improved.  The report suggests that supports--materials and supplies--
must be provided for the ongoing success of block scheduling.  
(Contains 13 references.) (RJM)
  Descriptors: *Block Scheduling; Educational Environment; Flexible 
Scheduling; *High Schools; Program Effectiveness; Program Evaluation; 
*Public Schools; *Rural Schools; Time Factors (Learning)

  ED418492  EA028993
  Intensive Scheduling: Restructuring America's Secondary Schools 
through Time Management.
  Hottenstein, David S.
  ISBN: 0-8039-6654-7
  Available From: Corwin Press, Inc., 2455 Teller Road, Thousand 
Oaks, CA 91320-2218 (cloth: ISBN-0-8039-6653-9, $43.95; paper: ISBN-0-
8039-6654-7, $18.95).
  Document Type: BOOK (010);  PROJECT DESCRIPTION (141)
  Target Audience: Practitioners
  Some of the difficult questions surrounding intensive scheduling, 
along with examples of successful applications of this approach, are 
described in this document.  This book offers a blueprint from a 
practitioner's perspective and is intended for educators and lay 
people interested in improving secondary schools.  Chapter 1 
demonstrates how to manage change successfully from theory to 
practice.  Chapter 2 analyzes the Hatboro-Horsham case study and 
explores why block scheduling has become so controversial.  Chapter 3 
suggests ways to train teachers to teach in a longer block of time 
and advice is given on instructional strategies, classroom 
management, curriculum pacing, and assessment.  Chapter 4 examines 
the implementation of instructional strategies.  Chapter 5 looks at 
how intensive scheduling will affect curriculum development and 
technology utilization.  Chapter 6 analyzes program evaluation and 
its importance in the process.  (Includes an index, a case study 
appendix, and three references.) (RJM)
  Descriptors: *Block Scheduling; Curriculum Design; Educational 
Change; *Educational Innovation; *Flexible Scheduling; Models; School 
Restructuring; Secondary Education; *Secondary Schools; Time Factors 
  Identifiers: *Intensive Scheduling

  EJ556866  EA534189
  Parallel Block Scheduling Spells Success.
  Delany, Marcia; Toburen, Laura; Hooton, Becky; Dozier, Ann
  Educational Leadership, v55 n4 p61-63 Dec-Jan 1997-
  ISSN: 0013-1784
  Distressed by their students' reading failure rate, teachers at two 
Georgia schools developed a parallel block-scheduling plan that 
allows for whole-class instruction, direct-instruction miniclasses, 
and enrichment labs for all students.  Success depends on matching 
creative, resourceful teachers to the enrichment lab positions.  Over 
the past two years, standardized reading and math test scores have 
risen significantly.  (MLH)
  Descriptors: *Academic Achievement; *Block Scheduling; Elementary 
Education; *Enrichment Activities; Program Descriptions; *Reading 
Instruction; *Small Classes
  Identifiers: *Wilkes County School District GA

  ED415587  EA028868
  Policy Briefing: Block Scheduling in Secondary Schools. PREL 
Briefing Paper.
  Dougherty, Barbara
  Pacific Resources for Education and Learning, Honolulu, HI.
  Sponsoring Agency: Office of Educational Research and Improvement 
(ED), Washington, DC.
  Document Type: POSITION PAPER (120)
  Previous research has shown that by varying instructional time, 
schools can better accommodate students' different rates of learning.  
One method that schools use to meet this challenge is block 
scheduling; different models which are described.  The focus is on 
the benefits and disadvantages of various models.  One of the 
benefits is block scheduling's ability to offer longer time periods 
to implement group cooperative/collaborative learning, hands-on 
activities, student projects, and integrated or interdisciplinary 
activities.  Some of the models include the 4 x 4 plan, which 
features a two-semester school year where the school day is divided 
into four instructional periods, each approximately 90 minutes long; 
and the Alternate Day Plan, in which students take eight 90-minute 
classes that meet every other day.  Some other models are also 
briefly described.  Such plans allow teachers to extend explorations 
and put teachers in daily contact with fewer students.  However, some 
research indicates that student achievement may not be sustained with 
block scheduling and the amount of subject area content may actually 
decrease.  The report concludes with suggestions for implementing 
block scheduling, such as informing all stakeholders and creating 
evaluation strategies.  (Contains 10 References.) (RJM)
  Descriptors: Adolescents; Alternate Day Schedules; *Block 
Scheduling; Educational Strategies; *Flexible Scheduling; Models; 
Program Descriptions; *School Schedules; Secondary Education; Student 
Needs; Time Blocks; *Time Factors (Learning)
  Identifiers: 4 X 4 Schedule

  EJ559390  CS754878
  Alternative Scheduling: An Overview.
  Clemons, Molly J.
  Communication: Journalism Education Today, v31 n2 p2-4 Win 
  ISSN: 0010-3535
  Discusses rescheduling and restructuring underway in secondary 
schools across the United States.  Discusses five different 
approaches to alternative scheduling, focusing on two different types 
of the block schedule--a four-block or an eight-block style.  Focuses 
on the effect of each on journalism classes.  Discusses 
accommodations that need to be made and the need for good public 
relations.  (SR)
  Descriptors: *Block Scheduling; Educational Change; Educational 
Trends; *Journalism Education; Secondary Education; Time Factors 

  EJ555441  EA534109
  An Objective Look at Math Outcomes Based on New Research into Block 
  Wronkovich, Michael; Hess, Caryl A.; Robinson, James E.
  NASSP Bulletin, v81 n593 p32-41 Dec   1997
  ISSN: 0192-6365
  Document Type: JOURNAL ARTICLE (080);  RESEARCH REPORT (143)
  A study examining performance differences on the Ohio Colleges 
Early Math Placement Test of students receiving algebra and geometry 
instruction in a traditional, year-long structure versus students in 
an intensified block structure found the traditional structure more 
effective.  Using block scheduling for all courses and students is 
unwise.  Some will need advanced courses; others cannot easily digest 
accelerated math and science material.  (26 references) (MLH)
  Descriptors: *Algebra; *Block Scheduling; *Geometry; High Schools; 
*Mathematics Achievement; Predictor Variables; Program Effectiveness; 
Suburban Schools; *Test Results

  EJ544325  EA533414
  Collaboration for Instructional Improvement: Analyzing the Academic 
Impact of a Block Scheduling Plan.
  Skrobarcek, Sharon A.; And Others
  NASSP Bulletin, v81 n589 p104-11 May   1997
  ISSN: 0192-6365
  Document Type: RESEARCH REPORT (143);  JOURNAL ARTICLE (080)
  Describes a study that examined block scheduling's effects on 
student and teacher performance and attitudes at a large Texas high 
school.  While the 2-hour Algebra I block had a higher failure rate 
than the traditional 50-minute algebra class, the block classes were 
comprised of students who have traditionally struggled in mathematics.  
Maximizing use of block time should help.  (20 references)
  Descriptors: *Academic Achievement; *Algebra; Attendance; 
*Educational Benefits; High Schools; *Influences; *Instructional 
Improvement; Interviews; Staff Development; Student Attitudes; 
Teacher Attitudes; *Time Management
  Identifiers: *Texas

  EJ547291  EA533547
  The Copernican Plan and Year-Round Education.
  Gee, William D.
  Phi Delta Kappan, v78 n10 p793-96 Jun   1997
  ISSN: 0031-7217
  Document Type: JOURNAL ARTICLE (080);  EVALUATIVE REPORT (142)
  Combining the Copernican Plan (a block-schedule variation) and year-
round schooling may make both proposals more palatable to the general 
public.  Since the plan leaves facilities, teacher contracts, and 
current budgets virtually unchanged, serious public resistance is 
unlikely.  Principals should first introduce Copernican scheduling 
and then use the plan's success to initiate the "45/15 plan" (year-
round rotation of 45 in-class days/15 vacation days).  (10 
references) (MLH)
  Descriptors: *Block Scheduling; *Educational Benefits; *Pilot 
Projects; Secondary Education; *Year Round Schools
  Identifiers: *Copernican Plan

  EJ544318  EA533407
  Block Scheduling the High School: The Effects on Achievement, 
Behavior, and Student-Teacher Relationships.
  Eineder, Dale V.; Bishop, Harold L.
  NASSP Bulletin, v81 n589 p45-54 May   1997
  ISSN: 0192-6365
  An Ohio high school staff's action-research project examined 
effects of a recently implemented block-scheduling arrangement on 
student achievement, behavior, and student-teacher relations.  
Results support other research: students earned higher grade point 
averages, more students attained the honor roll, disciplinary 
referrals were reduced, teacher-student relations were improved, and 
teachers and students preferred block scheduling.  (26 references) 
  Descriptors: *Academic Achievement; Action Research; *Block 
Scheduling; *Educational Benefits; High Schools; *Influences; Program 
Effectiveness; Program Evaluation; Rural Schools; *Student Behavior; 
Surveys; *Teacher Student Relationship
  Identifiers: *Ohio (Southeast)

  EJ544271  EA533324
  The Road We Traveled: Scheduling in the 4 X 4 Block.
  Queen, J. Allen; And Others
  NASSP Bulletin, v81 n588 p88-99 Apr   1997
  ISSN: 0192-6365
  An evaluation of the 4 X 4 block schedule used in three North 
Carolina high schools elicited strong support from teachers, 
students, and parents.  Schools planning to implement this model 
should review D. G. Hackman's guidelines covering faculty input, 
feedback procedures, training opportunities, teacher fatigue, 
holidays, classroom monitoring, modified course offerings, and 
adjusted graduation requirements.  (MLH)
  Descriptors: *Block Scheduling; Guidelines; High Schools; *Parent 
Attitudes; Program Descriptions; *Program Evaluation; *Student 
Reaction; *Teacher Response; *Time Blocks
  Identifiers: *Lincoln County School District NC

  EJ544265  EA533318
  Success and the Four Block Schedule: Stakeholders Buy In 
  Fitzpatrick, James E.; Mowers, Mary
  NASSP Bulletin, v81 n588 p51-56 Apr   1997
  ISSN: 0192-6365
  After two semesters of using the four-block schedule, a Wisconsin 
high school experienced academic growth, improved grades and 
discipline, reduced stress, and a more personalized school 
environment.  Interested schools should gain support, create a site-
level decision-making model, demonstrate the need for change, clearly 
define restructuring focus, protect teachers' jobs, visit pioneering 
schools, and keep stakeholders informed.  (MLH)
  Descriptors: *Block Scheduling; *Educational Benefits; *Educational 
Environment; High Schools; *Participative Decision Making; *Program 

  EJ544260  EA533313
  An Invitation to Innovation: Rethinking the High School Day.
  Winn, Deanna D.; And Others
  NASSP Bulletin, v81 n588 p10-18 Apr   1997
  ISSN: 0192-6365
  Document Type: EVALUATIVE REPORT (142);  JOURNAL ARTICLE (080)
  Describes a committee's efforts to revamp schedules to improve 
their high school's elective course options, provide equitable 
teacher-preparation time, and use instructional time productively.  
From three viable schedules (a four-period block, alternating-day 
schedule; a five-period trimester with a flexible period; and a 
modified trimester plan built on the present schedule); the committee 
chose the third, least disruptive, option.  (MLH)
  Descriptors: Alternate Day Schedules; *Block Scheduling; Committees; 
Creativity; *Flexible Scheduling; High Schools; *Teacher Response; 
*Time Blocks; *Time Management; *Trimester System
  Identifiers: Learning Communities; *Utah

  EJ544259  EA533312
  Strategies for Teaching in a Block-of-Time Schedule.
  Hackmann, Donald G.; Schmitt, Donna M.
  NASSP Bulletin, v81 n588 p1-9 Apr   1997
  ISSN: 0192-6365
  Document Type: EVALUATIVE REPORT (142);  JOURNAL ARTICLE (080)
  Offers suggestions for developing creative instructional approaches 
in time-blocked classes.  Teachers should continuously engage 
students in active learning, include group activities to encourage 
student participation, incorporate activities addressing multiple 
intelligences, use creative thinking activities, move outside the 
classroom, employ authentic assessment methods, and share resources 
and ideas with colleagues.  (20 references) (MLH)
  Descriptors: *Block Scheduling; *Cooperative Learning; 
*Instructional Effectiveness; *Learning Activities; Secondary 
Education; *Teaching Methods; *Time Blocks
  Identifiers: Gardner (Howard); *Multiple Intelligences

  EJ542604  EA533252
  Evaluation of 4 X 4 Block Schedule.
  Mutter, Davida W.; And Others
  ERS Spectrum, v15 n1 p3-8 Win   1997
  ISSN: 0740-7874
  Document Type: RESEARCH REPORT (143);  REVIEW LITERATURE (070);  
  Describes 4 X 4 block scheduling and its advantages and 
disadvantages.  Examines block scheduling's effects on a Virginia 
high school's students, teachers, and administration, based on school 
data and survey results.  Most participants preferred block 
scheduling over the six-period schedule.  Grades, attendance, and 
discipline improved; students earned more credits and could retake 
failed courses.  Accommodating advanced placement and music classes 
was problematic.  (MLH)
  Descriptors: Administrator Attitudes; *Block Scheduling; 
*Educational Benefits; High Schools; Parent Attitudes; *Program 
Effectiveness; *Student Attitudes; Surveys; *Teacher Attitudes
  Identifiers: *Virginia (Chesapeake)

  EJ540826  EA533141
  What We Know about Block Scheduling and Its Effects on Math 
Instruction, Part II.
  Kramer, Steven L.
  NASSP Bulletin, v81 n587 p69-82 Mar   1997
  For Part I, see NASSP Bulletin; v81 n587 pp18-42 Feb 1997.
  ISSN: 0192-6365
  A study of British Columbia high schools found that block 
scheduling can endanger mathematics achievement.  Reduced math scores 
were attributed to irregular planning time, little opportunity to 
modify curriculum; and the provincial examination system.  Longer 
time blocks cannot succeed without adequate planning time, curricular 
restructuring, and adequate administrative support.  Scheduling extra 
study periods has not worked well.  (26 references) (MLH)
  Descriptors: *Academic Achievement; *Block Scheduling; Foreign 
Countries; High Schools; Homework; *Influences; Lecture Method; 
*Mathematics Instruction; *Planning; Study Habits; *Test Results; 
Time Management
  Identifiers: *British Columbia; North Carolina

  EJ540803  EA533090
  Integrating the Curriculum with Parallel Block Scheduling.
  Hopkins, Harriet J.; Canady, Robert Lynn
  Principal, v76 n4 p28-31 Mar   1997
  ISSN: 0271-6062
  Document Type: EVALUATIVE REPORT (142);  JOURNAL ARTICLE (080)
  Although parallel block scheduling continues to benefit student 
learning, it is challenged to meet the needs of new educational 
programs, particularly whole language and interdisciplinary 
instruction.  Two illustrated blocks show how teachers can 
effectively divide their time between whole-group and small-group 
instruction and integrate science and math instruction and language 
arts and social studies instruction.  (MLH)
  Descriptors: *Block Scheduling; *Educational Benefits; Elementary 
Education; *Integrated Curriculum; *Interdisciplinary Approach; 
*Whole Language Approach

  EJ539067  EA533007
  What We Know about Block Scheduling and Its Effects on Math 
Instruction, Part I.
  Kramer, Steven L.
  NASSP Bulletin, v81 n586 p18-42 Feb   1997
  ISSN: 0192-6365
  Document Type: EVALUATIVE REPORT (142);  REVIEW LITERATURE (070);  
  Although research has confirmed block scheduling's nonacademic 
benefits, effects on academic achievement are mixed.  Teachers do not 
always replace lecturing with more effective participatory teaching 
methods.  To work best under an intensive or alternating block 
schedule, schools should adapt the math curriculum to reduce course 
redundancy and cover fewer topics with more depth.  (58 references) 
  Descriptors: *Academic Achievement; Algebra; *Block Scheduling; 
Class Size; Definitions; High Schools; *Influences; Lecture Method; 
Lesson Plans; *Mathematics Curriculum; *Mathematics Instruction; 
*Program Effectiveness; Student Participation; Teacher Student 

  ED416570  EA028885
  Block Scheduling at Portsmouth High School: A Status Report.
  Lister, Robert J.
  Portsmouth Public Schools, NH.  1997
  Document Type: RESEARCH REPORT (143)
  School officials have tried various scheduling strategies to 
strengthen curriculums.  One such strategy, block scheduling, 
affected the operation of Portsmouth High School, in Portsmouth, New 
Hampshire.  This status report examines the use of block scheduling 
over a 2.5 year period and focuses on how this change influenced 
people, curriculum, test scores, and other areas of school life.  It 
is intended as a working document for the school's faculty and 
administration as they develop a comprehensive evaluation after 
several years with block scheduling.  The report reviews the 
literature and sketches a historical perspective about strategies 
high schools use to prepare adolescents for the future.  It is 
intended to provide information, identify successes, make 
recommendations for further study, and offer critiques of various 
aspects of block scheduling.  The report focuses on the history of 
Portsmouth High School and how the process of change was introduced.  
It examines implications of schedule changes for students and faculty 
and lists implications of such scheduling for curriculum and 
instructional methodologies.  It offers an assessment of students and 
block scheduling and provides feedback from students, faculty, and 
parents.  A summary of findings is included.  (Contains 50 
references.) (RJM)
  Descriptors: Adolescents; *Block Scheduling; *Case Studies; 
Children; Educational Improvement; *Educational Innovation; 
Elementary Secondary Education; *Flexible Scheduling; *Program 
Descriptions; Program Evaluation; School Schedules
  Identifiers: *Portsmouth School Administrative Unit NH

  ED415093  SE060954
  The Effects of Varying Retention Intervals within a Block Schedule 
on Knowledge Retention in Mathematics.
  Shockey, Brenda P.
  151p.; Doctoral Dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park.
  Document Type: DISSERTATION (041);  RESEARCH REPORT (143)
  This study examined quantitatively the effects of varying retention 
intervals (RI) within a 4 X 4 block schedule on knowledge retention 
of Algebra 2 skills and concepts.  Specifically, the study contrasted 
the mean scores of students having an RI of 0, 8, and 12 months on a 
pre-review, post-review, and end-of-course test in precalculus.  The 
study also examined qualitatively the instructional strategies used 
by teachers to eliminate the effects of the retention interval for 
all students beginning a new course of mathematics study.  This study 
was conducted in two suburban high schools with at least 4 years of 
experience using a 4 X 4 block schedule.  The sample for the 
quantitative component included all students, honors and merit, 
enrolled in precalculus.  The sample for the qualitative component 
included precalculus teachers in both high schools.  Initially on the 
pre-review test (multiple choice component), the mean score of 
students with an RI of 0 months was significantly higher than that of 
those with an RI of 8 or 12 months.  Following a four-week review 
period, there was a significant difference in mean scores between 
students with an RI of zero months and 12 months.  On the pre-review 
and post-review (performance-based assessment) there was no 
significant difference among the groups of students by RI.  Notably, 
by the end course in precalculus, a final test administered to all 
three groups showed no significant difference among the students by 
RI on either the multiple choice or the performance-based assessment.  
In examining RI effects by different ability levels, there was no 
significant difference in the mean scores for precalculus merit 
students on the measure used as was also noted for all students 
regardless of ability.  The same was true for precalculus honors 
students.  Instructional strategies employed by teachers in reviewing 
Algebra 2 skills and concepts were the same as those associated with 
a traditional high school schedule.  Contains 90 references.  
  Descriptors: *Algebra; *Block Scheduling; *Calculus; High Schools; 
Mathematics Education; *Retention (Psychology); Teaching Methods; 
Time Factors (Learning)

  ED413680  EA028789
  Alternative Schedules: Blocks to Success?
  Matthews, L. Joseph
  National Association of Secondary School Principals, Reston, VA.
  NASSP Practitioner, v24 n1 p1-8 Oct 1997  1997
  Available From: National Association of Secondary School 
Principals, 1904 Association Drive, Reston, VA 20191-1537; phone: 703-
860-0200; fax: 703-476-5432; World Wide Web: http://www.nassp.org ($2 
for members; $3 for nonmembers; quantity discounts; payment must 
accompany orders of $15 or less).
  Document Type: SERIAL (022)
  Target Audience: Administrators; Practitioners
  Secondary school administrators must carefully consider the 
ramifications of a proposed alternative scheduling plan before 
proceeding with implementation.  The first article in this newsletter 
presents findings from a study that compared data from two groups of 
schools (one group with a 4 X 4 block plan and the other with a 
trimester plan) to data from a group of schools that followed a 
traditional schedule.  Six guidelines are offered for the successful 
implementation of an alternative schedule: (1) involve all members of 
the school community; (2) employ a researcher and/or program 
evaluator; (3) do not become the defender of one kind of scheduling 
plan; (4) keep communication open among all parties; (5) consider 
extensive staff development on instructional strategies; and (6) be 
creative and innovative.  The second article describes the 
experiences of two high schools that took steps to ensure a smooth 
transition--Springfield Township High School, located in Erdenheim, 
Pennsylvania (a 4 X 4 block plan) and Hononegah Community High 
School, in Rockton, Illinois (a 7 X 1 extended period).  Five figures 
are included.  (The first article contains 7 references).  (LMI)
  Descriptors: Alternate Day Schedules; *Block Scheduling; *Class 
Organization; *Flexible Scheduling; High Schools; Program 
Implementation; *School Organization; Secondary Education; *Time 
Blocks; Trimester System

  ED413679  EA028786
  Block Scheduling: Pathways to Success.
  Adams, Don C.; Salvaterra, Mary E.
  ISBN: 1-56676-521-8
  Available From: Technomic Publishing Company, Inc., 851 New Holland 
Ave., Box 3535, Lancaster, PA 17604; phone: 717-291-5609; toll-free: 
800-233-9936; fax: 717-295-4538; e-mail: marketing#064;techpub.com; World 
Wide Web: http://www.techpub.com ($59.95).
  Document Type: BOOK (010);  NON-CLASSROOM MATERIAL (055)
  Block scheduling and intensive or extended-time scheduling have 
been appearing in high schools across the United States.  This 
guidebook is designed to help each school find the best route to 
achieve this organizational change.  The book's premise is that 
structural change in schools is not sufficient to create meaningful 
educational improvement.  Change at the individual level must 
accompany structural change.  The guidebook draws on the authors' 
experiences with 5 schools and 6 school districts, and represents the 
concerns of 210 teachers.  Chapter 1 relates several educational 
advantages of intensive time scheduling.  Chapter 2 revolves around 
issues of preparing for the change to block scheduling and provides 
examples of change management.  Examples of leadership traits that 
have either enhanced or obstructed the implementation of block 
scheduling are provided in chapter 3. Chapter 4 suggests ways to 
reduce polarization among members of the school community when block 
scheduling is considered for adoption.  Chapter 5 illustrates block 
scheduling as a tool of time and responds to concerns of those 
affected by block scheduling.  Chapters 6 and 7 offer suggestions for 
restructuring the curriculum and designing courses of study.  Chapter 
8 identifies teachers' common concerns related to specific 
disciplines and provides examples of typical 90-minute classes.  
Methods for evaluating the curriculum, teacher instruction, student 
achievement, and student/teacher attitudes are described in chapter 
9. Chapter 10 explores roadblocks to implementation, including 
collective-bargaining agreements, resource allocation for staff 
development, transfer students, substitute teachers, and myths.  
Chapter 11 offers suggestions for enhancing block scheduling and 
encourages teachers and administrators to continue the cycle of 
planning and staff development.  The appendix contains sample student-
, teacher-, and parent-attitude questionnaires.  An index is included.  
(Contains 19 references).  (LMI)
  Descriptors: *Block Scheduling; *Curriculum Design; Educational 
Planning; High Schools; Instructional Effectiveness; Program 
Evaluation; School Organization; *School Schedules; *Time Blocks

  ED411337  UD031868
  Alternative High School Scheduling. Student Achievement and 
Behavior. Research Report.
  Pisapia, John; Westfall, Amy Lynn
  Metropolitan Educational Research Consortium, Richmond, VA.
  38p.; For related reports, see UD 031 866 and 867.
  Document Type: EVALUATIVE REPORT (142)
  In 1995 the Metropolitan Educational Research Consortium (MERC), 
Richmond (Virginia) commissioned a study of alternative high school 
scheduling modules to determine the effects of different schedules on 
teaching strategies, teacher and student satisfaction, and student 
and school performance.  This report presents results of an analysis 
of student achievement and behavior data from 12 high schools, 3 
inner city, 5 suburban, and 4 rural.  Two traditional-day schedules 
and four variations of block scheduling were compared.  Teachers and 
students in alternating and semester block schools reported that 
learning is not watered down, but that it is different, with more 
focus on concepts than facts, more depth, and more problem solving.  
Students in semester block schedules experienced greater increases in 
overall grade point average than those in alternating block schedules.  
In general, verbal scores rose more in schools that switched to an 
alternating or semester block schedule than mathematics.  Increases 
in Scholastic Aptitude Test scores were greater for students in 
alternating block schedules than for students in semester block 
schools, but after the first year, students in four of the seven 
schools that switched to either type of block scheduling experienced 
increases in verbal scores.  In two of four alternating block 
schools, student performance on advanced placement tests declined, as 
it did in the two semester block schools.  Overall, attendance was 
not positively affected by the change, but in both alternating and 
semester block schools, students reported that school was "calmer" 
and teachers made fewer disciplinary referrals.  (Contains 13 tables 
and 15 references.) (SLD)
  Descriptors: *Academic Achievement; Achievement Gains; Attendance; 
*Behavior Patterns; *Block Scheduling; College Entrance Examinations; 
Flexible Scheduling; *High School Students; High Schools; Inner City; 
*Student Attitudes; *Teacher Attitudes; Teaching Methods; Test 
  Identifiers: Scholastic Assessment Tests

  ED411336  UD031867
  Alternative High School Scheduling. A View from the Student's Desk. 
Research Report.
  Pisapia, John; Westfall, Amy Lynn
  Metropolitan Educational Research Consortium, Richmond, VA.
  79p.; For related reports, see UD 031 866 and 868.
  In 1995 the Metropolitan Educational Research Consortium (MERC), 
Richmond (Virginia) commissioned a study of alternative high school 
scheduling modules to determine the effects of different schedules on 
teaching strategies, teacher and student satisfaction, and student 
and school performance.  This report presents the results of an 
analysis of the survey administered to 2,430 students in 4 inner 
city, 5 suburban, and 4 rural schools in 1995.  Six types of 
scheduling, two traditional and four variations of block schedules, 
were studied.  Students in everyday semester long block schedules 
reported significantly more satisfaction with the number of courses 
available to them than students in everyday short block schedules and 
alternating long block schedules.  Students in everyday long block 
schedules also reported that their teachers used significantly more 
group instruction than students in the other block schedules, and 
observation suggested that use of group instruction increases as the 
number of minutes in class increase.  Students in everyday semester 
long block schedules also reported that their teachers were more 
likely to use portfolios.  No significant findings were associated 
with schedule type for homework, student-teacher relationships, 
curriculum, and student satisfaction.  Analysis did identify 
differences that may or may not have been related to scheduling.  
These differences are explored in the 10 appendixes that summarize 
findings in terms of effects of schedule type on various dependent 
variables and present a summary of some focus group interviews.  
(Contains 4 tables, 13 references, and the student survey.) (SLD)
  Descriptors: *Block Scheduling; Flexible Scheduling; *High School 
Students; High Schools; Inner City; Rural Schools; Satisfaction; 
*Student Attitudes; Suburban Schools; Surveys; *Teaching Methods; 
Time Blocks; *Time Factors (Learning); Urban Schools

  ED411335  UD031866
  Alternative High School Scheduling. A View from the Teacher's Desk. 
Research Report.
  Pisapia, John; Westfall, Amy Lynn
  Metropolitan Educational Research Consortium, Richmond, VA.
  84p.; For related reports, see UD 031 867 and 868.
  In 1995 the Metropolitan Educational Research Consortium (MERC), 
Richmond (Virginia) commissioned a study of alternative high school 
scheduling modules to determine the effects of different schedules on 
teaching strategies, teacher and student satisfaction, and student 
and school performance.  This report presents the results of an 
analysis of a survey administered to teachers in 1995.  Six types of 
traditional and block schedules were studied through the responses of 
teachers from three inner city, five suburban, and four rural schools.  
Findings indicate that teachers in everyday short block schedules use 
significantly more whole class instruction than teachers in everyday 
semester and alternating long block schedules.  Teachers in 
alternating and everyday semester long block schedules practice 
significantly more in a team approach than teachers in everyday short 
block schedules.  Teachers in everyday long block schedules are 
significantly more satisfied with student achievement as reflected in 
their grades than are teachers in alternating long block and everyday 
short block schools.  Teachers in everyday semester block schools 
report more than teachers in alternating and everyday short block 
schedules that attendance is significantly better than three years 
earlier.  Teachers in everyday semester block schools and the 
alternating day with a study block schedule rated their schedules 
higher than other alternating block schedules, but the everyday 
semester block schedules received the most favorable rating by its 
teachers.  Seven appendixes contain additional findings in areas such 
as ability to cover the curriculum and use of particular teaching 
methods.  (Contains 7 tables, 12 references, and the teacher's 
survey.) (SLD)
  Descriptors: *Block Scheduling; Flexible Scheduling; High School 
Students; *High Schools; Inner City; Rural Schools; *Secondary School 
Teachers; Suburban Schools; Surveys; *Teacher Attitudes; *Teaching 
Methods; Team Teaching; Time Blocks; Time Factors (Learning); Urban 

  ED410105  SE060468
  Block Scheduling: Teaching Strategies for the Restructured School 
  National Science Teachers Association, Arlington, VA.
  ISBN: 0-87355-163
  Available From: National Science Teachers Association, 1840 Wilson 
Blvd., Arlington, VA 22201; phone: 1-800-722-NSTA (NSTA Stock No. 
  Document Type: TEACHING GUIDE (052)
  This book is a compilation of articles taken from the National 
Science Teachers Association (NSTA) journal entitled "The Science 
Teacher" that pertain to block scheduling and strategies for 
effective science instruction within this framework.  Articles 
include "Blockbuster Ideas" (Judy Bohince and Ireve King), "Tackling 
Block Scheduling" (Martha M. Day and others), "Blocking in Success" 
(Sylvia L. Cooper), "Year-Round Science" (Marilyn J. Stenvall), 
"Building Block Schedules" (Janet L. Gerking), "New Class on the 
Block" (Terrilee Day), "A Lesson in Block Scheduling" (Robert Barnes 
and others), and "Managing Each Minute" (Michael Clough and others).  
Also included are a forward and an introduction that relate this new 
approach to current goals and standards for science education.  An 
invited paper on block scheduling provides background information 
about the process and its effects on teaching and learning (K.  Doug 
Kissler).  (DDR)
  Descriptors: *Block Scheduling; Educational Change; Educational 
Innovation; *Educational Strategies; *Flexible Scheduling; Grouping 
(Instructional Purposes); Science Activities; *Science Curriculum; 
Secondary Education; Standards; Student Evaluation

  ED403647  EA028191
  A Study of the Block Scheduling Movement in Six High Schools in the 
Upper Cumberland Region of Tennessee.
  Fletcher, Richard K., Jr.
  Jan 1997
  43p.; Revision of paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the 
Tennessee Academy of Science (Sewanee, TN, November 1996).
  Document Type: CONFERENCE PAPER (150);  RESEARCH REPORT (143);  
  During the past 4 years block scheduling has been adopted by a 
majority of the high schools in Middle Tennessee.  This paper 
presents findings of a study that explored the effects of the new 
schedule.  Data were gathered from a questionnaire that was completed 
by 280 teachers and approximately 2,000 students from 6 high schools 
in the region.  Both students and faculty expressed satisfaction with 
the block schedule and said that school climate had improved somewhat.  
Female teachers and female students spent more time than male 
teachers and male students in preparing for classes.  Thirty percent 
of the total sample reported that grades had improved, and 40 percent 
reported an increase in paperwork.  The new schedule appeared to have 
no significant effect on attendance.  Teachers generally agreed that 
they would need to revise their teaching methods.  Both groups 
indicated that block scheduling provides students with the 
opportunity for in-depth study of subject matter.  However, this 
might be possibly at the expense of covering more material.  Five 
tables and a copy of the questionnaire are included.  (Contains 26 
references.) (LMI)
  Descriptors: *Block Scheduling; High Schools; Homework; Parent 
Attitudes; *School Schedules; Student Attitudes; *Time Blocks; *Time 
Factors (Learning); Working Hours
  Identifiers: *Tennessee

  EJ541055  EC615918
  Parallel Block Scheduling: Accommodating Students' Diverse Needs in 
Elementary Schools.
  Snell, Martha E.; And Others
  Journal of Early Intervention, v20 n3 p265-77 Sum   1996
  ISSN: 1053-8151
  Describes the use of parallel block scheduling (PBS) in inclusive 
classrooms as a flexible method of scheduling that addresses student 
grouping; time for teacher planning; and scheduling of subjects, 
support services, and staff.  The characteristics of PBS and an 
elementary school that uses the system are highlighted.  (Author/CR)
  Descriptors: *Block Scheduling; *Disabilities; Elementary Education; 
*Inclusive Schools; *Regular and Special Education Relationship; 
School Schedules; *Time Blocks; Time Management

  EJ534067  EA532711
  The Effects of Block Scheduling on Student Performance.
  Schroth, Gwen; Dixon, Jean
  International Journal of Educational Reform, v5 n4 p472-76 Oct 
  ISSN: 1056-7879
  Document Type: RESEARCH REPORT (143);  EVALUATIVE REPORT (142);  
  Despite considerable documentation and implementation of block 
scheduling, there is little evidence that it achieves an increase in 
student understanding of subject material.  Field research that 
examined seventh-grade math achievement scores in block scheduled and 
regular schools showed that none of the anticipated results were 
realized regarding Texas Assessment of Academic Skills scores.  
Alternative assessment methods may be necessary.  (19 references) 
  Descriptors: *Block Scheduling; *Educational Change; Grade 7; 
*Influences; *Mathematics Achievement; *Program Evaluation; Secondary 
Education; *Test Results
  Identifiers: *Texas

  EJ532296  EA532502
  The Trimester: A Competency Based Model of Block Scheduling. 
Research Brief.
  Geismar, Thomas J.; Pullease, Barbara G.
  NASSP Bulletin, v80 n581 p95-105 Sep   1996
  ISSN: 0192-6365
  Compares achievement of students attending a large Florida high 
school under a traditional schedule during 1993-94 and a trimester 
block schedule during the following year.  Passing grades have gone 
up 3.7%.  Regarding Scholastic Aptitude Test and American College 
Testing results, there was no significant difference.  Teachers, 
students, parents, and community members prefer the trimester system.  
  Descriptors: *Block Scheduling; High Schools; Instructional 
Improvement; *Program Implementation; Surveys; *Test Results; *Time 
Management; *Trimester System
  Identifiers: *Broward County Public Schools FL; *Competency Based 

  EJ530658  EA532550
  All Around the Block: The Benefits and Challenges of a Non-
traditional School Schedule.
  Rettig, Michael D.; Canady, Robert Lynn
  School Administrator, v53 n8 p8-14 Sep   1996
  ISSN: 0036-6439
  Document Type: EVALUATIVE REPORT (142);  JOURNAL ARTICLE (080)
  Block schedules offer many advantages, including increased usable 
instructional time, increased opportunities to use alternative 
instructional strategies, and fewer homework assignments and class 
changes for students.  Challenges include maintaining student 
attention, providing balanced schedules, retaining major concepts, 
and accommodating advanced-placement and music classes.  Models are 
described.  A list of resources is provided.  (MLH)
  Descriptors: *Advanced Placement; *Block Scheduling; *Educational 
Benefits; *Graduation Requirements; High Schools; *Music; Program 
Descriptions; *Program Implementation

  EJ530037  SE556453
  Tackling Block Scheduling: How to Make the Most of Longer Classes.
  Day, Martha M.; And Others
  Science Teacher, v63 n6 p25-27 Sep   1996
  ISSN: 0036-8555
  Document Type: TEACHING GUIDE (052);  JOURNAL ARTICLE (080)
  Discusses the training and preparation for the transition to block 
scheduling.  Provides a summary of some of the aspects of the four-by-
four block schedule and describes strategies employed to modify 
instruction and curriculum.  Includes two sample interdisciplinary 
activities.  (DDR)
  Descriptors: Block Scheduling; *Educational Change; *Educational 
Strategies; Flexible Scheduling; Interdisciplinary Approach; Science 
Activities; Science Curriculum; Science Experiments; Secondary 
Education; Student Projects; *Time Blocks

  ED403644  EA028177
  Block Scheduling in the Secondary Arena Part II: Perceptions from 
the Inside.
  Davis-Wiley, Patricia; Cozart, Angela
  Nov 1996
  18p.; Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Mid-South 
Educational Research Association (Tuscaloosa, AL, November 6-8, 
1996). For Part I of this study, see ED 393 177.
  Document Type: CONFERENCE PAPER (150);  RESEARCH REPORT (143)
  The block schedule is fast becoming the new instructional delivery 
format of choice for the 1990s in American secondary schools.  This 
paper presents findings of a study that examined the effects of 
changing from a six-period day to a four-block schedule on two large 
high schools in Knox County, Tennessee.  Part I of the study examined 
the perceptions of the two schools' administrators and teachers.  
Part II surveyed 150 parents and 300 students at the two high schools.  
In general, students reported moderate satisfaction with the block 
schedule.  The majority of students were ambivalent about returning 
to the six-day schedule.  Both parents and students expressed 
concerns about the effects of learning in a fast-paced, abbreviated 
period of time on long-term retention of content.  Appendices contain 
copies of the parent and student questionnaires.  (Contains 21 
references.) (LMI)
  Descriptors: *Block Scheduling; *Curriculum Design; High Schools; 
Parent Attitudes; Retention (Psychology); *School Schedules; Student 
Attitudes; *Time Blocks; *Time Factors (Learning)
  Identifiers: *Knox County Schools TN

  ED400607  EA027997
  Block Schedule: Breaking the Barriers.
  West, Mike
  24 Oct 1996
  12p.; Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Association for 
Supervision and Curriculum Development (New Orleans, LA, March 16-19, 
  As of 1996, Chaparral High School in Las Vegas, Nevada, was in the 
fourth year of a radical restructuring effort.  The school changed 
from a 6-period day, composed of 51-minute periods, to an alternating 
day schedule, composed of 3 102-minute periods per day.  This report 
describes how the school developed and implemented the new schedule.  
Faculty and administrators followed the six-step change process 
recommended by Dr. Willard Daggett, of the Instructional Center for 
Leadership in Education.  The stages include: create an awareness; 
base outcomes on adult roles and skills needed to compete in the job 
market; identify the necessary skills, knowledge, and behaviors 
needed for success; identify the negotiables and nonnegotiables; 
develop a plan; and implement the reforms.  The school also added 
meaningful school-to-work courses, staff development, and multiple 
methods of assessment.  In a survey administered to students, staff, 
and parents after the first year of the new schedule, 56 percent of 
the students rated their experience in the new program as "going 
great," while almost 70 percent of faculty rated their level of 
support for the new program at 90 percent.  Other outcomes attributed 
to the new program include a calmer campus atmosphere, more positive 
teacher-student relationships, a slight increase in some standardized 
test scores, and a constant attendance rate.  Five figures are 
included.  (LMI)
  Descriptors: *Alternate Day Schedules; *Block Scheduling; Change 
Strategies; Curriculum Development; Double Sessions; High Schools; 
Instructional Improvement; Program Implementation; School Schedules; 
*Time Blocks
  Identifiers: Clark County School District NV

  ED399673  EA027968
  Block Scheduling in High Schools.
  Irmsher, Karen
  Oregon School Study Council, Eugene.
  OSSC Bulletin, v39 n6 Jul 1996  Jul 1996
  ISSN: 0095-6694
  Available From: Oregon School Study Council, 1787 Agate Street, 
College of Education 5207 University of Oregon, Eugene, OR 97403-5207 
($8, nonmembers; $5.50, members; quantity discounts).
  Document Type: SERIAL (022);  REVIEW LITERATURE (070)
  Block Scheduling has been considered a cure for a lengthy list of 
educational problems.  This report reviews the literature on block 
schedules and describes some Oregon high schools that have integrated 
block scheduling.  Major disadvantages included resistance to change 
and requirements that teachers change their teaching strategies.  
There is evidence, however, that block scheduling leads to a more 
relaxed school atmosphere, improved student attitudes, improved 
student-teacher relationships, decreased dropout rates, decreased 
absenteeism, a dramatic drop in disciplinary problems, and 
accelerated student progress.  Recommendations for successful change 
include: (1) promote stakeholder ownership; (2) obtain support from 
the school district and school board; (3) provide adequate time for 
planning, staff-development opportunities, and collaborative problem 
solving; (4) brainstorm creative alternatives; and (5) conduct 
regular evaluation.  Interviews were conducted with a total of 20 
principals, assistant principals, administrators, and educators.  
(Contains 32 references.) (LMI)
  Descriptors: Alternate Day Schedules; *Block Scheduling; Class 
Organization; *Flexible Scheduling; High Schools; *Resistance to 
Change; *School Organization; *School Schedules; Time Blocks
  Identifiers: *Oregon

  ED387887  EA027081
  The Effects of Block Scheduling on Seventh Grade Math Students.
  Schroth, Gwen; Dixon, Jean
  Sep 1995
  Document Type: RESEARCH REPORT (143)
  In an effort to spend time resources more wisely, many schools have 
turned to block scheduling, in which classes are taught in longer 
periods.  The school year is adjusted by dividing it into 30-; 45-; 
60-; or 90-day periods.  This paper presents findings of a study that 
investigated the effects of block scheduling on seventh-grade 
mathematics students in two Texas middle schools.  School 1 followed 
a traditional 50-minute class schedule and school 2, in its first 
year of block scheduling, higher achieving students used a 90-minute, 
alternative-days schedule.  Lower achieving students in school 2 
attended math class for 90 minutes every day.  Methodology included a 
comparison of the two schools' Texas Assessment of Academic Skills 
(TAAS) scores for 1994 and 1995.  A practice TAAS test was also 
administered to students during the first semester and again at the 
year's end.  Analysis of variance was used to determine the 
differences in mean scores.  The test scores of lower achieving 
students who attended math classes more frequently and for longer 
periods of time were not significantly higher than those of low-
achieving students in the traditional 50-minute, daily classes.  The 
study also suggests that uninterrupted class time did not guarantee 
greater gains in achievement over interrupted time for higher 
achieving students.  Finally, block-scheduling success cannot be 
adequately measured in 1 year.  Other factors of student academic 
achievement include teacher experience, tests and testing conditions, 
instructional styles, and school climate.  (Contains 15 references.) 
  Descriptors: *Academic Achievement; Analysis of Variance; 
Hypothesis Testing; Intermediate Grades; Junior High Schools; 
*Mathematics Achievement; *Mathematics Instruction; *School Schedules; 
Scores; Standardized Tests; *Time Factors (Learning)
  Identifiers: *Block Scheduling

  ED387879  EA027070
  Implementation of Block Scheduling in a Four-Year High School: A 
Literary Review and a Handbook for Administrators, Teachers and 
  Scroggins, Gary V.; Karr-Kidwell, PJ
  High schools today face problems of culturally diverse student 
populations, diversity of student learning styles, and a growing 
public perception that high schools do not adequately prepare their 
graduates for either work or college.  This paper offers an extensive 
review of literature on block scheduling as well as a handbook for 
gaining support for implementing block scheduling at a 4-year high 
school.  It provides tips for moving to a schedule of 90-minute block 
classes that provide the time needed for student-centered 
instruction, which is essential for meeting the needs of students in 
today's global society.  The handbook is comprised of six sections, 
the first of which contains an annotated bibliography of five items--
a journal article and four Educational Resources Information Center 
(ERIC) documents on block scheduling.  Sections 2 through 5 present 
strategies for building support among the teaching staff, students, 
parents and community members, and the school board.  A chronology of 
steps and a timeline for block scheduling are provided in the sixth 
section.  (Contains 47 references.) (LMI)
  Descriptors: Administrator Role; Cultural Differences; *Flexible 
Scheduling; High Schools; Organizational Change; Productivity; Public 
Relations; *School Restructuring; School Role; *School Schedules; 
*School Support; *Time Blocks
  Identifiers: *Block Scheduling

  ED385504  SP036125
  Intensive Education.
  Fallon, Karin
  Apr 1995
  67p.; Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American 
Educational Research Association (San Francisco, CA, April 18-22, 
  This paper is a literature review of intensive education, or "macro 
block-scheduling." Intensive education is a change in the structure 
of secondary school organization.  It involves organizing the 
school's schedule for efficiency and effectiveness so students study 
and teachers teach one subject for 30 days.  Students stay with one 
teacher 4 hours a day, and teachers teach just one 4-hour academic 
class daily.  Teachers and students work with one small group 
intensively for 30 days, or 120 hours, the equivalent of a Carnegie 
unit.  This review focuses on the following relationships to 
determine whether they are valid and accurate: (1) intensive 
education reduces class size, lengthens class periods, and reduces 
the number of subjects that students take and teachers teach daily; 
(2) these changes in conditions facilitate the development of changes 
in the following processes--interactions, teaching methods, 
involvement with the subject matter, and teacher professionalism; and 
(3) these processes, made possible by the conditions created, provide 
opportunities for increases in academic achievement, better 
relationships, better attendance, and increased satisfaction.  The 
literature appears to validate these relationships through the use of 
intensive education in private high schools, public summer school 
programs, block-scheduling in public high schools, and intensive 
education in colleges.  However, to date, the literature reveals no 
study of intensive education in a public high school during the 
regular school year.  (Contains 28 references.) (ND)
  Descriptors: Educational Environment; *Instructional Effectiveness; 
Literature Reviews; *School Organization; *School Schedules; 
Secondary Education; Teacher Effectiveness; *Time Blocks; *Time 
Factors (Learning)
  Identifiers: *Block Scheduling; *Intensive Scheduling

  ED384652  TM023874
  Evaluation of a High School Block Schedule Restructuring Program.
  Guskey, Thomas R.; Kifer, Edward
  Apr 1995
  21p.; Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American 
Educational Research Association (San Francisco, CA, April 18-22, 
  This paper describes an interim evaluation of the Block Schedule 
Restructuring Program at Governor Thomas Johnson High School in 
Frederick, Maryland.  The program began in the 1992-93 school year, 
when the school changed from seven 48-minute class periods per day to 
a block schedule format of four 90-minute class periods.  Classes are 
conducted on a semester basis, with each semester lasting 18 weeks 
(90 instructional days).  The evaluation is based on the first year 
and a half of program implementation.  Student performance on various 
achievement tests and final course grades have not varied much, but 
the scores of African American students on the Maryland Functional 
Tests and scores on Advanced Placement Tests have markedly improved.  
Student daily attendance and dropout have not changed, but there has 
been a dramatic reduction in student behavior problems.  Perceptions 
of both students and faculty members regarding the block schedule 
program are overwhelmingly positive, with nearly 70% of students and 
95% of faculty indicating they prefer the new 4-period day.  A few 
procedural problems need to be addressed and additional staff 
development is needed, but the program appears quite successful to 
date.  Nine tables present study findings.  (Author/SLD)
  Descriptors: Academic Achievement; Achievement Tests; Advanced 
Placement Programs; Attendance; Behavior Problems; Black Students; 
Dropouts; Evaluation Methods; *High Schools; Program Evaluation; 
School Restructuring; *School Schedules; Staff Development; *Student 
Attitudes; Teacher Attitudes; Test Results; *Time Factors (Learning)
  Identifiers: *Block Scheduling; *Governor Thomas Johnson High 
School MD

  EJ514695  EA531286
  Ten Guidelines for Implementing Block Scheduling.
  Hackman, Donald G.
  Educational Leadership, v53 n3 p24-27 Nov   1995
  ISSN: 0013-1784
  Document Type: EVALUATIVE REPORT (142);  JOURNAL ARTICLE (080)
  Collaborative school reform occurs when teachers, parents, 
students, and administrators creatively design and implement a block 
schedule.  Planners should use a systems approach, secure superiors' 
support, understand the change process, involve all stakeholders, 
consult outside resources, brainstorm alternatives, examine budgetary 
implications, plan faculty inservices, include an evaluation 
component, and celebrate successes.  (10 references) (MLH)
  Descriptors: Brainstorming; Community Involvement; Elementary 
Secondary Education; Guidelines; Parent Participation; *Program 
Development; Program Implementation; *School Schedules; Student 
Participation; *Systems Approach; *Teacher Participation; *Teamwork; 
*Time Blocks

  EJ513915  PS524115
  Improving School Climate: Alternating-Day Block Schedule.
  Hackmann, Donald G.
  Schools in the Middle, v5 n1 p28-33 Sep   1995
  ISSN: 0276-4482
(055);  JOURNAL ARTICLE (080)
  Examines the implementation of an alternating day schedule in 
middle school.  It is suggested that block scheduling provides an 
effective instructional alternative to the traditional six- or seven-
period format, creating a relaxed atmosphere while decreasing stress 
and improving attitudes of both students and teachers.  Blocks 
provide a gradual transition to a developmentally appropriate 
environment for middle-school students.  (AA)
  Descriptors: *Alternate Day Schedules; Classroom Environment; 
*Efficiency; Elementary Education; Middle Schools; Program 
Descriptions; Program Implementation; *Scheduling; *School Schedules; 
Teacher Student Relationship; *Time Blocks; Time Factors (Learning); 
Time Management; Work Environment
  Identifiers: *Alternate Day Programs; Middle School Students

  EJ512729  SO526816
  A Closer Look at Block Scheduling. Scheduling.
  Hoffman, Elizabeth, Comp.
  Teaching Music, v2 n5 p42-43 Apr   1995
  Journal availability: Music Educators Natl. Conference, 1806 Robert 
Fulton Dr., Reston, VA 22091-4348.
  ISSN: 1069-7446
  Document Type: PROJECT DESCRIPTION (141);  POSITION PAPER (120);  
  Target Audience: Teachers; Administrators; Practitioners
  Maintains that many schools have changed to a form of block 
scheduling.  Describes and discusses the impact of several models of 
block scheduling.  Asserts that, when music educators understand the 
consequences of various scheduling options, they can be more credible 
participants in discussions of how best to schedule school time.  
  Descriptors: *Educational Environment; Educational Strategies; 
*Music Education; *Music Teachers; *Scheduling; School Organization; 
Secondary Education; Student Attitudes; Teaching Methods; *Time 
Blocks; *Time Factors (Learning)

  EJ505014  EA530707
  Dover Renew 2000: Implementation of a Block Schedule.
  Furman, Jan; McKenna, J. Bruce
  ERS Spectrum, v13 n2 p29-36 Spr   1995
  ISSN: 0740-7874
  Describes an upstate New York high school's success at 
restructuring its schedule according to a modified Copernican Plan.  
The Dover Renew 2000 block schedule divides the school year into 
trimesters; each term has two 120-minute periods and a shorter 
interest block.  This approach "dejuvenilizes" the high school and 
allows more focused, uninterrupted learning time.  (MLH)
  Descriptors: High Schools; Pilot Projects; *Program Implementation; 
*School Schedules; *Student Responsibility; Success; *Time Blocks; 
*Time Management
  Identifiers: Carnegie Unit; *Copernican Plan; *Dover Union Free 
School District NY

  EJ504995  EA530680
  What Can We Expect to See in the Next Generation of Block 
  Shortt, Thomas L.; Thayer, Yvonne
  NASSP Bulletin, v79 n571 p53-62 May   1995
  ISSN: 0192-6365
  Document Type: EVALUATIVE REPORT (142);  JOURNAL ARTICLE (080)
  Before attempting block scheduling reforms, some issues must be 
addressed, including information retention, transfer students, 
advanced placement offerings, electives, coordination of teacher and 
student schedules, and cost effectiveness.  There are problems 
surrounding academic pacing, staff development needs, and time's 
interaction with other factors such as climate, empowerment, and 
governance.  (MLH)
  Descriptors: Advanced Placement; *Cost Effectiveness; *Educational 
Change; Educational Environment; Governance; *Models; *School 
Schedules; Secondary Education; Staff Development; *Time Blocks; 
*Time Management
  Identifiers: Academic Pacing; Empowerment

  EJ504991  EA530676
  Block Scheduling: A Means to Improve School Climate.
  Buckman, Daniel C.; And Others
  NASSP Bulletin, v79 n571 p9-18 May   1995
  ISSN: 0192-6365
  Describes how two Orlando, Florida, high schools enhanced student 
success by implementing community-generated restructuring plans.  
Block scheduling helped improve attendance and grade point averages.  
Also, a survey of teachers and students disclosed school climate 
gains in the areas of safety, success, involvement, commitment, 
interpersonal competence, and satisfaction.  (MLH)
  Descriptors: *Educational Environment; High Schools; *Program 
Implementation; *School Restructuring; *Strategic Planning; Student 
Reaction; Teacher Response; *Time Blocks
  Identifiers: *Orange County Public Schools FL

  ED393177  EA027430
  Block Scheduling in the Secondary Arena: Perceptions from the 
  Davis-Wiley, Patricia; And Others
  Nov 1995
  18p.; Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Mid-South 
Educational Research Association (Biloxi, MS, November 8-10, 1995).
  Document Type: CONFERENCE PAPER (150);  RESEARCH REPORT (143);  
  Several studies have found that an inordinate amount of potential 
instructional time is lost in the American secondary school classroom.  
This paper briefly overviews the history and types of block 
scheduling in secondary schools and presents findings of a study that 
examined the perceptions of administrators and teachers in two large 
eastern Tennessee high schools that implemented block scheduling.  
The schools changed from a traditional six-period school day to a 
four-block school day, in which students took four 90-minute classes 
daily for 90 days.  Data were gathered by a survey of 238 teachers 
and 10 administrators, which yielded response rates of 86 and 60 
percent, respectively.  Interviews were also conducted with six 
teachers and four administrators.  Most of the teachers and all of 
the administrators agreed that the staff was adequately prepared for 
the transition; the staff required more preparation time; and the 
staff used a wider variety of instructional delivery approaches.  
Administrators and teachers did not want to abandon the four-by-four 
block schedule and return to the traditional schedule.  Two tables 
and a copy of the questionnaire are included.  (Contains 13 
references.) (LMI)
  Descriptors: Extended School Day; *Flexible Scheduling; High 
Schools; Scheduling; *School Organization; *School Schedules; *Time 
  Identifiers: *Tennessee

  ED387930  EA027130
  Block Scheduling: A Catalyst for Change in High Schools.
  Canady, Robert Lynn; Rettig, Michael D.
  ISBN: 1-883001-14-5
  Available From: Eye on Education, P.O. Box 3113, Princeton, NJ 
  Document Type: BOOK (010);  NON-CLASSROOM MATERIAL (055)
  This book presents detailed descriptions of alternative types of 
block schedules and discusses their effects on teachers and students.  
The book shows administrators how to organize their schools so that 
time enhances instruction and fosters learning.  Chapter 1 discusses 
problems with the traditional high school schedule and chapter 2 
provides information on alternate-day block schedules.  Chapter 3 
offers suggestions for implementing the 4/4 semester plan.  More 
intensive schedules, such as the quarter-on/quarter-off plan, the 
trimester model, and the Copernican Plan, are described in chapter 4. 
The fifth chapter describes varieties of instructional terms within 
the 180-day school year.  Models for blending scheduling models are 
provided in the sixth chapter.  Chapter 7 explains schedules that 
extend teacher planning and professional-development opportunities.  
Instructional strategies and tips for designing a staff-development 
plan are discussed in chapter 8. Appendices contain an evaluation 
matrix, a planning checklist for alternative scheduling for high 
schools, and a list of achievement indicators for high-school 
restructuring efforts.  (Contains 172 references.) (LMI)
  Descriptors: Alternate Day Schedules; Class Organization; 
Educational Innovation; *Flexible Scheduling; *High Schools; 
Instructional Design; Nontraditional Education; Quarter System; 
School Organization; *School Schedules; Semester System; *Time Blocks; 
Time Factors (Learning); Trimester System
  ED406734  EA028299
  Block Scheduling in North Carolina High Schools.
  North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of 
Innovation and Development Services.  Dec 1994
  Document Type: EVALUATIVE REPORT (142)
  Since 1989, North Carolina has implemented several statewide 
initiatives to establish high expectations for all students.  State 
educators have also paid increasing attention to the flexible use of 
time as a resource for expanding student learning.  Block scheduling 
is a reorganization of school time that is increasingly being adopted 
by North Carolina public high schools.  This report examines the 
extent of block scheduling in North Carolina high schools, advantages 
and disadvantages perceived by early implementers and students, 
instructional practices used in block-scheduled high schools, and 
policy issues.  Data were derived from surveys, school site 
interviews with administrators, focus-group interviews with teachers 
and students at two high schools, and limited end-of-course test 
scores.  Findings show that implementation of block scheduling is 
rapidly growing in North Carolina; teachers get more planning time; 
direct teacher contact hours are reduced by 30 hours; students report 
less homework; staff development and planning are vital to successful 
implementation; and there is little effect on end-of-term test 
performance.  Most teachers and administrators identify the following 
strong points: students can take more courses and electives and have 
fewer classes to prepare for at one time, and teachers have more 
planning time, can use class time more effectively, and have fewer 
preparations.  The weakest points, in the opinion of teachers and 
administrators, appear to lie in the accommodation of transfer 
students and the difficulty of students' recovering from absences.  
Four figures and six tables are included.  Appendices contain a list 
of participating schools and their schedules, surveys, and an article 
on the pros and cons of block scheduling.  (Contains eight 
references.) (LMI)
  Descriptors: Academic Achievement; *Block Scheduling; Flexible 
Scheduling; *High Schools; Program Implementation; *School Schedules; 
*Statewide Planning; *Time Blocks; *Time Factors (Learning)
  Identifiers: *North Carolina

  EJ457305  EA527599
  Parallel Block Scheduling: An Alternative Structure.
  Canady, Robert Lynn; Reina, Joanne M.
  Principal, v72 n3 p26-29 Jan   1993
  ISSN: 0271-6062
  Document Type: JOURNAL ARTICLE (080);  EVALUATIVE REPORT (142)
  A major organizational change is necessary to promote more 
equitable and effective instructional grouping schemes in schools.  A 
palatable restructuring alternative that combines effective grouping 
with the flexibility to meet each school's needs is parallel block 
scheduling.  This system capitalizes on teachers' strengths, promotes 
greater mixing of students, and provides uninterrupted direct 
instruction in critical subject areas.  (six references) (MLH)
  Descriptors: *Ability Grouping; Elementary Education; *School 
Restructuring; *School Schedules; *Time Blocks
  Identifiers: *Greene County Schools VA; Instructional Grouping

  ED414626  EA028799
  4-Block Scheduling: A Case Study of Data Analysis of One High 
School After Two Years.
  Snyder, Dave
  14p.; Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Midwest 
Educational Research Association (Chicago, IL, October 15-18, 1997).
  Document Type: RESEARCH REPORT (143);  CONFERENCE PAPER (150)
  This paper describes the 2-year outcomes of one high school's 
implementation of an intensive 4-block schedule.  The study at Angola 
High School (Indiana) compared schoolwide grade-point averages 
(GPAs), standardized test scores, attendance data, and disciplinary 
records to school-baseline data from the 2 years prior to 
implementation of the block schedule.  A questionnaire was 
administered to teachers and students before implementation of the 
new schedule, 3 months into the schedule, at the end of the first 
year, and at the end of the second year.  Findings indicate 
significant improvement in schoolwide GPAs for all except two 
departments and improvement in semester exam grades.  There was an 
almost 8 percent increase in the percentage of students on the honor 
roll; an increase in American College Testing Assessment scores, the 
Indiana State Proficiency Exams, and Scholastic Aptitude Tests; and 
improved attendance.  Advanced Placement scores dropped slightly.  
Students, faculty, and parents expressed a high level of satisfaction 
with the new schedule.  The data also suggest that extensive planning 
for the schedule and aggressive staff training were instrumental in 
achieving the improvements.  (Contains 10 references and 20 figures.) 
  Descriptors: *Academic Achievement; Attendance; *Block Scheduling; 
Discipline; Educational Quality; High Schools; Outcomes of Education; 
*Performance; *School Schedules; Scores; Student Attitudes; Teacher 
Attitudes; *Time Blocks

  EJ402383  EA524120
  Tracking the Middle Grades: National Patterns of Grouping for 
  Braddock, Jomills Henry, II
  Phi Delta Kappan, v71 n6 p445-49 Feb   1990
  Document Type: JOURNAL ARTICLE (080);  EVALUATIVE REPORT (142)
  To shed light on appropriate grouping practices for early 
adolescents, this article presents current data on using between-
class grouping and regrouping in American schools serving this 
population, based on the 1988 Johns Hopkins University middle school 
survey.  Findings show that learning opportunities in the middle 
grades remain highly stratified.  Includes 13 references.  (MLH)
  Descriptors: *Ability Grouping; *Educational Environment; 
*Educational Trends; *Grouping (Instructional Purposes); 
*Instructional Program Divisions; Junior High Schools; Scheduling; 
*School Organization
  Identifiers: *Block Scheduling

  EJ402340  EA524072
  Parallel Block Scheduling: A Better Way to Organize a School.
  Canady, Robert Lynn
  Principal, v69 n3 p34-36 Jan   1990
  Genuine school reform demands the redistribution of staff, space, 
and time within individual schools.  Parallel block scheduling lets 
each teacher work with smaller groups of students daily.  Sample 
scheduling and reading placements are provided.  Includes 10 
references.  (MLH)
  Descriptors: Elementary Education; Reading Instruction; *Scheduling; 
*School Organization; *School Schedules; *Small Group Instruction; 
*Teacher Distribution
  Identifiers: *Block Scheduling

  ED311003  SP030936
  BLOCK Successful Alternative Format Addressing Learner Needs.
  Munroe, Mary Jeanne
  Feb 1989
  8p.; Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Association of 
Teacher Educators (St. Louis, MO, February 18-22, 1989).
  A description is given of the development and implementation of the 
BLOCK Schedule Program, which provides an alternative format to the 
traditional high school schedule and has a time frame similar to that 
of a summer school schedule.  The target population was high risk 
students at the sophomore and junior levels.  Students attend BLOCK 
classes for 3 hours a day and complete a semester course in four and 
one-half weeks.  They earn a semester credit with that course and 
move on to another block subject for the next four and one-half week 
unit.  The courses taught in the first semester included blocks in 
English, algebra, biology, and physical-health education.  This 
report describes specific program features and the results from the 
first year of operation.  (JD)
  Descriptors: *Flexible Scheduling; Grade 10; Grade 11; *High Risk 
Students; High Schools; *Program Development; *Program Evaluation; 
*Student Needs; *Time Blocks
  Identifiers: Block Schedule Program

  ED303891  EA020713
  The Washington Core Model of Middle School Organization.
  Burke, Alan M.
  Nov 1988
  26p.; Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the National Middle 
School Association (Denver, CO, November 9-12, 1988).
  This paper outlines, explains, and illustrates the core block model 
of scheduling, which allows students to spend more time with fewer 
teachers and encourages greater teacher interaction and ownership in 
the lives of their students.  The core model has been used 
effectively with advisory programs, drop schedules, and exploratory 
blocks.  It serves as an alternative to interdisciplinary teaming, 
and provides a workable method for small schools to adopt many 
researched-based middle level practices.  Appended are 17 references 
and an 11-item annotated bibliography on middle school effectiveness.  
  Descriptors: *Instructional Development; *Instructional 
Effectiveness; *Instructional Improvement; *Instructional Innovation; 
Junior High Schools; Middle Schools; *School Schedules; *Time Blocks
  Identifiers: *Block Scheduling

  ED291704  SP029925
  Balancing High Quality Subject-Matter Instruction with Positive
Teacher-Student Relations in the Middle Grades: Effects of 
Departmentalization, Tracking and Block Scheduling on Learning 
Environments. Report No. 15.
  McPartland, James M.
  Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, Md.  Jun 1987
  Sponsoring Agency: Office of Educational Research and Improvement 
(ED), Washington, DC.
  Document Type: RESEARCH REPORT (143)
  This study tests the general hypothesis that there is no single 
best way to organize a middle school to meet the variety of needs of 
early adolescent students.  Using data from a sample of 433 schools 
in the Pennsylvania Educational Quality Assessment, it examines the 
effects of self-contained classroom instruction and 
departmentalization on two generally agreed-upon educational goals--
positive student-teacher relations and high quality subject-matter 
instruction.  The study finds self-contained classroom instruction 
benefits student-teacher relations at a cost to high quality subject-
matter instruction, while departmentalization improves the quality of 
instruction in specialized subject matter at a cost to student-
teacher relations.  The same types of effects are proposed by analogy 
for scheduling and grouping practices.  (Author)
  Descriptors: Ability Grouping; *Class Organization; Class Size; 
*Departments; Instructional Improvement; *Middle Schools; Secondary 
Education; *Self Contained Classrooms; Student Placement; *Teacher 
Student Relationship; *Time Blocks; Track System (Education)

  ED244711  JC840319
  Summary of an Investigation into the Relative Effects on Student 
Performance on a "Block" vs. a "Non-Block" Scheduled Developmental 
Semester: Pretest-Posttest Control Group Design.
  Baylis, Clifford A., Jr.
  Allegheny County Community Coll., Monroeville, Pa. Boyce Campus.
  15 Feb 1983
  In fall 1980, a block scheduled developmental semester was offered 
for the first time at the Boyce Campus of the Community College of 
Allegheny County.  The program was composed of three integrated 
courses: "Man, Time, and Social Change," a social science elective; 
"Basic Writing Techniques," a developmental English course; and 
"College Reading and Study Skills," a social science elective.  All 
students in the block were registered for specifically designated 
sections of each of the three courses.  A study was conducted to 
compare the academic performance of an experimental group of block-
scheduled students and a control group of non-block students.  The 
study utilized pre- and post-test measures of students' attitudes, 
anxieties, and specific learning behaviors.  Study findings, based on 
comparisons of block and non-block students on the pre- and post-
tests and other measures of academic achievement, included the 
following: (1) there were no statistically significant differences 
between the groups on the pre-test results; (2) post-test scores 
showed statistically significant advantages in attitudes, learning 
behaviors, and learning anxiety for the block group over the non-
block group; (3) other indicators favoring the block students over 
the non-block students included dropout rates (20% vs.  32.5%), 
absentee rates (4.2% vs.  13.5%), and grade point averages (2.31 vs.  
1.31).  (HB)
  Descriptors: *Academic Achievement; Community Colleges; 
*Developmental Studies Programs; Grade Point Average; *School 
Schedules; Two Year Colleges; *Two Year College Students
  Identifiers: *Block Scheduling

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