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QUESTION/PROBLEM: Homework - Policies, Practices, and Guides for Helping Parents and Teachers to Help Students

last updated January 24, 1998

Example queries:

What documentation is available to guide the formation of our school homework policy, including those that address special needs students?

Does research indicate ideal amounts of homework to assign to students?

What correlations exist between students' homework practices and their overall academic achievement?

What can teachers and administrators do to promote familial involvement in students' homework completion?

How can parents help children to complete their homework and to establish good study habits?

Table of Contents

[Table of Contents]


Helping Your Child with Homework
This is a full-text, online guide of the U.S.Department of Education, Office of Educational Research and Improvement (September 1995), that is geared towards parents' involvement in the promotion of their childrens' good homework habits. Offers a Checklist for Helping Your Child With Homework.

How Important Is Homework?
This is one of a set of full-text, online ERIC Parent Brochures.

Homework Heaven
This self-described "...online academic research directory", which is sponsored by the shareware/freeware company JUMBO!, Inc, and was field-tested by a team of students, organizes 1700 school subjects into hierarchical categories by its Meta Indexes and its subject-specific search engines. This is the most complete and current Internet-accessible homework helper that we could find.

Study and Test-Taking Skills [ERIC/AE FAQ]
This frequently asked question of our clearinghouse provides materials on the closely-related topic of the improvement of students' study and note-taking skills.

[Table of Contents]


ERIC Documents Citations for Homework Policy and Practices

  EJ540787  EA532925
  The Truth about Homework.
  Black, Susan
  American School Board Journal, v183 n10 p48-51 Oct 
  ISSN: 0003-0953
  Document Type: REVIEW LITERATURE (070);  JOURNAL ARTICLE (080)
  Researcher Harris Cooper examined studies on homework and student 
achievement and found that homework substantially raises high school 
students' achievement; in junior high, homework raises students' 
achievement only about half as much; and in elementary grades, 
homework has no discernible effect on students' achievement.  (MLF)
  Descriptors: *Academic Achievement; Board of Education Policy; 
Elementary Secondary Education; *Homework; *Learning Activities; 
*School Effectiveness
  ED401045  PS024809
  A Checklist for Helping your Child with Homework.
  2p.; A poster based on information in "Helping Your Child with 
Homework" booklet, see ED 388 436.
  Available From: National Library of Education, 555 New Jersey 
Avenue, N.W., Washington, DC 20208; phone: 1-800-424-1616 (single 
copies free).
  Document Type: NON-CLASSROOM MATERIAL (055)
  This poster provides a parent checklist for helping children with 
homework.  There are three components to the checklist: (1) "Make 
Sure Your Child Has" includes items regarding basic necessities such 
as a regular time each day for homework and organization aids; (2) 
"Questions to Ask Your Child" contains nine questions, including 
whether the assignment is clear, requires special resources or 
supplies, or needs a schedule for successful completion; (3) "Other 
Ways to Help" lists general hints for parents, such as meeting with 
teachers early in the year to find out about homework policy, 
contacting the teacher if there is a problem, and reviewing teacher 
comments on homework and discussing them with the child.  (KDFB)
  Descriptors: Assignments; Check Lists; Children; Elementary 
Education; *Homework; *Parent Materials; *Parent Participation; 
Parents as Teachers; Parent School Relationship; *Parent Teacher 
  Identifiers: Posters

  EJ510037  EC612032
  Increasing the Homework Completion Rates of Students with Mild 
  Salend, Spencer J.; Gajria, Meenakshi
  Remedial and Special Education, v16 n5 p271-78 Sep 
  ISSN: 0741-9325
  Target Audience: Practitioners
  This article offers guidelines for increasing the homework 
completion rates of students with mild disabilities: (1) vary the 
amount and type of homework assignments; (2) provide motivating acts 
so that students complete their homework; (3) use peer-mediated 
strategies; and (4) involve parents in the homework process.  
  Descriptors: *Classroom Techniques; Elementary Secondary Education; 
*Homework; Intervention; *Mild Disabilities; Parent School 
Relationship; Peer Relationship; Student Motivation; *Student 
Participation; Study Skills

  EJ505129  EC611420
  Homework: A Survey of Primary Students in Regular, Resource, and 
Self-Contained Special Education Classrooms.
  Bryan, Tanis; And Others
  Learning Disabilities Research and Practice, v10 n2 p85-90 Spr 
  ISSN: 0938-8982
  Document Type: JOURNAL ARTICLE (080);  RESEARCH REPORT (143)
  This survey examined experiences and beliefs regarding homework of 
primary-grade children (n=809), of whom 91 were in resource room 
programs and 17 in special education classrooms.  Overall, results 
indicated that children in the resource rooms were experiencing the 
greatest amount of difficulty in doing homework and had acquired the 
most negative views about homework.  (DB)
  Descriptors: Beliefs; *Disabilities; *Homework; *Mainstreaming; 
Primary Education; *Resource Room Programs; *Special Classes; 
*Student Attitudes; Student Motivation; Student Surveys

  EJ502901  EA530575
  Another Look at Homework.
  Palardy, J. Michael
  Principal, v74 n5 p32-33 May   1995
  ISSN: 0271-6062
  Document Type: EVALUATIVE REPORT (142);  JOURNAL ARTICLE (080)
  Teachers assign homework because it teaches students self-
discipline, is believed to increase academic achievement, fulfills 
people's expectations, and expands the curriculum.  Problems with 
homework include completion difficulties, uncoordinated assignments, 
interference with important out-of-school activities, fostering of 
undesirable student behaviors and attitudes, uniform assignments for 
all students, and lack of teacher feedback.  (MLH)
  Descriptors: *Academic Achievement; *Educational Change; 
*Educational Objectives; Elementary Education; *Homework; *School 

  ED388436  PS023755
  Helping Your Child with Homework: For Parents of Elementary and 
Junior High School-Aged Children.
  Paulu, Nancy; Perkinson, Kathryn, Ed.
  Sep 1995
  Document Type: NON-CLASSROOM MATERIAL (055)
  Target Audience: Parents
  This booklet is designed to provide parents of elementary and 
junior high school students with an understanding the purpose and 
nature of homework and suggestions for helping their children 
complete homework assignments successfully.  After a discussion of 
why teachers assign homework, how homework can help children learn, 
and the optimum amount of homework for students at different grade 
levels, the booklet provides specific suggestions for parents to help 
their children complete homework assignments, including setting a 
regular time for homework, picking a quiet place, removing 
distractions, providing appropriate supplies and resources, setting a 
good example, and showing interest in their homework.  It also 
discusses ways for parents to monitor their children's homework 
assignments, provide guidance to their children on assignments, and 
talk with teachers or administrators about homework problems.  A 
checklist on helping children with homework is included.  (MDM)
  Descriptors: Age Differences; Check Lists; Elementary School 
Students; Elementary Secondary Education; *Homework; Junior High 
School Students; *Parent Role; Parents as Teachers; Parent School 
Relationship; *Parent Student Relationship; Parent Teacher 

  EJ491148  EC609678
  Homework Practices of General Education Teachers.
  Polloway, Edward A.; And Others
  Journal of Learning Disabilities, v27 n8 p500-09 Oct 
  ISSN: 0022-2194
  Document Type: JOURNAL ARTICLE (080);  RESEARCH REPORT (143)
  Target Audience: Researchers
  A national sample of 441 elementary, middle, and senior high 
teachers was asked about their homework practices, including their 
use of adaptations for students with disabilities.  Tables present 
results for frequency and amount of homework, helpfulness of specific 
types of homework, in-class structures, adaptations, parent 
communication strategies, and consequences for home completion and 
noncompletion.  (Author/DB)
  Descriptors: Assignments; *Disabilities; Educational Practices; 
Elementary School Teachers; Elementary Secondary Education; *Homework; 
Middle Schools; National Surveys; Parent School Relationship; 
Secondary School Teachers; *Teacher Attitudes

  EJ491147  EC609677
  Doing Homework: Perspectives of Elementary and Junior High School 
  Bryan, Tanis; Nelson, Carol
  Journal of Learning Disabilities, v27 n8 p488-99 Oct 
  ISSN: 0022-2194
  Document Type: JOURNAL ARTICLE (080);  RESEARCH REPORT (143)
  Analysis of survey responses of elementary and junior high students 
(n=1,527) in regular, resource, and self-contained special education 
classrooms found significant main effects for group, grade, and group 
by grade interactions for amount, type, and time spent doing 
homework; opportunity to do homework at school; parents' assistance; 
and students' attitudes about homework, grading, and school.  
  Descriptors: *Disabilities; *Homework; Intermediate Grades; Junior 
High Schools; Parent Role; *Resource Room Programs; *Special Classes; 
Statistical Analysis; *Student Attitudes; Surveys

  EJ491146  EC609676
  Homework: A Survey of Policies in the United States.
  Roderique, Tess W.; And Others
  Journal of Learning Disabilities, v27 n8 p481-87 Oct 
  ISSN: 0022-2194
  Document Type: JOURNAL ARTICLE (080);  RESEARCH REPORT (143)
  Target Audience: Policymakers
  Respondents (n=297) to a national survey of school districts 
concerning homework policies found that 35.2% of school districts 
surveyed had a policy on homework, with 64.4% of those policies 
including modifications for students with disabilities.  Findings on 
frequency and amount of homework assigned, as well as home-school 
communication mechanisms, are highlighted.  (Author/DB)
  Descriptors: *Disabilities; Elementary Secondary Education; 
*Homework; National Surveys; Parent School Relationship; School 
Districts; *School Policy

  EJ491145  EC609675
  Homework for Students with Learning Disabilities: The Implications 
of Research for Policy and Practice.
  Cooper, Harris; Nye, Barbara
  Journal of Learning Disabilities, v27 n8 p470-79 Oct 
  ISSN: 0022-2194
  Document Type: JOURNAL ARTICLE (080);  REVIEW LITERATURE (070);  
  A review of the literature on effects of homework for students with 
and without disabilities offers a homework process model, and 
suggests that homework policies and practices for students with 
learning disabilities should emphasize: simple, short assignments; 
careful monitoring by and prominent rewards from teachers; and 
parental involvement to provide structure, conducive environments, 
and immediate rewards.  (Author/DB)
  Descriptors: Assignments; Elementary Secondary Education; *Homework; 
*Learning Disabilities; Models; *Parent Participation; Parent School 
Relationship; Parent Student Relationship; *Teacher Role; Teaching 

  EJ481352  EA529304
  Homework Preferences: Teachers and Parents State Their Opinions.
  Rose, Alvin C.
  NASSP Bulletin, v78 n561 p65-75 Apr   1994
  ISSN: 0192-6365
  Concerned about discrepancies in amount and kind of homework 
assigned, a Tennessee school district developed some guidelines 
governing number of homework nights, assignment length, and grading 
practices.  Because it is virtually impossible to require every 
teacher to carry out identical homework practices, school policies 
should remain general and stress consistency, rather than uniformity.  
  Descriptors: *Committees; *Homework; *Parent Attitudes; *School 
Policy; Secondary Education; *Teacher Attitudes
  Identifiers: Fairness; *Tennessee (Cheatham County)

  ED376573  EA026269
  The Battle over Homework. An Administrator's Guide to Setting Sound 
and Effective Policies. The Practicing Administrator's Leadership 
  Cooper, Harris
  ISBN: 0-8039-6163-4
  Available From: Corwin Press, Inc., 2455 Teller Road, Thousand 
Oaks, CA 91320-2218 ($15).
  Document Type: BOOK (010);  NON-CLASSROOM MATERIAL (055)
  Target Audience: Administrators; Practitioners
  For many years, homework has been a topic of heated public 
discussion and concern of students, parents, teachers, and 
administrators.  Perhaps the most crucial question regards its 
efficacy for improving academic achievement.  This book combines the 
results of research studies and exemplary practices to provide 
guidance about homework to administrators.  It discusses the effects 
of homework, explores variations in the homework process, and shows 
how to develop and implement policy guidelines.  Homework issues at 
both the elementary and secondary levels are addressed.  The first 
chapter contains: (1) a general definition of homework; (2) attitudes 
toward homework; (3) the effects of homework; and (4) factors 
affecting the utility of homework.  Chapter 2 summarizes research on 
whether homework is generally effective, as well as whether it is 
more effective for some grade levels, subjects, and types of students 
than for others.  The third chapter reviews research that examined 
the amount of homework and time spent on homework necessary for 
optimal achievement at different grade levels.  Studies of variations 
in homework assignments that have differential effects on achievement 
are discussed in chapter 4. The final chapter reviews some of the 
policy recommendations offered by government and private education 
agencies, which are integrated with information from the previous 
chapters into a set of homework policy guidelines.  Three tables, 
three figures, two exhibits, and an annotated bibliography are 
included.  Contains 26 references.  (LMI)
  Descriptors: *Academic Achievement; *Assignments; Elementary 
Secondary Education; Home Study; *Homework; School Policy

  ED348754  EA024222
  Homework: How Effective? How Much To Assign? The Need for Clear 
  Thomas, Anne Hill
  OSSC Bulletin, v36 n1 Sep 1992  Sep 1992
  ISSN: 0095-6694
  Available From: Publication Sales, Oregon School Study Council, 
University of Oregon, 1787 Agate Street, Eugene, OR 97403 ($6 
prepaid; $4.50 members; $2.50 postage and handling on billed orders).
  Document Type: NON-CLASSROOM MATERIAL (055);  SERIAL (022)
  The relevance of homework in today's schools is explored in this 
bulletin.  Following the introduction, chapter 1 examines the effect 
of homework on academic achievement and concludes that there is a 
lack of agreement on the benefits of homework and on the amount of 
time students should spend on it.  Chapter 2 describes homework 
practices in some Oregon schools.  In a survey of eight elementary, 
middle, and high school teachers in several districts, all expressed 
the belief that homework assignments help student achievement.  
Innovations in homework assistance implemented by two districts--
Duvall County Public Schools in Jacksonville, Florida, and in 
Mineola, New York--are described in the third chapter.  Chapter 4 
offers recommendations for establishing an effective policy and for 
defining the roles of the school board, administrators, teachers, 
parents, and students.  A conclusion is that although controversy 
continues about the impact of homework on academic achievement, the 
belief in its effectiveness will remain a trend in educational 
thinking.  A successful policy requires coordination, community 
awareness, and commitment.  Sample homework policies and guidelines 
are contained in the appendix.  (Contains 23 references.) (LMI)
  Descriptors: *Academic Achievement; *Assignments; Elementary 
Secondary Education; *Home Study; *Homework; *Policy Formation; 
*State Standards; Time on Task
  Identifiers: *Oregon

  ED352811  FL020787
  Homework in Teaching and Learning.
  Papandreou, Andreas
  17p.; Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the International 
Association of Teachers of English as a Foreign Language (Nicosea, 
Cyprus, 1991).
  Document Type: EVALUATIVE REPORT (142);  TEACHING GUIDE (052);  
  Target Audience: Teachers; Practitioners
  Ideas and guidelines for the organization of effective homework 
assignments, based on the principle that homework should offer 
opportunities for learning outside the classroom, are offered.  The 
examples given are for English second language instruction as 
practiced in public secondary schools in Cyprus, but the principles 
outlined could be applied to other situations.  Suggestions are 
offered in the following areas: policy regarding assignments; 
presentation of assignments; evaluation of performance; and treatment 
of specific language skills.  Recommendations include clear and early 
announcement of teacher expectations and requirements of students; 
thorough, unambiguous communication of specific assignments; student 
participation in communication of the assignment in the class; daily 
evaluation; and complete recordkeeping.  Materials, resources, and 
procedures geared to development of writing, reading, listening, 
speaking skill and vocabulary and grammar are also specified.  (MSE)
  Descriptors: *Administrative Policy; *Assignments; Classroom 
Techniques; *Educational Policy; *English (Second Language); Foreign 
Countries; Grading; Grammar; *Homework; Instructional Effectiveness; 
Language Skills; Listening Skills; Parent Role; Reading Instruction; 
Recordkeeping; Secondary Education; Second Language Instruction; 
Speech Skills; Standards; *Student Evaluation; Testing; Time Factors 
(Learning); Vocabulary Development; Writing Instruction
  Identifiers: *Cyprus

  ED349345  UD028650
  The Power Hour of Homework Survey.
  Document Type: NON-CLASSROOM MATERIAL (055)
  Target Audience: Students; Parents; Practitioners
  This booklet describes the Power Hour of Homework program for 
elementary school through secondary school students, including tips 
on implementing the program at home (i.e., checking homework, talking 
to the teacher, determining the correct amount of homework time for 
individual students) and survey responses to questions from parents 
and students.  The Power Hour is approximately 1 hour set aside at a 
definite time each day during which a student is encouraged to work 
in a quiet place with parents motivating students but not giving too 
much help.  The booklet offers a self-test with questions for 
students and parents.  Large percentages of parents say they are 
informed about and review their children's homework regularly.  Most 
parents set aside a specific time for homework review, think that 
their children's homework load is fair, and feel schools can improve.  
Parents usually understand their children's homework assignments.  
Parents have many suggestions about improving homework habits, and 
students have many suggestions about making homework more interesting.  
Each day, most younger students spend 0-2 hours on homework, and most 
older students spend 1-3 hours on homework.  Most students do 
homework at home.  Most younger students get homework help from 
parents.  Most older students get homework help from parents or 
friends.  Most students think homework assignments are challenging 
and worthwhile.  Teachers encourage parents and students to practice 
the booklet's tips for making the school experience more rewarding.  
  Descriptors: Black Students; *Elementary School Students; 
Elementary Secondary Education; Guidelines; Hispanic Americans; 
*Homework; Parent Attitudes; *Parent Participation; Parent Role; 
Program Implementation; *Secondary School Students; Statistical Data; 
*Student Attitudes

  ED361089  PS021626
  Learning Out of School: Homework, Policy and Practice. A Research 
Study Commissioned by the Scottish Education Department.
  MacBeath, John; Turner, Mary
  Nov 1990
  ISBN: 1-85098-414-X
  Available From: Sales and Publications, Jordanhill College, 76 
Southbrae Drive, Glasgow G13 1PP, Scotland, United Kingdom (4 British 
  Document Type: RESEARCH REPORT (143)
  This report presents results from a study that examined homework 
issues and practices by surveying teachers, students, and parents in 
13 schools in different parts of Scotland.  The first of the report's 
10 chapters outlines background information and the research strategy 
used in this study.  In chapter 2, findings of previous research on 
homework are summarized.  Chapter 3 describes the purposes of 
homework from the perspectives of teachers, students, and parents.  
The findings of the study are presented in chapters 4 through 10, and 
address the following questions: Is homework worthwhile? What is the 
nature of homework? How long do pupils spend on homework? What is the 
environment of homework? What is the role of parents in monitoring 
and support? and What principles lead to better homework practice? An 
appendix provides policy principles, based on the study's findings, 
on the following: (1) school policy; (2) homework tasks; (3) 
teacher's management of homework; (4) communication with parents; (5) 
parent workshops; (6) the school board; (7) strategies for 
independent learning; (8) sanctions; (9) teacher training and staff 
development; and (10) regional policy.  (MM)
  Descriptors: Educational Objectives; *Educational Policy; 
Elementary Secondary Education; *Family Environment; Foreign 
Countries; *Homework; *Parent Attitudes; Parent Role; Parent School 
Relationship; *Student Attitudes; Surveys; *Teacher Attitudes
  Identifiers: *Scotland

  ED320675  PS018860
  Achievement Effects of Homework in Sixth Grade Classrooms.
  Easton, John Q.; Bennett, Albert
  Jul 1990
  11p.; Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American 
Educational Research Association (Boston, MA, April 16-20, 1990).
  Document Type: RESEARCH REPORT (143);  CONFERENCE PAPER (150)
  This study examines the relationship between the amount of time 
sixth graders reported spending on homework and their achievement 
gains on the Iowa Test of Basic Skills (ITBS) between the spring of 
1988 and the spring of 1989.  Selected for participation were one or 
two classes in each of 30 public elementary schools in Chicago.  Of 
the 30 schools, 10 were magnet schools, 10 integrated or desegregated 
schools, and 10 predominantly minority schools.  The questionnaire 
administered in January, 1989 asked students how many days each week 
they were assigned homework in reading and language arts, 
mathematics, science, and social studies, and how much time they 
spent on assignments in each of these curriculum areas.  The Chicago 
Board of Education's test score master file provided ITBS mathematics 
total and reading comprehension scores for April 1988 and 1989.  
Homework and achievement measures were average classroom level 
measures for the 52 surveyed classes, not individual student level 
measures.  Although the findings strongly suggest that homework may 
be related to achievement gain in some classes, because of several 
methodological and measurement characteristics, the study fails to 
add unequivocal evidence to the discussion on the effectiveness of 
homework in the sixth grade curriculum.  (RH)
  Descriptors: *Academic Achievement; *Elementary School Students; 
*Grade 6; *Homework; Intermediate Grades; Language Arts; Mathematics 
Instruction; Reading Instruction; Science Instruction; Social Studies
  Identifiers: *Chicago Public Schools IL

  ED319492  PS018774
  Homework as a Learning Experience. What Research Says to the 
Teacher. Third Edition.
  Doyle, Mary Anne E.; Barber, Betsy S.
  May 1990
  Available From: NEA Professional Library, P.O. Box 509, West Haven, 
CT 06516 (Stock No. 1084-1-00, $3.95).
  Target Audience: Teachers; Practitioners
  Three types of homework assignments are common in U.S. schools: 
practice, preparation, and extension.  Reasons cited for assigning 
homework are: (1) Doing homework is useful as an act of intellectual 
discipline; (2) Homework eases time constraints on the amount of 
curricular material that can be covered; (3) Homework fosters student 
initiative, independence, and responsibility; (4) Homework 
supplements and reinforces work done in school; and (5) Homework 
brings home and school closer together.  Research into the 
effectiveness of homework is inconclusive.  Nevertheless, homework 
serves as a vital link between home and school.  It is essential that 
classroom teachers make every effort to ensure that assignments are 
necessary and useful, appropriate to the ability and maturity of 
students, well explained, and clearly understood by both student and 
parent.  It appears that home study will play an increasingly 
important role in learning in the next few decades.  Teachers will 
need to base out-of-school assignments on a solid understanding of, 
and close cooperation with, the home educational environment, which 
may include cable television, home computers, videotapes and 
videodiscs, and links to information utilities.  Guidelines for 
homework policy are provided.  A total of 118 references are cited.  
  Descriptors: Educational Practices; *Educational Technology; 
Elementary Secondary Education; *Family Environment; Family School 
Relationship; *Futures (of Society); Guidelines; *Homework; 
*Instructional Effectiveness; Literature Reviews

  EJ398447  SP519014
  Teachers' Use of Homework in High Schools.
  Murphy, Joseph; Decker, Karen
  Journal of Educational Research, v82 n5 p261-69 May-Jun 
  Document Type: JOURNAL ARTICLE (080);  GENERAL REPORT (140);  TEST, 
  This article, based upon a survey of 3000 teachers in 92 Illinois 
high schools, presents data on homework use by teachers.  Data is 
provided on the amount, frequency, structure, purposes, and types of 
homework assigned to students.  The level of school and parental 
support is also assessed.  (IAH)
  Descriptors: Educational Environment; High Schools; *Homework; 
School Policy; Student Reaction; *Teaching Methods; *Time on Task

  EJ392541  PS516680
  Homework: A Cross-cultural Examination.
  Chen, Chuansheng; Stevenson, Harold W.
  Child Development, v60 n3 p551-60 Jun   1989
  Document Type: JOURNAL ARTICLE (080);  RESEARCH REPORT (143)
  Cultural differences in the amount of time spent on homework and in 
beliefs and attitudes about homework were investigated through 
interviews with elementary school students, their mothers, and their 
teachers in China, Japan, and the United States.  (PCB)
  Descriptors: Academic Achievement; Cross Cultural Studies; 
*Cultural Differences; Elementary Education; *Elementary School 
Students; *Foreign Countries; *Homework; Mothers; Parent Influence; 
Student Attitudes
  Identifiers: *China; *Japan

  ED316000  EC230006
  Effectiveness of Home-Based Consultation in Increasing Student 
Academic Responding. Research Report No. 19. University of Minnesota 
Instructional Alternatives Project.
  Christenson, Sandra L.; And Others
  Aug 1989
  Document Type: RESEARCH REPORT (143)
  Target Audience: Researchers; Practitioners
  Home-based consultations about homework were conducted over a 12-
week period with nine families of elementary students with mild 
handicaps to determine the extent to which consultations increased 
academic responding time, and to document home and school factors 
that contribute to work incompletion problems.  The intervention was 
implemented by trained consultants who worked with parents in the 
home setting to achieve three goals: (1) increase students' 
acquisition of independent study habits; (2) promote effective parent-
teacher relationships through cooperation, planning, and follow-
through with assigned homework tasks; and (3) increase parental skill 
in providing structure and support for their child's academic work.  
Although comparisons of intervention and control group subjects 
failed to show significant differences in students' academic 
responding time in classroom settings, several home and school 
factors that contribute to work incompletion problems often 
demonstrated by students with mild handicaps were identified.  
Implications for developing effective homework policies in school are 
discussed.  (Child and parent interview questionnaires are appended.) 
35 references (Author)
  Descriptors: *Consultation Programs; Elementary Education; Home 
Programs; *Homework; *Mild Disabilities; Parent Education; Parent 
School Relationship; *Parent Student Relationship; *Parent Teacher 
Cooperation; Program Effectiveness; Study Habits; Time on Task

  ED308975  PS018170
  Improving Homework Performance at the Junior High Level.
  Parkhurst, Kathleen J.
  115p.; Ed.D. Practicum, Nova University.
  Document Type: PRACTICUM PAPER (043)
  An elementary school principal designed and implemented a practicum 
study to improve the homework performance of junior high students.  
Goals of the practicum were to: (1) decrease the number of students 
who received failing grades due to incomplete or missing homework; 
and (2) establish a district homework policy which would provide a 
guideline for teachers designing homework assignments and result in 
positive academic results for students.  In conjunction with teachers 
in grades three through eight, a homework policy was developed and 
implemented for a seven-month period.  After implementation, parents, 
students, and staff were surveyed to determine whether the policy was 
supported by all groups and was effective in increasing the number of 
assignments completed and handed in.  Practicum evaluation data 
indicated that outcomes were positive: there was a significant 
decrease in the number of students failing a course due to incomplete 
homework.  Teachers learned that parents were supportive of homework.  
Parents took an active role in working with children at home.  
Students believed that the amount of homework assigned daily was 
satisfactory.  All groups stated that they believed that homework is 
essential for academic success.  Appendices provide a statement of 
the homework policy, survey instruments used, and related materials.  
  Descriptors: *Homework; Junior High Schools; *Junior High School 
Students; Parent Role; *Policy Formation; School Districts; *School 
Policy; *Student Improvement; Teacher Role
  Identifiers: *Policy Implementation

  ED303919  EA020759
  Homework: Research, Policy, and Implementation.
  Foyle, Harvey C.; Lyman, Lawrence
  14 Mar 1989
  12p.; Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Association for 
Supervision and Curriculum Development (44th, Orlando, FL, March 11-
14, 1989).
  Document Type: CONFERENCE PAPER (150);  REVIEW LITERATURE (070);  
  This paper discusses homework policy as a product of 50 years of 
experimental research.  Part 1 discusses homework guidelines in 
grades 3 through 8 by suggesting that homework should be assigned, 
graded, and individualized.  In addition, homework should provide 
feedback about student achievement that includes parental monitoring.  
Part 2 recommends secondary school homework policies that include 
clear and concise graded assignments.  Furthermore, the proposal that 
some homework be guided, voluntary, and nonwritten reflects outcomes 
of homework research in American education.  The conclusion that the 
assigning of homework should follow a regular pattern aligned with 
classroom subject matter supports the notion that homework reinforces 
learning, thereby raising student achievement.  Moreover, school 
districts should support homework policies that research findings 
link to raising student achievement.  (JAM)
  Descriptors: *Academic Achievement; Assignments; Educational 
Assessment; Educational Methods; *Educational Policy; *Educational 
Practices; Educational Research; Elementary Education; Guidelines; 
*Homework; *Theory Practice Relationship

  EJ384734  SP518316
  Homework without Tears.
  Canter, Lee
  Instructor, v98 n2 p28-30 Sep   1988
  A systematic approach which clearly defines teacher, student, and 
parent roles in homework is described, including discussion of 
homework policies, homework returns, study areas, survival kits, and 
time management.  (CB)
  Descriptors: Elementary Education; *Homework; Parent Role; *Student 
Responsibility; Teacher Role

  EJ376320  EC210491
  Homework: A Review of Special Education Practices in the Southwest.
  Heller, Harold W.; And Others
  Teacher Education and Special Education, v11 n2 p43-51 Spr 
  The survey of 1270 special education teachers and administrators 
found four major factors associated with homework for handicapped 
students: value, obstacles/implementation, frequency, and feedback.  
Analysis of variance of the four factors examined such demographic 
variables as certification, teacher versus administrator views, grade 
level of teacher, and school policy.  (Author/DB)
  Descriptors: *Administrator Attitudes; *Disabilities; Elementary 
Secondary Education; *Homework; National Surveys; School Policy; 
Special Education Teachers; *Teacher Attitudes; Teacher Certification

  EJ375666  SP517907
  No Excuses.
  Ivey, Jennie
  Learning, v16 n9 p88 May-Jun   1988
  Document Type: JOURNAL ARTICLE (080);  POSITION PAPER (120)
  A former teacher describes how she came to change her "no excuses, 
no extensions" policy about homework after realizing that not all 
students come from healthy, nurturing home environments.  She solved 
the problem by setting up an after school study program.  (JL)
  Descriptors: *After School Programs; *Homework; Junior High Schools; 
Personal Narratives; *Teacher Attitudes; *Teacher Improvement; 
*Teacher Student Relationship

  EJ370263  EA522189
  Evolution of a Model Homework Policy and Practice Statement.
  Bonfiglio, Joseph F.
  NASSP Bulletin, v72 n507 p18-23 Apr   1988
  Recently, each department at Green Mountain Union High School 
(Chester, Vermont) was asked to update its curriculum and research 
current theories on the use of homework through national 
organizations.  Teachers in each department then prepared current 
practice statements and developed policy statements concerning 
homework's value.  (MLH)
  Descriptors: *Boards of Education; Educational Research; *Homework; 
Research Needs; *School Policy; Secondary Education
  Identifiers: *Green Mountain Union High School VT

  EJ370262  EA522188
  The Effect of Homework Policies on Student Achievement.
  Palardy, J. Michael
  NASSP Bulletin, v72 n507 p14-17 Apr   1988
  Most research shows no correlation between homework and student 
achievement and finds homework for primary grades inappropriate and 
counterproductive.  After summarizing major purposes and types of 
homework and associated problems, the article provides seven 
recommendations for developing a workable school policy.  (MLH)
  Descriptors: *Academic Achievement; Elementary Secondary Education; 
*Homework; *Research Needs; *School Policy

  EJ367477  EC201944
  The Many Dimensions of Homework.
  Salend, Spencer J.; Schliff, Janet
  Academic Therapy, v23 n4 p397-403 Mar   1988
  Target Audience: Teachers; Practitioners
  Guidelines are presented to assist special educators in 
implementing homework practices.  They include determining the 
amount of homework, deciding on the content of homework, selecting 
the type of homework, explaining homework to students, assisting 
students with their homework, motivating students to complete 
homework, evaluating homework, and involving parents in homework.  
  Descriptors: *Assignments; *Classroom Techniques; *Disabilities; 
Elementary Secondary Education; *Home Study; *Homework; Parent 
Participation; Special Education; Student Evaluation; Student 

  ED301323  PS017622
  A Model for Research on Homework Based on U.S. and International 
Studies. Report No. 27.
  Epstein, Joyce L.; Pinkow, Linda
  Aug 1988
  Document Type: POSITION PAPER (120)
  Target Audience: Researchers
  This paper presents a conceptual model for guiding research on 
homework.  Based on elements derived from a review of 26 recent U.S. 
and international empirical studies of homework, the model emphasizes 
the need to consider many variables in order to reach an 
understanding of the design and conduct of homework assignments, 
homework completion, and the effects of the two activities on student 
learning and development.  Specific independent variables included in 
the model concern student and family background, teacher background, 
school organization and policy, classroom organization and classwork, 
and core independent variables of homework assignments by teacher, 
homework completion by students, and homework return and follow-up.  
Dependent variables concern effects on student learning and 
development, and effects on teaching practice.  Each variable is 
particularized in detail.  The model is offered as a complete, 
realistic theoretical model that can be tested as a measurement model 
in new research.  Variables, or subsets of variables, can be tested 
with cross-sectional or longitudinal data, in recursive or 
nonrecursive designs and analyses, and using qualitative or 
quantitative data to address new and needed questions about homework 
assignments, completion, and impact.  Approximately 50 references are 
listed.  (RH)
  Descriptors: Academic Achievement; Elementary Education; *Homework; 
Individual Development; *Middle Schools; *Models; *Research Needs; 
Student Behavior; Teacher Behavior

  ED300898  EA020457
  How To Develop an Effective Homework Program. Tips for Principals 
from NASSP.
  Rutherford, William; Foyle, Harvey C.
  Tips for Principals, Oct 1988  Oct 1988
  Available From: National Association of Secondary School 
Principals, 1904 Association Drive, Reston, VA 22091.
  Document Type: SERIAL (022);  TEACHING GUIDE (052)
  Target Audience: Administrators; Teachers; Practitioners
  Homework policies and guidelines are the topics outlined in this 
article.  Homework policies should address the amount of homework and 
amount of school time available to do the homework.  Guidelines for 
grading homework are also discussed.  It is recommended that teachers 
should prepare a written description of homework practices for the 
principal.  Examples of preparation, practice, extension, and 
creative homework are described by K-12 teachers.  Their suggestions 
are directed at helping administrators to help teachers not only vary 
homework assignments, but also focus on each type of assignment.  
Four references are included.  (SI)
  Descriptors: Administrator Guides; *Administrator Role; 
*Assignments; Elementary Secondary Education; *Homework; *Principals; 
Reading Assignments; Teacher Administrator Relationship; *Teaching 

  ED293108  CS009114
  Homework and Reading Achievement in NAEP Data on Thirteen-Year-
  Levine, Daniel U.
  Apr 1988
  19p.; Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American 
Educational Research Association (New Orleans, LA, April 5-9, 1988).
  In order to assess relationships and problems in drawing 
conclusions regarding productive school practices, a study analyzed 
the 1984 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) data on 
homework and reading achievement among 13-year-olds.  A previous 
study (Lange, 1987) examining the NAEP data set concluded that the 
number of hours spent on homework is significantly and positively 
related to reading achievement, and the NAEP's publication, "The 
Reading Report Card," portrays an overall positive relationship 
between homework and achievement.  However, a series of cross-
tabulations, taking into account type of community and level of 
parental education, revealed that the relationship between amount of 
homework and reading achievement was not consistent, but varied with 
type of community and parental education.  The absence of a 
consistent relationship between homework and reading achievement is 
even more apparent when one conducts cross-tabulations taking into 
account type of community and percent of minority students in schools 
attended.  In sum, cross-sectional data such as those collected by 
the NAEP are not likely to reflect sophisticated efforts to improve 
the effectiveness of homework, and analyses of such data frequently 
fail to consider other related variables that may affect or mediate 
relationships between homework and achievement.  (Four tables and an 
excerpt from the NAEP's "The Reading Report Card" are attached.) 
  Descriptors: Community Influence; *Data Interpretation; *Homework; 
Parent Influence; *Reading Achievement; *Reading Improvement; 
*Reading Research; Secondary Education
  Identifiers: National Assessment of Educational Progress

  EJ373948  RC506791
  An Exploratory Analysis of the Structure of Homework Assignments in 
High Schools.
  Murphy, Joseph; And Others
  Research in Rural Education, v4 n2 p61-71 Spr   1987
  Document Type: JOURNAL ARTICLE (080);  RESEARCH REPORT (143)
  Uses responses of 77 teachers from eight Illinois rural high 
schools to 36-item survey to assess amount of time students devote to 
homework; existence of school homework policy; purpose and type of 
homework assignments; teacher review, feedback, and grading of 
homework; and value and significance of assigning homework.  (NEC)
  Descriptors: Assignments; Educational Policy; Feedback; High 
Schools; *Homework; *Rural Education; Rural Schools; School Policy; 
Secondary Education; *Small Schools; Teacher Response; Time on Task
  Identifiers: *Illinois

  EJ345210  CS733608
  Homework: Its Real Purpose.
  Foyle, Harvey C.; Bailey, Gerald D.
  Clearing House, v60 n4 p187-88 Dec   1986
  Document Type: JOURNAL ARTICLE (080);  REVIEW LITERATURE (070)
  Argues that the purpose of daily homework is either to prepare the 
student for the next lesson or to practice concepts and skills 
learned in the previous lesson.  Suggests that teachers' homework 
policies must reflect one of these purposes.  (SRT)
  Descriptors: *Academic Achievement; Advance Organizers; 
*Educational Research; Elementary Secondary Education; *Homework; 
Integrated Activities; Skill Development; *Teaching Methods

  EJ342042  TM511432
  Parental Involvement, Homework, and TV Time: Direct and Indirect 
Effects on High School Achievement.
  Keith, Timothy Z.; And Others
  Journal of Educational Psychology, v78 n5 p373-80 Oct 
  Document Type: JOURNAL ARTICLE (080);  RESEARCH REPORT (143)
  A set of High School and Beyond data was used to study the effect 
of three variables on academic achievement.  Homework had a positive 
effect, TV a negative, and parental involvement no direct effect on 
seniors' achievement scores, but influenced the amount of time 
students spent on homework.  (Author/JAZ)
  Descriptors: *Academic Achievement; Ethnicity; Grade 12; High 
Schools; *Homework; *Models; *Parent Participation; Path Analysis; 
Sex Differences; *Television; *Time Management
  Identifiers: *High School and Beyond (NCES)

  EJ337472  EA520053
  Walberg and Colleagues Reply: Effective Schools Use Homework 
  Walberg, Herbert J.; And Others
  Educational Leadership, v43 n8 p58 May   1986
  For a related article, see EA 520 052 (this issue).
  Document Type: JOURNAL ARTICLE (080);  PROJECT DESCRIPTION (141);  
  Target Audience: Administrators; Teachers; Practitioners
  Responds to Bill Barber's recent article refuting the author's 
conclusions concerning the beneficial effects of homework on student 
achievement.  Asserts that the amount, frequency, nature, conditions, 
and other characteristics of homework must be studied, not just 
homework versus none at all.  Homework is one of many factors 
contributing to effective schooling.  (6 references) (MLH)
  Descriptors: *Academic Achievement; Elementary Secondary Education; 
*Homework; *School Effectiveness

  EJ333029  EA519700
  Homework: The Connection between School and Home.
  Foyle, Harvey C.
  NASSP Bulletin, v70 n487 p36-38 Feb   1986
  Document Type: JOURNAL ARTICLE (080);  POSITION PAPER (120)
  Target Audience: Administrators; Practitioners
  The link that homework provides between school and community can 
become more productive if teachers and administrators ensure that the 
school homework is clear, meaningful, varied, and regularly assigned.  
  Descriptors: *Assignments; Educational Strategies; Elementary 
Secondary Education; *Family School Relationship; *Homework; School 
Community Relationship; *School Policy

  EJ333028  EA519699
  Homework--Its Importance to Student Achievement.
  Turvey, Joel S.
  NASSP Bulletin, v70 n487 p27-35 Feb   1986
  Document Type: JOURNAL ARTICLE (080);  POSITION PAPER (120);  
  Target Audience: Administrators; Practitioners
  Increased pressure is facing many administrators today for teachers 
to assign more homework to students.  Recent research is reviewed 
that correlates homework positively with student achievement, and the 
need for a homework policy in school districts is emphasized.  (TE)
  Descriptors: *Academic Achievement; *Achievement Gains; Assignments; 
Educational Research; Elementary Secondary Education; *Homework; 
Instructional Improvement; Predictor Variables; *School Effectiveness; 
*School Policy

  EJ331118  CS732379
  High School Homework: Increasing Student Achievement.
  Foyle, Harvey C.; Bailey, Gerald D.
  Illinois School Research and Development, v22 n2 p71-77 Win 
  Document Type: JOURNAL ARTICLE (080);  REVIEW LITERATURE (070);  
  Examines research pertaining to homework and student achievement 
and concludes that assigning and managing homework do increase 
achievment.  Recommends that schools developing homework policies 
refer to this research as the basis of their policies.(FL)
  Descriptors: *Academic Achievement; *Educational Research; 
*Homework; Secondary Education; Teacher Role

  ED282648  PS016625
  Homework as a Means of Parental Involvement in the Primary Grades 
of an Inner-City School.
  Schnobrich, Janice
  106p.; Practicum Report, Nova University.
  Target Audience: Practitioners
  To remedy the problem of an ineffective homework policy, a Follow 
Through kindergarten teacher at the George Howland elementary school 
in Chicago, Illinois, implemented a practicum designed to increase 
parent involvement with the school.  The program designed for the 
practicum included: (1) regular homework assignments, (2) grading of 
homework by teachers, (3) recording of grades on a homework report 
card, and (4) homework workshops for parents of kindergarten children 
and primary grade students.  Workshop sessions were designed to help 
parents assist their children with homework activities on a daily 
basis throughout the school year.  Consequently, homework became a 
highlighted daily event.  Parents produced "A Homework Manual for 
Parents of Primary Children" which included outlines of 25 home 
learning activities for dissemination to other parents.  The 
evaluation of the practicum indicated that definite changes occurred 
in the homework patterns of the primary school children as their 
parents became involved in helping with home learning activities.  
Although parents were enthusiastic about the workshops, attendance 
did not rise steadily during the series.  Concluding remarks offer 
recommendations for replicating the practicum.  Related materials, 
such as parent and teacher questionnaires on homework policy, and the 
homework manual and report card, are appended.  (RH)
  Descriptors: *Elementary School Students; *Grading; Guidelines; 
*Homework; Inner City; Kindergarten Children; Learning Activities; 
*Parent Participation; Primary Education; *Report Cards; School 
Policy; *Urban Schools; Workshops
  Identifiers: *Illinois (Chicago)

  ED276980  CS008620
  Homework: What Do National Assessment Results Tell Us?
  Anderson, Bernice; And Others
  Dec 1986
  Available From: National Assessment of Educational Progress, 
Educational Testing Service, Rosedale Rd., Princeton, NJ 08541.
  Document Type: RESEARCH REPORT (143)
  National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) data indicated a 
positive relationship between the amount of time spent on homework 
and reading achievement in grades 4, 8, and 11.  This conclusion 
represents one segment of the findings of the 1983-84 National 
Assessment, which focused on reading and writing and was administered 
to approximately 100,000 students across 30 states.  Specifically, 
students were asked how much time they spent on homework yesterday.  
Findings showed that almost two-thirds of the students reported 
spending time on homework, with little variance among racial/ethnic 
groups.  This finding seemed related to more homework being assigned 
and reflected an increase as compared to 1980 NAEP results.  Students 
who received homework assignments and did them tended to read at 
higher proficiency levels than students who did not have homework or 
who did not complete assigned work.  Results showed that the more 
time students spent on homework assigned, the better they read; this 
relationship was clearest at grade 11.  Seventy percent of the 
students who spent more than two hours on homework were found to 
watch two hours or less of television.  Based on these results, NAEP 
recommended that: (1) students need parental support to complete 
assignments, (2) teachers and parents should set clear goals for 
homework assignments, and (3) homework policies should be consistent 
with other school goals.  (JD)
  Descriptors: Elementary Secondary Education; *Homework; *Reading 
Achievement; *Reading Assignments; *Reading Skills; *Reading Tests; 
*Reading Writing Relationship; Television
  Identifiers: *National Assessment of Educational Progress

  ED274418  PS016011
  Ziegler, Suzanne
  Jun 1986
  Document Type: POSITION PAPER (120);  REVIEW LITERATURE (070)
  Does homework increase academic achievement? The best answer, in 
1986, is that large-scale correlational studies at the secondary 
level suggest a strong, positive relationship between amount of 
homework and academic achievement.  Results are less clear at the 
elementary level, but the weight of evidence is positive.  At both 
elementary and secondary levels, doing homework is associated with 
pupils' liking for a subject.  Comparative figures indicate that, at 
the secondary level, Toronto students are doing fewer hours/minutes 
of homework per week than are students in most other countries.  
Surveys done in the United States suggest that most homework 
assignments are of a practice variety.  Individualized and more 
varied assignments are desirable.  Little summative research on the 
effectiveness of study hall exists, but supervised study at school 
might reasonably be expected to be at least as effective as 
unsupervised home study.  Other alternatives which have been 
positively evaluated include homework hot lines and parent-training 
programs.  Because of the influence parents can exert for the good of 
their children, educators should recognize parent involvement as a 
powerful tool for advancing children's readiness and ability to 
learn, especially in the area of reading.  Schools should involve 
both teachers and parents in the formulation of homework policies.  A 
five-page list of references concludes the document.  (RH)
  Descriptors: Educational History; Educational Needs; Educational 
Policy; Elementary Secondary Education; Feedback; Foreign Countries; 
*Homework; *Individualized Instruction; *Learning Experience; 
Literature Reviews; *Parent Participation; Student Attitudes; 
Supervision; *Time Factors (Learning)
  Identifiers: Canada

  EJ328022  EA519501
  What Does Homework Accomplish?
  Featherstone, Helen
  Principal, v65 n2 p6-7 Nov   1985
  Document Type: JOURNAL ARTICLE (080);  REVIEW LITERATURE (070)
  Target Audience: Administrators; Practitioners
  Research findings indicate that homework gives parents a window on 
their children's school work and that families reshape their 
activities around homework.  Principals, teachers, and parents need 
to cooperate in making homework policy and in deciding goals, 
evaluating present policies, and individualizing assignments.  (MLF)
  Descriptors: Elementary Education; Elementary School Mathematics; 
*Homework; *Parent School Relationship; *Parent Student Relationship; 
*School Policy

  EJ325194  CS731820
  ERIC/RCS: Homework in the Elementary School.
  O'Donnell, Holly
  Reading Teacher, v39 n2 p220-22 Nov   1985
  Document Type: JOURNAL ARTICLE (080);  ERIC PRODUCT (071)
  Reviews ERIC materials showing some of the effects of homework 
policies and practices at the elementary school level.  (FL)
  Descriptors: *Educational Research; Elementary Education; *Homework; 
*Student Attitudes; *Student Improvement

  EJ319804  EA518755
  Homework's Powerful Effects on Learning.
  Walberg, Herbert J.; And Others
  Educational Leadership, v42 n7 p76-79 Apr   1985
  Document Type: JOURNAL ARTICLE (080);  REVIEW LITERATURE (070)
  Target Audience: Administrators; Practitioners
  A synthesis of 15 empirical studies shows that homework 
consistently benefits elementary and secondary students' achievement 
and attitudes, especially if it is commented upon or graded.  (MCG)
  Descriptors: Educational Policy; Elementary Secondary Education; 
Foreign Countries; *Homework; *Learning; Parent Participation; 
*Performance Factors; Time on Task

  ED265668  EA018211
  Attendance, Homework, Promotion and Retention: A Manual on Policy 
Development and Administrative Procedures.
  Document Type: NON-CLASSROOM MATERIAL (055)
  Target Audience: Policymakers; Administrators; Practitioners
  This manual was written to assist local school districts in 
fulfilling the 1984 legislative mandate of the Connecticut General 
Assembly that requires schools to develop, adopt, and implement 
written policies concerning homework, attendance, and 
promotion/retention.  The first section offers a brief discussion of 
the process of policy development, characteristics of good policy, 
and the relationship between policy and administrative procedures.  
The next three sections focus on attendance, homework, and promotion 
and retention policies.  Each section offers a short discussion of 
the topic, a listing of key elements that should be considered for 
inclusion in board policy or administrative procedures, and 
illustrative examples of how these elements have been treated by some 
Connecticut districts.  An appendix lists members of the statewide 
committee that was formed to review policies on attendance, homework, 
and promotion/retention.  (TE)
  Descriptors: Administrative Policy; Administrator Guides; Age Grade 
Placement; *Attendance; Discipline Policy; Elementary Secondary 
Education; Grade Repetition; *Homework; *Policy Formation; School 
Attendance Legislation; *State Legislation; *Student Promotion
  Identifiers: Connecticut; Connecticut State Department of Education

  ED254902  EA017551
  Homework Policies and Guidelines. Turning the Tide: An Agenda for 
Excellence in Pennsylvania Public Schools.
  Jun 1984
  Document Type: NON-CLASSROOM MATERIAL (055)
  Target Audience: Practitioners; Policymakers
  For homework to be effective, a clear, written policy should be 
developed that considers local needs, sound educational theories, and 
current research.  This handbook is intended to assist school 
districts, particularly in Pennsylvania, in planning, developing, and 
implementing homework policies and guidelines.  The booklet first 
briefly reviews the role of homework in education, then draws on the 
experiences of Pennsylvania's school districts to identify a number 
of critical factors that must be considered when developing homework 
policies.  These factors include a consensus on homework's place in 
the educational process; identification of the roles of 
administrators, teachers, students, and parents; and procedures for 
policy implementation.  A checklist of policy preparation activities 
and sample policies from three districts are also included.  (PGD)
  Descriptors: *Educational Policy; Elementary Education; *Homework; 
*Policy Formation; School Districts; Staff Role; Student School 
  Identifiers: Pennsylvania

  ED250351  TM840659
  Homework Practices, Achievements, and Behaviors of Elementary 
School Students.
  Epstein, Joyce L.
  Document Type: RESEARCH REPORT (143)
  Homework is one of the most important practices for establishing a 
successful academic environment.  From the literature and an 
elementary school teacher survey, seven purposes of homework were 
identified: practice, participation, personal development, parent-
child relations, policy, public relations, and punishment.  Using 
data from elementary school teachers, principals, parents and 
students from a survey in 16 Maryland school districts (Becker and 
Epstein, 1982), this paper explores the correlates of homework 
activities and student behaviors in school.  Six homework variables 
are correlated with reading and math achievements, homework 
performance, and classroom behavior: homework time, homework quality, 
student attitudes, teacher practices, parent abilities and resources, 
and other student and family factors.  Results indicate that simple 
association of homework time and student achievement is not enough to 
understand when homework is important for effective teaching and 
learning.  It is not clear that increasing homework time improves or 
maintains the achievement, homework behaviors, or school attitudes of 
low achievers.  (BS)
  Descriptors: *Academic Achievement; Elementary Education; *Homework; 
Parent Attitudes; *Parent Participation; Parent Student Relationship; 
Student Attitudes; Student Behavior; Teacher Attitudes; Time on Task

  ED249277  TM840633
  Report on Student Homework and Achievement, Spring 1982 and Spring 
1983. Special Research Studies, 1983-84.
  Sep 1983
  Document Type: RESEARCH REPORT (143)
  North Carolina students taking statewide achievement tests in 
grades 6 and 9 were ased two questions about the amount of time they 
spend doing homework: how much time do you spend doing assigned 
homework, and how much time do you spend doing work which is not 
assigned or required by the teacher? The results were compared with 
their scores on the California Achievement Tests.  The results 
indicate that: (1) doing assigned homework is positively related to 
higher test scores; (2) girls do more assigned and unassigned 
homework than do boys; (3) doing assigned homework ranks behind 
socioeconomic variables in its power to predict student achievement 
scores in reading, mathematics, and total battery, and ahead of the 
predictive variable of days absent from school and sex of student; 
(4) the amount of unassigned homework is less effective than the 
amount of assigned homework in predicting student achievement; (5) 
boys in grades 6 and 9 who do equivalent amounts of homework as girls 
obtain substantially higher scores than do boys generally; and (6) 
response to homework questions and performance remained stable from 
1982 to 1983.  (BW)
  Descriptors: *Academic Achievement; Assignments; Elementary 
Education; *Homework; Junior High Schools; Language Arts; Mathematics 
Achievement; Performance Factors; Reading Achievement; *Scores; *Time 
on Task
  Identifiers: California Achievement Tests; *North Carolina

  ED233464  EA015913
  Homework Surveys for Teachers, Parents, and Students. 
  [Jun 1983
  7p.; Prepared by the Quality Education Committee.
  Document Type: TEST, QUESTIONNAIRE (160)
  Target Audience: Teachers; Parents; Students
  Three questionnaires designed to measure attitudes regarding 
homework and the current homework policy in the Belmont Elementary 
School District are provided.  The teachers' survey includes 
questions related to the district's homework policy (which is 
included in the instrument), the amount and type of homework they 
assign, and how they feel about homework.  The parents' survey also 
asks their opinion of the current policy, the amount and type of 
homework their child is assigned, and what the parent's role should 
be.  The students' survey contains questions on amount and type of 
homework, how they feel about their homework, where and how they do 
homework, whether their parents help, and whether their homework is 
corrected.  (DC)
  Descriptors: Attitude Measures; Board of Education Policy; 
Elementary Education; *Homework; *Parent Attitudes; Questionnaires; 
*Student Attitudes; Surveys; *Teacher Attitudes
  Identifiers: PF Project

  ED233463  EA015912
  Homework Policies of San Mateo County School Districts. 
  13p.; Compiled by the staff of the SMERC Information Center.
  Document Type: NON-CLASSROOM MATERIAL (055)
  Target Audience: Practitioners
  Homework policy statements from six elementary school districts in 
San Mateo County, California (Menlo Park City, Millbrae, San Bruno, 
Portola Valley, San Carlos, and Redwood City) covering kindergarten 
through grade 8 are presented.  Responsibilities of the principal, 
the teachers, the students, and the parents are indicated; and time 
limits, amounts of homework, and types of homework for the various 
grade levels are suggested.  Each policy states objectives for 
assigning homework.  (EM)
  Descriptors: Administrator Responsibility; *Board of Education 
Policy; Educational Objectives; Educational Policy; Elementary 
Education; Guidelines; *Homework; Junior High Schools; Parent 
Responsibility; School Districts; Student Responsibility; Teacher 
  Identifiers: *California (San Mateo County); PF Project

  ED217022  SP020250
  Homework as a Learning Experience. What Research Says to the 
  LaConte, Ronald T.
  Available From: NEA Professional Library, P. O. Box 509, West 
Haven, CT 06516 (Stock No. 1036-1-10, $1.50).
  Three types of homework assignments are commmon in schools in the 
United States: practice, preparation, and extension.  To be 
effective, practice exercises must be highly individualized and based 
on the progress of each student.  Preparation normally refers to 
reading assignments given prior to class meetings.  Homework of this 
sort should be carefully assigned to ensure that the student receives 
a clear idea of the assignment's purpose.  Extension homework 
attempts to take the student beyond the work done in class.  Research 
into the effectiveness of homework in improving academic achievement 
is inconclusive.  The role of homework as a link between home and 
school is vital, and assignments can serve as a means of providing a 
bond of common effort between parent, child, and teacher.  
Inappropriate or badly explained assignments, however, can just as 
readily serve as a source of antagonism between parent, teacher, and 
child.  The emergence of cable television, home computers, videotape 
and videodiscs, and information utilities is changing the role and 
format of home study, and, for the teacher interested in the question 
of homework, the primary significance of these trends lies not in 
their suggestions for present homework practices but rather their 
implications for future practices.  A list is provided in this 
pamphlet of basic guidelines and principles that can help the 
classroom teacher arrive at a feasible homework policy.  (JD)
  Descriptors: *Assignments; *Educational Television; Elementary 
Secondary Education; *Home Study; *Homework; Parent Attitudes; Parent 
Teacher Cooperation; Student Attitudes; Student Teacher Relationship; 
*Teaching Methods

  ED199933  EA013466
  A Synthesis of Homework Research and Related Literature.
  Knorr, Cynthia L.
  24 Jan 1981
  50p.; Paper presented to the Lehigh Chapter of Phi Delta Kappa 
(Bethlehem, PA, January 24, 1981).
  Document Type: EVALUATIVE REPORT (142);  REVIEW LITERATURE (070);  
  Target Audience: Practitioners
  In this review of literature and research on homework, the author 
presents historical trends in attitudes by educators toward the role 
and effectiveness of homework.  Definitions and categories of 
homework are provided, including a summary of widely cited 
professional opinions regarding its advantages and disadvantages.  
The results of major surveys conducted to determine existing 
attitudes and practices regarding homework are summarized.  The 
author provides a synthesis of experimental findings regarding the 
effect of homework on academic achievement and the relationship 
between homework and the attitudes of students toward academic 
subjects.  Suggestions for the development of homework policies by 
schools are included.  (JEH)
  Descriptors: Academic Achievement; Educational Policy; Elementary 
Secondary Education; *Homework; School Policy; Student Attitudes; 
Teacher Attitudes

  ED209200  SP018984
  Secondary School Homework. Co-operative Research Study Report No.7.
  Coulter, Frank
  Document Type: RESEARCH REPORT (143)
  Factors which determine secondary school students' participation in 
homework assignments were examined.  Students of diverse 
socioeconomic and ethnic backgrounds in three high schools in Perth, 
Western Australia, responded to questionnaires and interviews and 
kept homework diaries.  Teachers, administrators, and parents also 
responded to the questionnaires.  The research centered on: (1) 
students', teachers', administrators', and parents' attitudes toward 
homework; (2) the most favorable conditions for its completion; (3) 
time spent on homework; (4) homework demands in different subject 
areas; and (5) homework and low achievers.  Results showed a wide 
range in the time spent by ninth grade students on homework, from 
none at all by about one third of the students to over two hours by 
about fifteen percent of the students.  A dramatic increase occurred 
in the amount of time spent on homework between the tenth and 
eleventh grades.  Low achievers tended to participate in homework, 
when it was given, as readily as high achievers.  Social background 
did not appear to be significant.  Homework tended to be done more 
when its purpose had been clarified and the teacher's belief in its 
value had been demonstrated.  Students and parents regarded it mainly 
in a pragmatic light, rather than for any intrinsic value.  Most 
teachers saw it as a strategy for finishing off class work and 
preparing students for upper school.  They perceived that its value 
was limited for low achievers.  Appendices containing the 
questionnaires, interview and diary formats, statistics on average 
weekly hours on homework, and teachers' preferences for types of 
homework are included.  (JD)
  Descriptors: *Attitudes; Foreign Countries; High School Students; 
*Homework; Low Achievement; Secondary Education; Socioeconomic Status; 
*Student Characteristics; Student Evaluation
  Identifiers: *Australia (Western Australia)

  EJ219187  AA530979
  Homework Assignments: Classroom Games or Teaching Tools?
  Lee, Jackson F., Jr.; Pruitt, K. Wayne
  Clearing House, v53 n1 p31-35 Sep   1979
  Available From: Reprint: UMI
  Document Type: JOURNAL ARTICLE (080);  POSITION PAPER (120);  
  The taxonomy and suggestions presented in this article were 
designed and used to help preservice and inservice teachers clarify 
their homework policies and practices.  Three types of homework 
assignments are described: practice, preparation, and extension.  
  Descriptors: Educational Philosophy; *Educational Policy; 
Elementary Secondary Education; *Homework

  ED175441  IR007608
  The Relationship of Homework and Television Viewing to Cognitive 
and Noncognitive Student Outcomes.
  Kohr, Richard L.
  Apr 1979
  25p.; Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the National Council 
for Measurement in Education (San Francisco, California, April 1979)
  Document Type: RESEARCH REPORT (143);  CONFERENCE PAPER (150)
  This paper reports on secondary analyses of data collected in March 
1978 by the Pennsylvania Educational Quality Assessment Program, 
which was designed to examine television viewing and the amount of 
school assigned homework in relation to student cognitive and 
noncognitive outcomes.  Also examined were television viewing and 
homework patterns for groups categorized by sex, race, type of 
community, stability of home residence, parental educational level, 
size of family, and expectation level; data used were derived from 
90,000 students in grades 5, 8, and 11 in 750 schools participating 
in a statewide assessment.  Related studies from the states of Rhode 
Island and Texas are compared to this study.  A student level 
analysis involving television indicates that there is little evidence 
of a meaningful relationship with cognitive or noncognitive 
achievement.  In the school level analysis, where inferences refer to 
characteristics of schools rather than individuals, a strong negative 
relationship between television viewing and cognitive achievement was 
indicated.  (Author/RAO)
  Descriptors: *Affective Behavior; *Cognitive Processes; Family 
Environment; *Homework; Parent Education; Racial Factors; Sex Role; 
Speeches; Surveys; *Television Viewing
  Identifiers: Family Size

  EJ199045  AA529435
  What's It All For?
  Beattie, Nicholas
  Times Educational Supplement (London), n3303 p19 Oct 20 
  Document Type: JOURNAL ARTICLE (080);  POSITION PAPER (120)
  The author reviews the advantages and disadvantages of homework in 
secondary schools.  He argues for a policy of clear assignments 
geared to the developmental levels of the students: brief, structured 
tasks for younger students moving toward self-directed projects in 
the higher grades.  (SJL)
  Descriptors: Age Differences; Educational Philosophy; Foreign 
Countries; *Homework; *Independent Study; Relevance (Education); 
Scheduling; *School Policy; Secondary Education; *Student 
  Identifiers: *Great Britain

  ED159174  SP013093
  The Results of Surveys, Questionnaires and Polls Regarding 
  Friesen, Charles D.
  Sep 1978
  Document Type: RESEARCH REPORT (143)
  Periodic polls conducted since 1916 sampling the opinions of 
students, parents, and teachers on the subject of homework have 
revealed little change in attitudes.  Subjects of the polls ranged 
from early elementary grades to seniors in high school.  While 
results were not always consistent from study to study, it was 
generally agreed that as a student progressed from elementary school 
to high school, the amount of homework assigned increased 
significantly.  In addition, several studies have indicated that the 
amount of student time spent working on homework assignments has 
increased markedly during the last 30 years.  The most recent study 
(1977) indicated that high school mathematics teachers felt that when 
compared to previous students their current students did not 
discipline themselves to study and to do their homework.  
Administrators stated that homework for students at the fourth-grade 
level and above was warranted.  While students did not favor 
homework, they felt that it helped them to achieve better grades.  
Parents strongly favored homework.  (JD)
  Descriptors: Assignments; *Elementary Secondary Education; 
*Homework; *Parent Attitudes; *Student Attitudes; Surveys; *Teacher 

  Descriptors: Attitudes; Home Study; *Homework; Individual Needs; 
*Instructional Design; Policy Formation; *School Policy; *Surveys; 
*Teaching Methods
  Identifiers: MICHIGAN; Michigan (Detroit)

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