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QUESTION/PROBLEM: Study and Test-Taking Skills

last updated June 8, 1997





Example queries:

How can I help my students to learn more effectively, as well as to demonstrate that learning in testing situations?

Are there ways to address the negative impact of students' debilitating emotions about taking tests?

What techniques can be applied by students to decipher what test questions are really asking? What recommendations are available about guessing on tests?

Which test-preparation techniques are legitimate and which are not legitimate?


Table of Contents


COMMENTARY

As school accountability and school reform efforts escalate, teachers are apparently under increasing pressure from their administrators and their students' parents to help students to increase their test scores. This clearinghouse reminds teachers and administrators that it is poor practice to teach test-taking strategies for their own sake, whereas it is good practice to emphasize that there is no good substitute for truly learning the content of the curriculum. If and only if solid learning has occurred, then the test wiseness and test anxiety-reduction strategies offered herein will be effective.

[Table of Contents]


INTERNET RESOURCES

Test Preparation
Annotated links for online resources offered by the electronic pathfinder Assessment and Evaluation on the Internet. The resources indicated here address test preparation specifically for widely-used, standardized tests.

[Table of Contents]


ERIC DOCUMENTS CITATIONS

ERIC Documents Citations for Study Skills & Test Taking Skills [General]

  EJ528609  SP525266
  Help Your Students Beat the Testing Game.
  Hoyos, Gloria
  Instructor, v105 n5 p60-62,64-65 Jan-Feb   1996
  ISSN: 1049-5851
  Document Type: TEACHING GUIDE (052);  JOURNAL ARTICLE (080)
  Target Audience: Teachers; Practitioners
  Presents strategies to help elementary students be more confident 
and prepared and score higher on standardized tests.  The strategies 
involve briefly reviewing sample tests to familiarize students with 
common test formats, then focusing on strategies built into their 
reading, writing, math, science, and social studies plans.  (SM)
  Descriptors: Elementary Education; Elementary School Students; 
Elementary School Teachers; Mathematics Skills; Reading Skills; 
Science Process Skills; Social Studies; *Standardized Tests; *Student 
Evaluation; *Test Wiseness; Writing Skills
  Identifiers: *Test Readiness


  ED395305  CS012478
  Better Study Skills for Better Grades and Real Learning. ICPAC 
Information Series.  Revised. 
  1996
  25p.; Printed on yellow paper.
  EDRS Price - MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
  Document Type: INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIAL (051)
  Target Audience: Students
  Adapted from a variety of sources, this booklet offers students 
tips about improving their study skills so that they can earn better 
grades and make the most of their talents.  Topics discussed in the 
booklet are why students should work to improve their study skills; 
listening in the classroom; getting the most from textbooks; note 
taking; the Cornell note-taking system; how to write well; improving 
math study skills; how to do well on essay tests; how to do well on 
objective tests; test anxiety; more tips on studying; time 
management; using the library; and improving memory.  (RS)
  Descriptors: *Learning Strategies; Library Skills; Listening Skills; 
Mathematics Skills; Memory; Notetaking; Secondary Education; *Study 
Skills; Test Anxiety; *Test Wiseness; Time Management; Writing Skills


  ED380631  CE068557
  Successful Study Habits. Teacher Edition. Life Skills Series.
  1995
  191p.; For a related document, see CE 068 556.
  Available From: Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center, 
Oklahoma Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, 1500 West 
Seventh Avenue, Stillwater, OK 74074 (teacher edition, order no. 
BS2007: $70; student edition, BS3007: $3).
  EDRS Price - MF01 Plus Postage. PC Not Available from EDRS.
  Document Type: TEACHING GUIDE (052)
  Target Audience: Teachers; Practitioners
  This curriculum guide for a unit on study skills teaches students 
to become more self-sufficient in their personal and professional 
lives.  The module is designed to help students manage their time 
more effectively, freeing up more time for studying.  The guide 
contains three units: time management, effective learning techniques, 
and effective test taking.  Each of the instructional units in the 
contains some or all of the basic components of a unit of 
instruction: objective sheets, information sheets, supplements, 
transparency masters, job sheets, performance objectives, suggested 
activities for the instructor, handouts, written tests, and answers 
to assignment sheets and written tests.  The units of instruction are 
designed for use in more than one class period of instruction.  An 
instructional supplement includes information on basic skills 
activities in the unit.  (KC)
  Descriptors: Course Content; Learning Activities; Learning 
Strategies; Secondary Education; *Self Care Skills; State Curriculum 
Guides; *Study Skills; Teaching Methods; *Test Wiseness; Time 
Management; Vocational Education


  ED374284  CE067222
  Study Skills. Test Taking.
  Atkinson, Rhonda; And Others
  31 Dec 1993
  46p.; For documents related to this project, see CE 067 219-251.
  EDRS Price - MF01/PC02 Plus Postage.
  Document Type: INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIAL (051)
  Target Audience: Students
  Developed as part of the ABCs of Construction National Workplace 
Literacy Project, this instructional module contains materials 
designed to help students develop study and test-taking skills.  
Presented first are 10 strategies for preparing for tests.  Discussed 
next are test-taking strategies and the importance of self-talk in 
successful test taking.  Procedures to follow after completing a test 
are outlined.  Strategies for taking objective tests are discussed in 
a separate section.  Also included in the module are an analysis 
sheet for determining weaknesses in test preparation and guidelines 
and worksheets for use in arranging study time and work time.  (MN)
  Descriptors: Adult Basic Education; Behavioral Objectives; Learning 
Activities; Learning Modules; *Literacy Education; *Study Skills; 
*Test Wiseness; Trade and Industrial Education
  Identifiers: *ABCs of Construction Project; Workplace Literacy


  ED359161  SP034599
  Developmental Studies: The Study Skill Competency Program Course 
for Grades 7 through 12.
  Wilson, Sally J. S.
  1993
  57p.; For an earlier document, see ED 347 145.
  Available From: Sally J. S. Wilson, 45 Pitt St., Charleston, SC 
29401 ($15; $10 each for 25 or more).
  EDRS Price - MF01 Plus Postage. PC Not Available from EDRS.
  Document Type: INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIAL (051);  TEACHING GUIDE (052)
  Target Audience: Teachers; Practitioners
  "The Study Skill Competency Program of the Tri-County Master Tutors 
Network of South Carolina" (ED 347 145) was designed to equip 
students with study skills that will improve the quality of their 
academic work.  That document, originally written for use by 
professional educators within a private tutoring environment, has 
been tailored for use in grades 7-12 heterogeneous classrooms with 
students in need of specific and strategic learning ability 
instruction.  This guide contains such materials as a historical 
background of contemporary directions, general course and section 
outlines, instructional probe guides, evaluative quizzes, and an 
index of overhead projection supplements.  (LL)
  Descriptors: Classroom Environment; *Cognitive Style; Course 
Descriptions; Heterogeneous Grouping; Listening Skills; Memorization; 
Notetaking; Questionnaires; Reading Skills; Research Skills; 
Secondary Education; Secondary School Students; *Student Behavior; 
*Study Guides; *Study Habits; *Study Skills; *Test Wiseness; Time 
Management; Writing Skills


  ED367932  CG025309
  School Success: The Inside Story.
  Kline, Peter; Martel, Laurence D.
  1992
  131p.
  ISBN: 1-879955-06-2
  Available From: Great Ocean Publishers, Inc., 1823 N. Lincoln St., 
Arlington, VA 22207 ($14.95).
  EDRS Price - MF01 Plus Postage. PC Not Available from EDRS.
  Document Type: INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIAL (051)
  Target Audience: Students
  This workbook was written to help students learn better, study 
better, and do better in school.  Chapter 1 provides an overview of 
the book.  Chapter 2 focuses on five basic skills that can help 
readers become super students: goal setting, putting things in the 
right order, asking questions, finding out how you're doing, and 
discovering patterns.  Chapter 3 concentrates on the first of the 
five basic skills, goal setting.  Chapter 4 talks about how to reach 
the goals that have been set by using a flow chart and prioritizing 
daily activities.  Chapter 5 explores the concept of feedback and 
chapter 6 focuses on questions and how to ask them.  Chapter 7 
considers test-taking and describes many different kinds of patterns 
that can be helpful in test-taking: determining the main points of 
structure, distinguishing between content and process, building the 
vocabulary needed to understand the subject, core concepts, comparing 
and contrasting, getting into the subject, and overlearning.  Chapter 
8 presents memory techniques to help readers develop a super memory.  
Chapter 9 explains differences between the left and the right brain, 
and how they can work together better.  Chapter 10 helps readers 
figure out their own personal learning style, chapter 11 explains how 
to turn failures into successes, and chapter 12 focuses on time and 
time management.  The final chapter looks at the important role 
dreams can play in one's life.  (NB)
  Descriptors: *Academic Achievement; *Cognitive Style; Elementary 
Secondary Education; Memory; *Study Skills; Success; *Test Wiseness


  ED356372  CE063457
  The Survivor's Guide to Learning. An Instructional Television 
Series Presented on South Carolina ETV.
  1992
  154p.
  Available From: Program Sales, ACCESS Network, 295 Midpark Way, 
S.E., Calgary, Alberta T2X 2A8, Canada (five video programs with 
student study guides).
  EDRS Price - MF01/PC07 Plus Postage.
  Document Type: INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIAL (051)
  Target Audience: Students
  This guide contains student self-study materials for five 
instructional television programs designed to assist adult students 
in developing their abilities to study and learn.  The guide covers 
five theme areas: the power of questioning; time management; reading, 
note-taking, and recall; concentration; and preparation for 
examinations.  The student study guide expands on the information 
presented in the corresponding television programs (available on 
videocassette) and provides a series of self-help exercises for 
student practice.  (KC)
  Descriptors: Adult Education; *Adult Students; Distance Education; 
Educational Television; Information Seeking; Instructional Materials; 
Learning Strategies; Notetaking; Postsecondary Education; 
*Questioning Techniques; Recall (Psychology); *Study Skills; *Test 
Wiseness; *Time Management


  ED343092  CS010866
  Smart Learning: A Study Skills Guide for Teens.
  Christen, William; Murphy, Thomas
  1992
  123p.
  ISBN: 0-9628556-5-0
  Available From: Grayson Bernard Publishers, P.O. Box 5247, Dept. B, 
Bloomington, IN 47407 ($10.95 plus $2.00 shipping and handling).
  EDRS Price - MF01 Plus Postage. PC Not Available from EDRS.
  Document Type: INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIAL (051);  BOOK (010)
  Target Audience: Students
  This book is designed to help teenagers make the most of their 
study time and learn how to take good notes, how to plan writing 
projects, and how to prepare for tests.  Chapters in the book are: 
What It Takes; Active Learning; Writing; PREPsteps; Take Note; Making 
Time for Time; The Real Test; and Going for the Gold.  (RS)
  Descriptors: Adolescents; Learning Activities; *Learning Strategies; 
*Notetaking; Secondary Education; *Secondary School Students; Study 
Habits; *Study Skills; *Test Wiseness; *Writing (Composition)


  ED335377  TM016987
  Tackling That Test: Everything You Wanted To Know about Taking 
Tests and Exams.
  Withers, Graeme
  1991
  136p.
  ISBN: 0-86431-072-2
  Available From: Australian Council for Educational Research, P.O. 
Box 210, Hawthorn, Victoria 3122, Australia ($15.95 plus 
freight/handling charges).
  Document Not Available from EDRS.
  Document Type: BOOK (010);  NON-CLASSROOM MATERIAL (055);  
INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIAL (051)
  Target Audience: Students; Parents
  This book is directed toward all persons taking tests and 
examinations at school, for a new job, for college or university 
entrance, or for promotion.  Topics discussed include: things 
students should ask themselves before taking a test, the difference 
between tests and examinations, ways of feeling good about a test or 
examination, tactics and strategies for use before and during the 
test session, multiple-choice tests and questions, tests of student 
writing ability, other formats for tests and examinations, and 
conclusions for students and parents after test administration.  A 
test is defined as a collection of tasks, usually in the form of 
questions to be answered, on which student demonstrate their 
abilities, knowledge, or skills.  An examination is defined as a 
specific type of test, relating to a particular course and held at 
the end of that course, for which students can study or become 
prepared.  The book focuses on increasing student self-esteem and 
confidence particularly in regard to test-taking in relatively new or 
unknown situations, and emphasizes taking, rather than passing, tests 
and examinations.  This book is also designed to be useful to parents 
in supporting their children before they take tests and examinations.  
An appendix provides instructions for students taking three different 
tests, and a glossary is included.  (RLC)
  Descriptors: Achievement Tests; Books; College Entrance 
Examinations; *Guidelines; Multiple Choice Tests; Occupational Tests; 
*Parent Role; Standardized Tests; Student Evaluation; *Student Role; 
Test Coaching; *Test Wiseness


  ED339021  CS010762
  Study Smart  Ready-To-Use Reading/Study Skills Activities for 
Grades 5-12.
  Abbamont, Gary W.; Brescher, Antoinette
  1990
  242p.
  ISBN: 0-87628-872-7
  Available From: Simon and Schuster, Mail Order Customer Service, 
Route 59 at Brook Hill Dr., West Nyack, NY 10994 ($29.95 plus 
postage/handling).
  Document Not Available from EDRS.
  Document Type: BOOK (010);  TEACHING GUIDE (052)
  Target Audience: Teachers; Practitioners
  This book provides 150 reproducible worksheet activities which 
teachers can use to help students in grades 5-12 develop reading and 
study skills.  The book's classroom tested activities are organized 
into four sections.  The four units, Developing Reading Skills, 
Developing Study Skills, Locating Information Skills, and Presenting 
Information through Graphic Aids contain activities that help teach 
diverse strategies for learning.  Some skills covered in the book are 
recognizing organization, adjusting reading rate, reading graphic 
aids, and developing vocabulary (unit 1); following oral and written 
directions, taking notes, studying and taking tests, and doing 
homework (unit 2); using the parts of a textbook, using the library, 
and reading to survive (unit 3); and creating pictures, diagrams and 
posters, tables and graphs, and maps and models (unit 4).  (PRA)
  Descriptors: *Class Activities; *Instructional Materials; 
Intermediate Grades; Learning Strategies; *Library Skills; Reading 
Comprehension; *Reading Instruction; Reading Skills; Secondary 
Education; *Study Skills; *Test Wiseness; Visual Aids


  ED320126  CS010123
  Tools for Learning: A Guide to Teaching Study Skills.
  Gall, M. D.; And Others
  1990
  218p.
  Available From: Association for Supervision and Curriculum 
Development, Alexandria, VA ($13.95).
  EDRS Price - MF01 Plus Postage. PC Not Available from EDRS.
  Document Type: BOOK (010);  TEACHING GUIDE (052)
  Target Audience: Teachers; Practitioners
  This book makes the case for providing study skills instruction at 
the elementary and secondary school levels and identifies important 
study skills and how to teach them.  Chapters include: (1) "The Case 
for Study Skills Instruction"; (2) "Theory and Research"; (3) 
"Planning for Study Skills Instruction"; (4) "Self-Management"; (5) 
"Listening, Participating, and Taking Notes in Class"; (6) 
"Completing Reading Assignments"; (7) "Writing School Papers"; and 
(8) "Taking Tests." (SG)
  Descriptors: Class Activities; Educational Research; Educational 
Theories; Elementary School Curriculum; Elementary Secondary 
Education; *Listening; *Notetaking; Secondary School Curriculum; 
Skill Development; Student Participation; *Study Skills; *Teaching 
Guides; Teaching Methods; *Test Wiseness; *Writing Instruction
  Identifiers: *Learning Assistance


  EJ395666  RC507506
  Facing the Reality of Achievement Tests.
  McLellan, Jim; Craig, Cheryl
  Education Canada, v29 n2 p36-40 Sum   1989
  Document Type: JOURNAL ARTICLE (080)
  Target Audience: Teachers; Practitioners
  Outlines the benefits of test taking skills, especially for low 
ability and disadvantaged students, and suggests that achievement 
tests provide valid assessments only of students with the requisite 
test taking skills.  Offers 13 strategies for teachers to prepare 
students for testing.  Contains 19 references.  (SV)
  Descriptors: *Achievement Tests; Disadvantaged; Elementary 
Secondary Education; *Test Coaching; *Test Wiseness


  EJ389575  SE544366
  Fear and Trembling in the Examination Hour.
  Strauss, Michael J.; Clarke, John H.
  Journal of College Science Teaching, v18 n4 p233-35 Feb 
  1989
  Document Type: JOURNAL ARTICLE (080);  PROJECT DESCRIPTION (141)
  Target Audience: Teachers; Practitioners
  Explains the effects of examination fear and anxiety on student 
performance.  Cites ways instructors can intervene to help alleviate 
the problem and better promote learning.  (RT)
  Descriptors: Anxiety; *College Science; *Instructional Improvement; 
*Problem Solving; Science Instruction; Sciences; Science Teachers; 
Teaching Methods; *Test Anxiety; *Test Wiseness; *Undergraduate 
Students


  ED309735  IR013841
  Academic Skills Mini-Module Tools for Achieving Success at NSU. 
Series I: The Role of the Student in Drop Out Intervention.
  Demery, Marie
  7 Mar 1989
  22p.
  EDRS Price - MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
  Document Type: INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIAL (051)
  Target Audience: Students
  This Academic Skills Mini-Module is one of the first documented 
efforts designed for encouraging students to prevent themselves from 
dropping out of college.  It is also a reflection of research 
findings which maintain that any methods used to help students to 
improve their academic performance will also minimize attrition rates.  
Academic performance is a major factor in college attrition, 
irrespective of sex and racial origin.  For that reason, the Academic 
Skills Mini-Module has been designed to be used as a workshop, an 
independent study, and a reference.  It consists of 10 components 
providing information or self-assessment exercises: (1) academic 
skills; (2) goal-setting; (3) time management; (4) note-taking; (5) 
SQ3R Study Method (for reading assignments--Survey, Question, Read, 
Recite, Review); (6) test-taking; (7) summary and self-assessment; 
(8) dropout prevention checklist; (9) academic skills workshop 
evaluation/feedback form; and (10) bibliography.  The results of a 
series of tryouts indicate that this mini-module, although created 
initially for college students, can be modified and used on all 
educational levels.  (GL)
  Descriptors: *Dropout Prevention; Dropout Research; Elementary 
Secondary Education; Higher Education; *Notetaking; *Student 
Attrition; *Study Skills; *Test Wiseness; *Time Management
  Identifiers: *Goal Setting; Northwestern State University LA; SQ3R 
Study Formula


  ED303576  CE051505
  Successful Study Habits. Successful Living Skills.
  1988
  164p.; For related documents, see CE 051 500-506.
  Available From: Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center, 
Oklahoma Department of Vocational and Technical Education, 1500 West 
Seventh Avenue, Stillwater, OK 74074-4364 (Order No. BS1007--$20.00).
  EDRS Price - MF01/PC07 Plus Postage.
  Document Type: TEACHING GUIDE (052)
  Target Audience: Teachers; Practitioners
  This module on successful study habits is one of a series of 
modules designed to help teach students to become more self-
sufficient in their personal and professional lives.  This module 
contains teacher and student materials that are planned to allow 
students to identify areas that they need to improve in order to 
perform their best in school and still have time to spend doing other 
activities.  Three units cover the following topics: (1) time 
management; (2) developing effective learning techniques; and (3) 
effective test taking.  Each instructional unit follows a standard 
format that includes some or all of these eight basic components: 
performance objectives, suggested activities for the instructor, 
information sheets, assignment sheets, job sheets, transparency 
masters, tests, and answers to tests and assignment sheets.  All of 
the unit components focus on measurable and observable learning 
outcomes, and are designed for use for more than one lesson or class 
period.  (KC)
  Descriptors: Basic Skills; Classroom Techniques; Course Content; 
*Daily Living Skills; Learning Activities; Learning Modules; Learning 
Strategies; Lesson Plans; Postsecondary Education; Secondary 
Education; *Skill Development; State Curriculum Guides; Study Habits; 
*Study Skills; Teaching Methods; Test Items; *Test Wiseness; *Time 
Management; Units of Study
  Identifiers: Oklahoma


  EJ348370  SP516518
  Make Your Students Test Savvy.
  Kroen, William
  Instructor, v96 n7 p66 Mar   1987
  Document Type: JOURNAL ARTICLE (080);  NON-CLASSROOM MATERIAL (055)
  Target Audience: Teachers; Practitioners
  Among suggestions for teachers who wish to prepare their students 
for testing are: help students better understand test directions and 
format; caution students not to speed through "easy" questions to 
save time for "harder" ones; and schedule extra time to practice on 
similar tests.  (CB)
  Descriptors: Elementary Education; *Test Coaching; *Test Wiseness


  ED289508  IR012975
  Some Hints on How To Study Effectively. Teaching and Learning in 
Higher Education, 25.
  Ellington, Henry
  1987
  23p.
  EDRS Price - MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
  Document Type: INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIAL (051)
  Target Audience: Students
  Designed to help students develop efficient and effective study 
skills, the first of five sections in this booklet discusses the 
student role, including the overall purpose of a course of study, the 
student's obligations and responsibilities, ways in which a student 
is expected to develop, and the importance of organization.  The 
second section looks at the actual learning process, explaining how 
learning occurs and how to achieve effective learning.  The various 
resources available to students are reviewed in the third section: 
(1) teaching staff; (2) teaching support staff (library staff, 
computer specialists, technicians); (3) student services staff; (4) 
fellow students; (5) private learning resources (lecture notes, 
textbooks); (6) libraries and the materials they contain; (7) 
laboratories, studios, self-study centers, and other specialized 
facilities; and (8) computer facilities and associated software.  
Ways in which students can profit from these resources are also 
suggested.  Focusing on course assignments, the fourth section shows 
how to prepare projects, reports, and essays in a systematic and 
professional manner.  The final section shows how to prepare 
effectively for examinations and describes some test taking 
techniques.  Four references on study methods and three on writing 
are recommended for further reading.  (MES)
  Descriptors: *Assignments; *Educational Resources; Foreign 
Countries; Higher Education; Learning Processes; *Learning Strategies; 
Student Development; Student Responsibility; Student Role; Study 
Habits; *Study Skills; *Test Wiseness; *Writing Skills


  ED289060  CE049287
  Test Anxiety Reduction. Curriculum Guide.
  Silverman, Eda; Hanna, Joyce
  May 1987
  41p.; For related documents, see CE 049 285-286.
  EDRS Price - MF01/PC02 Plus Postage.
  Document Type: TEACHING GUIDE (052)
  Target Audience: Teachers; Practitioners
  This curriculum guide is intended to assist teachers in helping 
their adult and teenage students learn to cope with their test 
anxiety.  The introduction examines some of the causes of test 
anxiety and its negative ramifications from the standpoint of class 
placement, class grades, employment opportunities, and job 
advancement.  General guidelines for presenting the curriculum (which 
is designed to be incorporated into four 2-hour classes) to students 
are listed.  Procedural outlines are provided for each of the four 
classes.  The objectives and goals, instructional procedures, and 
validation methods to be used in each class are cross-referenced.  
The following are among the topics covered during the four classes: 
physical and emotional behaviors associated with test anxiety, test 
anxiety as a conditioned fear, additional stressors experienced by 
minorities and women, general sources of test anxiety, childhood 
messages that lead to test anxiety, personal character traits that 
influence self-image, the connection between self-image and behavior, 
the phenomenon of catastrophicizing, strategies for reversing 
negative messages, strategies for taking reading and math tests, the 
benefits of exercise to reducing test anxiety, physical relaxation, 
stress reduction, methods of handling success, and ways of coping 
with anxiety.  (MN)
  Descriptors: Adult Basic Education; Behavioral Objectives; 
*Behavior Modification; *Change Strategies; Coping; High School 
Equivalency Programs; Learning Activities; Lesson Plans; Relaxation 
Training; *Stress Management; *Test Anxiety; *Test Wiseness
  Identifiers: 310 Project; *General Educational Development Tests


  ED289059  CE049286
  Test Anxiety Reduction. Student Handbook.
  Silverman, Eda; Hanna, Joyce
  May 1987
  17p.; For related documents, see CE 049 285-287.
  EDRS Price - MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
  Document Type: INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIAL (051)
  Target Audience: Students
  This handbook is intended to illustrate to students that they are 
not alone in their fear of tests and to help students reduce their 
own test anxiety.  The handbook is a compilation of writings 
contributed by students who attended an adult basic education (ABE) 
program to prepare teenage and adult students to take the General 
Educational Development (GED) test.  The poems, articles, and 
crossword puzzle included in the handbook reveal their authors' 
personal feelings about tests and explain how learning about methods 
to reduce test anxiety helped them to perform better in testing 
situations.  (MN)
  Descriptors: Adult Basic Education; *Behavior Modification; *Change 
Strategies; Coping; High School Equivalency Programs; Relaxation 
Training; *Stress Management; Student Developed Materials; *Test 
Anxiety; *Test Wiseness
  Identifiers: 310 Project; *General Educational Development Tests


  ED289058  CE049285
  Test Anxiety Reduction. Student Workbook.
  Silverman, Eda; Hanna, Joyce
  May 1987
  28p.; For related documents, see CE 049 286-287.
  EDRS Price - MF01/PC02 Plus Postage.
  Document Type: INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIAL (051)
  Target Audience: Students
  This student workbook is intended for use in helping teenage and 
adult basic education (ABE) students reduce their anxiety over tests 
in general and over the General Educational Development (GED) test in 
particular.  Exercises are provided to help students analyze and 
understand their feelings about and while taking tests, recall the 
childhood messages that they received that have led to their test 
anxiety, analyze their strengths and weaknesses, learn about and 
prepare for taking a test at their designated test site, practice and 
learn general strategies for taking multiple-choice tests, develop 
individual test-taking strategies, learn basic relaxation techniques, 
and develop a plan to handle their test anxiety.  (MN)
  Descriptors: Adult Basic Education; *Behavior Modification; *Change 
Strategies; Coping; High School Equivalency Programs; Relaxation 
Training; *Stress Management; *Test Anxiety; *Test Wiseness
  Identifiers: 310 Project; *General Educational Development Tests


  EJ347009  CS733741
  Conversing About Study Skills.
  Allen, Sheilah
  Highway One, v9 n3 p34-41 Fall   1986
  Document Type: JOURNAL ARTICLE (080);  TEACHING GUIDE (052)
  Target Audience: Teachers; Practitioners
  Suggests ways of diagnosing problems in students' study habits and 
offers strategies for improving study skills and test taking 
strategies.  (SRT)
  Descriptors: Advance Organizers; *Content Area Reading; Diagnostic 
Tests; *Independent Study; Mnemonics; Peer Teaching; Secondary 
Education; Study Guides; *Study Skills; *Test Wiseness; Tutoring
  Identifiers: *SQ3R Study Formula


  EJ329407  CS732219
  PORPE: A Writing Strategy for Studying and Learning in the Content 
Areas.
  Simpson, Michele L.
  Journal of Reading, v29 n5 p407-14 Feb   1986
  Document Type: JOURNAL ARTICLE (080);  TEACHING GUIDE (052)
  Target Audience: Teachers; Practitioners
  Explains a five-step study strategy (PORPE) that can be used in any 
content area: Predicting potential essay questions to guide 
subsequent study; Organizing key ideas using own words; Rehearsing 
the key ideas; Practicing the recall of the key ideas in self-
assigned writing tasks; and Evaluating the completeness, accuracy, 
and appropriateness of the written product.  (HOD)
  Descriptors: Cognitive Processes; Content Area Reading; *Content 
Area Writing; *Essay Tests; Higher Education; *Learning Strategies; 
Secondary Education; *Study Skills; *Teaching Methods; *Test Wiseness; 
Writing Evaluation


  ED275728  TM860642
  Teaching and Testing Solutions to the Problem of Debilitating 
Effects of Test Anxiety on Test Performance.
  Hill, Kennedy T.; Horton, Margaret W.
  24 Feb 1986
  17p.; Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Association of 
Teacher Educators (Atlanta, GA, February 24, 1986).
  EDRS Price - MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
  Document Type: CONFERENCE PAPER (150);  RESEARCH REPORT (143)
  Target Audience: Teachers; Practitioners
  Educational solutions to the problem of test anxiety were explored.  
Test anxiety has a debilitating effect on performance which increases 
over the school years.  The solution is, first, to measure test 
anxiety so that the extent of it, as well as the effectiveness of 
programs designed to alleviate it, can be measured.  The seven-item 
Comfort Index, a shortened version of Sarason's Test Anxiety Scale 
for Children, was employed in five studies conducted to determine 
optimal testing conditions.  Each study generally allowed more time 
than the standard testing condition, or more information about the 
difficulty level and expected performance, or both.  Under optimal 
conditions, anxious students had similar performance as low-anxious 
students.  A curriculum of test taking skills was developed for a 
number of subject areas and presented in grades 2, 3-4, and 5-6.  
Results showed significant gains in achievement test performance at 
all levels.  Significant gains were noted for one-quarter to one-
third of the participants, with high test-anxious students showing 
the most gains.  The curriculum was evaluated by inservice and 
preservice teachers.  Those who expressed an interest in test taking 
skills rated it as more effective and important than those with 
little interest or than inexperienced student teachers.  (GDC)
  Descriptors: Academic Achievement; *Achievement Tests; Affective 
Measures; Curriculum Evaluation; *Educational Testing; Elementary 
Secondary Education; Higher Education; Inservice Teacher Education; 
Preservice Teacher Education; *Response Style (Tests); Scores; *Test 
Anxiety; *Test Coaching; *Test Wiseness
  Identifiers: Comfort Index; Test Anxiety Scale for Children


  ED274922  CG019426
  Test-Taking Strategies and the Self-Sufficient Learner.
  Annis, Linda Ferrill
  22 Aug 1986
  11p.; Paper presented at the Annual Convention of the American 
Psychological Association (94th, Washington, DC, August 22-26, 1986).
  EDRS Price - MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
  Document Type: TEACHING GUIDE (052);  CONFERENCE PAPER (150)
  Target Audience: Teachers; Practitioners
  This paper outlines recommended test-taking strategies for the self-
sufficient learner based on research in cognitive psychology.  The 
theoretical model used is the information-processing approach 
involving the three essential steps of paying attention, encoding, 
and framing associative linkages for the new material.  Preparing for 
examinations is presented as the first hurdle.  It is suggested that 
students keep up with the class by reading, attending lectures, and 
taking notes.  Two research-recommended activities that appear to be 
very helpful in preparing for an examination are discussed: reviewing 
rather than cramming, and finding out the exact kind of test to 
expect.  Different review strategies are examined in terms of the 
information processing model.  A four-step plan for taking a test is 
suggested which involves going through the test four times, with four 
different purposes.  It is noted that test-wise learners, those who 
have acquired the cognitive abilities to do well on a test 
independent of the subjective test content, use an organized approach 
to taking both multiple-choice and essay tests that reduces anxiety 
and maximizes the chances for optimum performance.  Contributions 
from cognitive psychology are presented which include general 
instructions for working through a test as well as more specific 
advice.  Instructors are encouraged to teach the kinds of techniques 
and strategies discussed in this paper in order to help their 
students become test-wise, self-sufficient learners.  (NB)
  Descriptors: *Cognitive Psychology; *Cognitive Style; College 
Students; Higher Education; *Learning Strategies; *Student 
Development; *Study Habits; Study Skills; *Test Wiseness


  EJ323674  EA519203
  Help Kids Do Their Best on Tests.
  Huntington, Fred
  Executive Educator, v7 n9 p20,34 Sep   1985
  Document Type: JOURNAL ARTICLE (080);  NON-CLASSROOM MATERIAL (055)
  Target Audience: Administrators; Practitioners
  Tips on improving student test scores fall into two categories: 
format training and environmental conditions.  Environmental 
conditions include notifying parents of the test, emphasizing the 
importance of the test, and giving the test in familiar surroundings.  
Format training includes explaining multiple-choice options and 
answer sheets.  (MLF)
  Descriptors: Administrator Role; Elementary Secondary Education; 
*Environmental Influences; *Scores; *Standardized Tests; Student 
Improvement; *Test Format; Testing Programs; *Test Wiseness


  EJ323673  EA519202
  Take These Eight Steps to Higher Test Scores.
  Gifford, Charles S.
  Executive Educator, v7 n9 p19 Sep   1985
  Document Type: JOURNAL ARTICLE (080);  NON-CLASSROOM MATERIAL (055)
  Target Audience: Administrators; Practitioners
  Administrators can improve the test scores at their schools by 
working with teachers so that they understand the purpose of the 
testing and by developing a plan for communicating with parents and 
the community about the testing program.  (MLF)
  Descriptors: Administrator Guides; Elementary Secondary Education; 
*Scores; *Standardized Tests; *Testing Programs; *Test Wiseness


  EJ314393  SE537035
  'I Just Can't Take Tests.'
  Middleton, James L.
  Science Teacher, v52 n2 p34-35 Feb   1985
  Document Type: JOURNAL ARTICLE (080);  PROJECT DESCRIPTION (141)
  Target Audience: Teachers; Practitioners
  Suggests teaching study and test taking skills which many students 
do not pick up intuitively.  Includes a list of study tips and test-
taking techniques which may be duplicated and distributed to students.  
(DH)
  Descriptors: Science Education; *Science Instruction; Secondary 
Education; Study Habits; *Study Skills; *Test Wiseness


  ED283864  TM870388
  Testing Tune-Up...A Guide to Peak Performance.
  1985
  93p.
  EDRS Price - MF01/PC04 Plus Postage.
  Document Type: INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIAL (051);  NON-CLASSROOM 
MATERIAL (055)
  Target Audience: Students; Parents; Teachers; Administrators; 
Practitioners
  Students' test scores are influenced by their subject matter 
knowledge, their physical and emotional health, and their skill in 
the mechanics of test taking.  Designed for use in the Detroit 
(Michigan) Public Schools, this document focuses on improving skills 
in the mechanics of test taking.  The first section overviews 
strategies for administrators, test coordinators, teachers, students, 
and parents for before, during, and after a test.  The remaining six 
sections, identified as levels A-F, contain handouts and practice 
exercises to be used, as appropriate, with students in any grade.  
Topics covered include: choosing answers that make sense; trying all 
parts of a test; and following directions.  Answer keys for the 
practice exercises are provided at the end of each section.  It is 
not intended that students work through the entire set of exercises 
at one time, rather, the exercises should be used throughout the 
school year in a manner that allows for review and practice.  (BS)
  Descriptors: Administrator Role; Educational Testing; Elementary 
Secondary Education; *Instructional Materials; *Objective Tests; 
Parent Participation; Teacher Role; *Test Coaching; Test Items; *Test 
Wiseness


  ED272845  CS008500
  S.T.A.R.: A Strategy for Taking Timed Tests.
  Redencich, Marguerite C.
  Forum for Reading, v17 n1 p29-34 Fall-Win 1985  1985
  8p.
  EDRS Price - MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
  Document Type: TEACHING GUIDE (052);  JOURNAL ARTICLE (080);  TEST, 
QUESTIONNAIRE (160)
  Target Audience: Teachers; Practitioners
  Based on the classic test-wiseness principles of J. Millman, C. H. 
Bishop, and R. Ebel, the STAR strategy streamlines the taking of 
timed tests.  Before explaining the strategy to students, the 
instructor can convince students of the advantages of the strategy by 
administering a short test to determine students' test-wiseness.  The 
STAR strategy consists of the following steps: (1) survey the test to 
gauge time in terms of item difficulty and point value; (2) take time 
to read directions carefully; (3) answer test items as directed, 
answering familiar questions and marking unfamiliar ones to return to 
later; and (4) reread the questions and the answers, revising when 
necessary.  (A copy of a test-wiseness test and a detailed 
explanation of the STAR strategy are included.) (HTH)
  Descriptors: Elementary Secondary Education; Essay Tests; Objective 
Tests; Student Evaluation; *Study Skills; Test Coaching; *Test 
Wiseness; *Timed Tests
  Identifiers: *STAR Test Taking Strategy


  ED255829  CG018161
  Teaching Yourself: A Guide to Better Study Skills and Habits.
  Leverett, Rudy
  Aug 1984
  34p.
  EDRS Price - MF01/PC02 Plus Postage.
  Document Type: INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIAL (051)
  Target Audience: Students
  This guide was developed to help students learn how to study.  
Suggestions are given for when to study, where to study, what to 
study, and how to study.  The need to understand assignments and to 
turn in homework assignments on time is emphasized.  Use of the 
library is explained, and suggestions for taking and using good notes 
are given.  Ways to prepare for tests are discussed and test-taking 
procedures are described.  Techniques for answering essay questions 
are included.  Critical thinking is explained and ways to evaluate 
information are discussed.  A list of questions to help students 
decide how much credence to give to something they have heard or read 
is provided.  The final section of the guide is concerned with 
fallacies.  Different types of fallacies are illustrated to help 
students recognize them.  The fallacies discussed are divided into 
two groups: fallacies of relevance, which are characterized by a lack 
of relevance between conclusions and the reasons given in support of 
those conclusions; and fallacies of ambiguity, which are 
characterized by vagueness or lack of precision or reference.  
Several examples of both types of fallacies are provided.  (NRB)
  Descriptors: Assignments; *Critical Thinking; Elementary Secondary 
Education; Essay Tests; Homework; Multiple Choice Tests; *Notetaking; 
*Review (Reexamination); Students; Study Guides; Study Habits; *Study 
Skills; *Test Wiseness
  Identifiers: *Fallacies


  ED245758  JC840380
  How to Lower Your Anxiety about Tests: An Edited Transcript of an 
Audio Tape for College Students--With an Outline and Introductory 
Comments.
  Hodges, Daniel L.
  [1984
  33p.
  EDRS Price - MF01/PC02 Plus Postage.
  Document Type: INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIAL (051)
  Target Audience: Students; Teachers; Practitioners
  This guide provides an outline of the information and techniques 
covered on an audiotape developed to help students lower their test 
anxiety.  First, a rationale for the development of the test anxiety 
materials is provided and the use of these materials at Lane 
Community College is discussed.  Next, a detailed outline of the 
material is provided, dividing the tape into the following sections: 
(1) introduction to the problem of test anxiety, the tape, and the 
sources used in the development of the tape; (2) general facts about 
worry and anxiety; (3) how to feel safe and reduce test anxiety by, 
for example, imagining the worst, accepting it, and improving upon it 
and preparing self-talk and self-hypnotic affirmations; (4) how to 
lower the sense that danger is imminent; (5) how to get belief that 
you have enough resources to cope successfully with test questions; 
(6) how to form an over-riding goal and make the goal more important 
than escaping danger; (7) how to focus on stimulus so that you don't 
think of the test; (8) what to do if you try these things and you 
still feel anxious on the test; (9) what to do if nothing works and 
you are in a severe panic and cannot work at all; (10) a warning 
about the things that you may have to change about yourself in order 
to successfully lower test anxiety; and (11) parting advice about 
implementing the techniques and learning more.  The edited transcript 
is presented last, providing additional detail and advice.  (HB)
  Descriptors: Community Colleges; *Learning Strategies; *Relaxation 
Training; Self Help Programs; *Test Anxiety; *Test Wiseness; Two Year 
Colleges


  ED244974  TM840277
  How to Prepare for and Take Examinations.
  Jul 1983
  9p.
  EDRS Price - MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
  Document Type: INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIAL (051)
  Target Audience: Students
  This guide to preparing for, and taking, examinations was designed 
for college students.  The booklet recommends a series of techniques 
for proper preparation.  These include making a semester, or quarter, 
study plan; and appropriate scheduling of study time and 
determination of a study area.  Good review techniques involve 
planning a systematic review, summarizing text and class notes, and 
reviewing material with classmates.  The pre-exam hours should be 
well organized to allow ample rest, adequate time to arrive at 
testing site, and time to eat a sensible meal.  The student's 
approach to the exam should be planned.  Directions and test items 
should be read carefully, jotting down key words and phrases from 
memory.  The student should begin with the easiest questions and 
write neatly and legibly.  A review of corrected exam papers will 
enable a student to make each exam a learning experience.  Samples of 
various types of test items are included.  (DWH)
  Descriptors: *College Students; Higher Education; Scheduling; Study 
Guides; Study Habits; Study Skills; *Test Coaching; *Test Wiseness


  ED237581  TM832016
  Test Taking Skills. A SORD Project.
  Phillips, Art
  Mar 1983
  7p.; For related document, see TM 832 015.
  Available From: Jackson Education Service District, 101 North 
Grape, Medford, OR 97501 ($3.00 per 25 copies, plus postage).
  EDRS Price - MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
  Document Type: NON-CLASSROOM MATERIAL (055)
  Target Audience: Teachers; Students
  This pamphlet, prepared by the Southern Oregon Research and 
Development Committee (SORD), offers suggestions for students and 
teachers for improving students' test-taking skills.  Among the 
skills that students should possess to be prepared for taking tests 
are knowing the purposes of testing, having experience and practice 
in testing and following directions, knowing the advantages of 
guessing, and being prepared.  Seven suggestions for students to 
consider prior to taking tests cover such topics as studying, diet, 
exercise, and comfortable dress.  Included in the 14 suggestions for 
students to follow during tests are hints concerning directions, time 
management, math problems, and reading tests.  Twelve guidelines are 
offered for deductive reasoning during tests including eliminating 
incorrect options, examining questions for clues to the answer, 
reading questions first on a reading test, and making use of patterns 
in the test.  Information provided for teachers includes a 
description of the problem of students who lack test-taking skills, a 
definition of test wiseness, suggestions for helping students become 
better test takers, and suggestions for maintaining a good testing 
environment.  (DC)
  Descriptors: Deduction; Elementary Secondary Education; Guidelines; 
Pamphlets; *Skill Development; Student Improvement; *Test Wiseness
  Identifiers: PF Project


  ED237580  TM832015
  Test Taking Skills for Primary Grades. A SORD Project.
  Phillips, Art
  Mar 1983
  6p.; For related document, see TM 832 016.
  Available From: Jackson Education Service District, 101 North 
Grape, Medford, OR 97501 ($3.00 per 25 copies, plus postage).
  EDRS Price - MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
  Document Type: NON-CLASSROOM MATERIAL (055)
  Target Audience: Students; Teachers
  This pamphlet, prepared by the Southern Oregon Research and 
Development Committee (SORD), offers suggestions for students and 
teachers for improving the test-taking skills of primary school 
students.  Seven suggestions for students to consider prior to taking 
tests cover such topics as studying, diet, exercise, and comfortable 
dress.  Included in the 11 suggestions for students to follow during 
the test are hints concerning directions, time management, math 
problems, and reading tests.  Information provided for teachers 
includes a description of the problem of students who lack test-
taking skills, a definition of test wiseness, suggestions for helping 
students become better test takers, and suggestions for maintaining a 
good testing environment.  (DC)
  Descriptors: Guidelines; Pamphlets; Primary Education; *Skill 
Development; Student Improvement; *Test Wiseness
  Identifiers: PF Project


  ED235200  TM830605
  Test Taking Skills: Incorporating Them into the Curriculum.
  Phillips, Art
  May 1983
  50p.; A project of the Southern Oregon Research and Development 
Committee (SORD).
  Available From: SORD, Jackson ESD, 101 N. Grape St., Medford, OR 
97501 ($3.00).
  EDRS Price - MF01/PC02 Plus Postage.
  Document Type: TEACHING GUIDE (052)
  Target Audience: Administrators; Teachers; Practitioners
  Because test scores reflect not only a student's knowledge in a 
given area, but also his or her familiarity with cues present in the 
test, and because tests are so prevalent and important in schools, 
there is a great need to teach test wiseness skills.  It is ethical 
to do so if no material from the final test is included.  Certain 
principles and strategies of test taking which can be taught include 
time management, error-avoidance, guessing strategies, and deductive 
reasoning skills.  Test wise people will look for flaws in test 
construction to improve their scores.  Determining the relationship 
between subject matter and the difficulty of neighboring items can 
also be taught.  The strategies can be applied to multiple-choice and 
true-false tests as well as essay tests.  Test makers are aware that 
test taking skills are being taught and can manipulate and lure the 
individual taking the test to select an incorrect answer.  There is 
no substitute, therefore, for direct knowledge.  (HFG)
  Descriptors: Curriculum Enrichment; *Curriculum Guides; Guessing 
(Tests); High Schools; Response Style (Tests); *Skill Analysis; 
Standardized Tests; *Test Coaching; *Test Validity; *Test Wiseness


  ED230573  TM830258
  Improving Test-Taking Skills.
  Summers, Jerry A.; Shobe, Robert E.
  Mar 1983
  29p.
  Available From: Curriculum Research and Development Center, 
Statesman Towers West, School of Education, Indiana State University, 
Terre Haute, IN 47809
  EDRS Price - MF01/PC02 Plus Postage.
  Document Type: NON-CLASSROOM MATERIAL (055)
  Target Audience: Practitioners
  The authors state that this monograph provides information on how 
teachers and other school officials may assist students to score 
better on tests.  The emphasis is on the development of test-taking 
skills, rather than on cognitive development.  The contents include: 
(1) matching objectives, instruction, and testing; (2) assessment and 
test anxiety; (3) testwiseness and pupil achievement; (4) improving 
test scores by guessing; and (5) a selected bibliography.  (PN)
  Descriptors: Achievement Gains; Elementary Secondary Education; 
Guessing (Tests); Instructional Materials; Intentional Learning; Test 
Anxiety; *Test Coaching; Testing Problems; *Test Wiseness


  ED252836  CS007906
  College Study Skills Program, Level III. Student Text.
  Fitzpatrick, Elaine M.
  1982
  129p.; Developed by the Study Skills Group. For the instructor's 
guide, level III, see CS 007 905. For other related documents, see CS 
007 901-904.
  Available From: National Association of Secondary School 
Principals, 1904 Association Drive, Reston, VA 22091 ($4.50, plus 
shipping).
  EDRS Price - MF01 Plus Postage. PC Not Available from EDRS.
  Document Type: INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIAL (051)
  Target Audience: Students
  The 12 activity-oriented units described in this study skills guide 
are designed to help students in grades 11 through 13 become more 
skillful at learning on their own.  The guide addresses a wide range 
of student needs, allows for the participation of students with a 
diversity of skills, and promotes learning on various levels of 
competence.  The units in the guide cover the following topics: (1) 
listening, (2) taking notes as a college survival skill, (3) learning 
to survey, (4) thinking about new words, (5) asking useful questions, 
(6) learning from reading, (7) taking charge of one's learning, (8) 
understanding and improving memory, (9) reading flexibly, (10) 
gaining from discussions, (11) learning from visuals, and (12) 
preparing for and taking exams.  Each unit in the guide also includes 
a brief section entitled "Learning Study Skills on Your Own." In 
addition, the guide gives an introduction to a skill or concept and 
directions through which to pursue it.  (HOD)
  Descriptors: Higher Education; High Schools; Independent Study; 
Learning Strategies; Memory; *Notetaking; *Reading Comprehension; 
Reading Strategies; Recall (Psychology); *Study Habits; *Study Skills; 
*Test Wiseness; *Vocabulary Development


  ED252835  CS007905
  College Study Skills Program, Level III. Instructor's Guide.
  Fitzpatrick, Elaine M.
  1982
  81p.; Developed by the Study Skills Group. For the student text, 
level III, see CS 007 906; For other related documents, see CS 007 
901-904.
  Available From: National Association of Secondary School 
Principals, 1904 Association Drive, Reston, VA 22091 ($3.50, plus 
shipping).
  EDRS Price - MF01 Plus Postage. PC Not Available from EDRS.
  Document Type: TEACHING GUIDE (052)
  Target Audience: Practitioners
  Designed to introduce the study skills needed for college work for 
students in grades 11 through 13, this teacher's guide provides a 
series of 12 activity-oriented units, most of which require from 70 
to 100 minutes of instructional time.  The guide is designed to 
address a wide range of student needs, allow for the participation of 
students with a diversity of skills, and promote learning on various 
levels of competence.  The units in the guide cover the following 
topics: (1) listening is tuning in, (2) taking notes as a college 
survival skill, (3) learning to survey, (4) thinking about new words, 
(5) asking useful questions, (6) learning from reading, (7) taking 
charge of one's learning, (8) understanding and improving memory, (9) 
reading flexibly, (10) gaining from discussions, (11) learning from 
visuals, and (12) preparing for and taking exams.  In addition, the 
guide suggests directions for teaching each unit, and provides a 
summary discussion at the end of each unit.  (HOD)
  Descriptors: Higher Education; High Schools; Learning Strategies; 
Memory; *Notetaking; *Reading Comprehension; Reading Strategies; 
Recall (Psychology); *Study Habits; *Study Skills; Teaching Guides; 
*Test Wiseness; Vocabulary Development


  ED235125  SP023017
  Study Skills: Study Your Way to Success. Kindergarten-6th.
  1982
  83p.
  EDRS Price - MF01/PC04 Plus Postage.
  Document Type: TEACHING GUIDE (052);  BIBLIOGRAPHY (131)
  Target Audience: Teachers; Students
  This booklet provides a multi-curriculum collection of ideas and 
activities designed to improve the study skills of students in 
kindergarten through sixth grade.  This collection of ideas and 
activities may be used to supplement learning activities in any 
classroom, and many of the booklet's pages may be duplicated for 
parent or student use.  Suggestions are made on how parents and 
teachers may help students develop good study habits, and pointers 
are given for students on organizing profitable study time.  The 
scope and sequence of study skills according to expected grade-level 
accomplishment are listed.  Student activity pages are provided in 
the areas of study habits, taking notes, reports and projects, and 
test taking.  An extensive bibliography of resources is included.  
(JD)
  Descriptors: Elementary Education; *Notetaking; Parent Role; 
Student Behavior; Student Improvement; *Student Motivation; *Study 
Habits; *Study Skills; Teacher Role; *Test Wiseness


  ED230611  TM830441
  Helping Students Do Their Best on Standardized Achievement Tests. 
Bulletin No. 6.
  1 Apr 1982
  11p.
  EDRS Price - MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
  Document Type: SERIAL (022);  NON-CLASSROOM MATERIAL (055)
  Target Audience: Practitioners
  The Research and Evaluation Branch of the Los Angeles Unified 
School District presents a bulletin to help prepare students to do 
their best on achievement tests.  The bulletin is divided into five 
sections.  After an introduction, section 2, "Characteristics of 
Today's Standardized Achievement Tests" discusses test content, test 
format, answer documents, machine scoring, and time limits.  The next 
section, "Developing Student Readiness for Test Taking" includes test 
content readiness, test-taking skill readiness, and emotional 
readiness.  Section 4, "Providing for Optimal Test Administration" 
attends to the physical setting, preparation for test administration, 
and the day of testing.  Section 5, is a ten-item "Student Checklist 
for Test-Taking." (PN)
  Descriptors: Academic Achievement; Achievement Tests; Check Lists; 
Elementary Secondary Education; Intentional Learning; *School 
Districts; Scores; *Standardized Tests; *Test Coaching; Test Results; 
*Test Wiseness
  Identifiers: *Los Angeles Unified School District CA


  ED220542  TM820598
  Teaching Students to Be Testwise: A Handbook for Teachers Who 
Administer or Construct Tests, Grades K-12.
  1982
  20p.
  Available From: Publications Services, Room 55, Montgomery County 
Public Schools, 850 Hungerford Drive, Rockville, Md. 20850
  EDRS Price - MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
  Document Type: TEACHING GUIDE (052)
  Target Audience: Practitioners
  This handbook for teachers of kindergarten through grade twelve was 
developed to assist those who administer or construct tests.  The 
publication was written in response to a Montgomery County Public 
Schools citizens' advisory committee recommendation that reflected 
concern about the need to improve students' test-taking skills.  The 
handbook discusses test strategies for teachers, including creation 
of an environment conducive to administering standardized tests and 
to construction and use of teacher-made tests.  The second part of 
the handbook discusses strategies for helping students to become test-
wise.  An annotated bibliography contains instructional resources for 
teachers, resources for students, professional resources, and 
videotapes.  (DWH)
  Descriptors: Elementary School Students; Elementary Secondary 
Education; Examiners; Secondary School Students; *Standardized Tests; 
*Student Development; *Teacher Made Tests; Test Coaching; *Test 
Construction; Test Format; *Test Wiseness


  ED292846  TM011226
  Test-Taking Skills.
  10 Feb 1981
  18p.
  Available From: New York City Board of Education, Division of 
Curriculum and Instruction, 131 Livington St., Room 613, Brooklyn, NY 
11201 ($1.00).
  EDRS Price - MF01 Plus Postage. PC Not Available from EDRS.
  Document Type: TEACHING GUIDE (052)
  Target Audience: Teachers; Practitioners
  Samples of classroom activities designed to provide practice in 
specific test-taking skills are provided for use by teachers in the 
New York City school system.  This guide provides activities that aid 
children in following instructions, time management, use of separate 
answer sheets, answer choice, and scanning and skimming.  
Unacceptable teaching practices mentioned briefly include the use of 
tests as teaching materials, familiarizing students with specific 
test content, and departing from test restrictions such as standard 
time limits.  Copies of the exercises are included.  (TJH)
  Descriptors: Class Activities; Classroom Techniques; Elementary 
Secondary Education; *Instructional Materials; *Test Coaching; *Test 
Wiseness; Time Management
  Identifiers: *New York City Board of Education


  ED246103  TM840378
  A Guide to Test Taking as Easy as...1, 2, 3.
  Caswell, Martha S.; Olsen, June
  [1981
  43p.
  EDRS Price - MF01/PC02 Plus Postage.
  Document Type: TEACHING GUIDE (052)
  Target Audience: Teachers; Practitioners
  This guide book was developed for use by school staff, parents, and 
students.  It outlines strategies and test-taking skills which may be 
taught in the classroom.  The guide provides sample instruments to 
determine what students know about test taking, and practice tests at 
the elementary and secondary level.  Time management hints for test 
takers are also included.  Students should be fully informed about 
the features of the test, reasons for its administration, and scoring 
procedures.  Physical and emotional readiness will reduce a student's 
test anxiety.  Students should receive instruction in problem solving 
strategies and recognition of various test formats.  (DWH)
  Descriptors: Elementary School Teachers; Elementary Secondary 
Education; *Guides; Secondary School Teachers; Test Anxiety; Test 
Coaching; Test Format; *Testing; *Test Wiseness
  Identifiers: Michigan Educational Assessment Program


  ED239183  CG017230
  Study Habits: Advice to Students, Parents and Teachers from 
Research Data.
  Thompson, Mark E.
  Sep 1981
  155p.
  EDRS Price - MF01/PC07 Plus Postage.
  Document Type: CLASSROOM MATERIAL (050);  REVIEW LITERATURE (070)
  Target Audience: Students; Parents; Teachers
  This guide, written for parents, teachers, and students, presents 
advice on academic study habits derived from research data.  Part 1 
of the text presents the research evidence in five chapters: chapter 
1 reviews common study skills problems; chapter 2 focuses 
specifically on research data from eight studies which successfully 
used precollege study skills/remedial courses with underdeveloped 
students; chapter 3 presents the research literature on identifying 
study skills problems; chapter 4 outlines ways to overcome poor study 
habits; and chapter 5 presents the implications of the research for 
remedial program design.  Part 2 of the text presents specific and 
detailed suggestions for student study skill development in five 
chapters devoted to academic classes and classroom protocol, 
notetaking, listening, reading, and test taking.  Chapter 11 presents 
concluding remarks.  A comprehensive bibliography and name and 
subject indexes are included.  (BL)
  Descriptors: Cognitive Processes; Educational Environment; Learning; 
*Listening Skills; *Notetaking; *Reading Strategies; *Remedial 
Programs; Student Characteristics; *Study Habits; *Test Wiseness


  ED252834  CS007904
  Study Skills Program, Level II. Student Text.
  Marshak, David
  1979
  100p.; Developed by the Study Skills Group. For the teacher's 
guide, level II, see CS 007 903. For other related documents, see CS 
007 901-906.
  Available From: National Association of Secondary School 
Principals, 1904 Association Drive, Reston, VA 22091 ($4.50, plus 
shipping).
  EDRS Price - MF01 Plus Postage. PC Not Available from EDRS.
  Document Type: INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIAL (051)
  Target Audience: Students
  The 12 activity-oriented units described in this study skills guide 
for students in the eighth, ninth, and tenth grades are designed to 
assist in the development of necessary study skills at most levels of 
competence and to reinforce already existing skills.  The units in 
the guide also attempt to incorporate as much student activity as 
possible, and focus on such topics as (1) learning to listen, (2) 
vocabulary (getting meaning from context), (3) notetaking methods, 
(4) listening and taking notes, (5) a way to read textbooks, (6) 
vocabulary (literal and figurative meanings), (7) how one studies, 
(8) improving memory, (9) preparing for and taking tests--objective 
questions, (10) organizing the paragraph, (11) organizing the 
paragraph (continued) and answering essay questions, and (12) using 
one's time.  (HOD)
  Descriptors: Listening Skills; *Notetaking; *Paragraph Composition; 
Reading Comprehension; Recall (Psychology); Secondary Education; 
*Study Habits; *Study Skills; *Test Wiseness; *Vocabulary Development


  ED252833  CS007903
  Study Skills Program, Level II. Teacher's Guide.
  Marshak, David
  1979
  47p.; Developed by the Study Skills Group. For the student text, 
level II, see CS 007 904; For other related documents, see CS 007 901-
906.
  Available From: National Association of Secondary School 
Principals, 1904 Association Drive, Reston, VA 22091 ($3.50, plus 
shipping).
  EDRS Price - MF01 Plus Postage. PC Not Available from EDRS.
  Document Type: TEACHING GUIDE (052)
  Target Audience: Practitioners
  Designed to provide an introduction to study skills for students in 
the eighth, ninth, and tenth grades, this teacher's guide provides a 
series of 12 activity-oriented units, most of which require one 
period of class time.  The units in the guide cover the following 
topics: (1) learning to listen, (2) vocabulary (getting meaning from 
context), (3) notetaking methods, (4) listening and taking notes, (5) 
a way to read textbooks, (6) vocabulary (literal and figurative 
meanings), (7) how one studies, (8) improving memory, (9) preparing 
for and taking tests--objective questions, (10) organizing the 
paragraph, (11) organizing the paragraph (continued) and answering 
essay questions, and (12) using one's time.  In addition, the guide 
provides a comprehensive overview of study skills, directions for the 
classroom use of the student text, and practical suggestions for 
further study skills instruction.  (HOD)
  Descriptors: Listening Skills; *Notetaking; *Paragraph Composition; 
Reading Comprehension; Recall (Psychology); Secondary Education; 
*Study Habits; *Study Skills; Teaching Guides; *Test Wiseness; 
*Vocabulary Development

[Table of Contents]

ERIC Documents Citations for Study Skills & Test Taking Skills for Special Needs Students


  EJ532499  EC614854
  LEARN to Succeed.
  Day, Victoria P.; Hackett, Gail S.
  TEACHING Exceptional Children, v29 n2 p70-71 Nov-Dec 
  1996
  ISSN: 0040-0599
  Document Type: JOURNAL ARTICLE (080);  TEACHING GUIDE (052)
  Target Audience: Teachers; Practitioners
  This article describes LEARN, a five-step plan to help students 
with disabilities succeed on tests.  The steps include listen for 
hints, clues, and important information; examine notes, books, and 
papers; apply study and memory strategies; review every night; and 
nail the test.  The benefits to using this approach are reviewed.  
(CR)
  Descriptors: *Disabilities; Elementary Secondary Education; 
*Learning Strategies; *Test Wiseness


  EJ452964  EC604532
  The Testing Practices of Mainstream Secondary Classroom Teachers.
  Putnam, M. Lewis
  Remedial and Special Education (RASE), v13 n5 p11-21 Sep-Oct 
  1992
  ISSN: 0741-9325
  Document Type: JOURNAL ARTICLE (080);  RESEARCH REPORT (143)
  Target Audience: Practitioners
  Interviews with 60 grade 7 and 60 grade 10 teachers examined their 
testing practices in English, science, social studies, and 
mathematics.  Results suggest that special education teachers need to 
teach adolescents with mild disabilities effective test-taking 
strategies and skills to enable them to cope in general education 
classrooms.  Specific test-taking strategies and instructional 
procedures are discussed.  (Author/DB)
  Descriptors: *Learning Strategies; *Mainstreaming; *Mild 
Disabilities; Regular and Special Education Relationship; Secondary 
Education; Skill Development; *Teaching Methods; *Test Coaching; 
*Test Wiseness


  EJ441266  EC602558
  Test-Taking Strategy Instruction for Adolescents with Learning 
Disabilities  and  Reflections.
  Hughes, Charles A.; Schumaker, Jean B.
  Exceptionality: A Research Journal, v2 n4 p205-21,237-42 
  1991
  ISSN: 0936-2835
  Document Type: RESEARCH REPORT (143);  EVALUATIVE REPORT (142);  
POSITION PAPER (120);  JOURNAL ARTICLE (080)
  Target Audience: Teachers; Practitioners
  This study used a seven-stage instructional methodology to 
successfully teach a comprehensive test-taking strategy to six 
secondary learning-disabled students.  Evidence of maintenance and 
generalization is reported.  In the second article, answers are 
presented to questions about strategy training in general and this 
study in particular.  (Author/DB)
  Descriptors: Generalization; *Instructional Effectiveness; 
*Learning Disabilities; *Learning Strategies; Maintenance; Secondary 
Education; *Teaching Methods; *Test Wiseness


  EJ418322  EC232079
  May the FORCE Be with You: A Test Preparation Strategy for Learning 
Disabled Adults.
  Wehrung-Schaffner, Linda; Sapona, Regina H.
  Academic Therapy, v25 n3 p291-300 Jan   1990
  Document Type: JOURNAL ARTICLE (080);  NON-CLASSROOM MATERIAL (055)
  Target Audience: Teachers; Practitioners
  The FORCE strategy was designed as a simple, step-by-step procedure 
to assist learning-disabled adolescents in preparing for tests.  The 
steps are find out, organize, review, concentrate, and examine early 
(pretest).  The article discusses application of the strategy and 
issues relating to generalization of the strategy to other subject 
areas.  (JDD)
  Descriptors: Adolescents; Generalization; *Learning Disabilities; 
Secondary Education; *Skill Development; *Teaching Methods; *Test 
Wiseness


  EJ367470  EC201937
  Teaching Test Taking Skills.
  Rothman, Rosalind W.; Cohen, Jill
  Academic Therapy, v23 n4 p341-48 Mar   1988
  Document Type: JOURNAL ARTICLE (080);  POSITION PAPER (120);  NON-
CLASSROOM MATERIAL (055)
  Target Audience: Practitioners
  Test-taking skills should be part of learning-disabled students' 
instruction.  Student performance on previous tests should be 
analyzed to determine lack of information, carelessness, 
misinterpretation, material not studied, or incorrect reading.  
Notetaking techniques, language problems, and special problems 
presented by essay tests and math tests are other concerns of 
learning-disabled students.  (Author/JDD)
  Descriptors: *Achievement Tests; Curriculum; Elementary Secondary 
Education; *Learning Disabilities; Learning Strategies; *Skill 
Development; Teaching Methods; *Testing; *Test Wiseness


  EJ354004  EC192531
  Reading Tests and the Deaf Reader.
  Ewoldt, Carolyn
  Perspectives for Teachers of the Hearing Impaired, v5 n4 p21-24 Mar-
     Apr 1987
  Document Type: JOURNAL ARTICLE (080);  REVIEW LITERATURE (070)
  Target Audience: Teachers; Practitioners
  Standardized reading tests are likely to provide an inaccurate 
assessment of reading comprehension for deaf students due to the lack 
of test coaching and test taking skills; item irrelevancy; and the 
difficulty of test directions.  Testing alternatives include parent 
and teacher observation of students and qualitative evaluations of 
reading skills and strategies.  (CB)
  Descriptors: *Deafness; Elementary Secondary Education; Reading 
Comprehension; *Reading Tests; *Standardized Tests; *Testing Problems; 
Test Validity; *Test Wiseness


  EJ343893  EC190823
  Instructional Strategies for Enhancing Learning Disabled Students' 
Reading Comprehension and Comprehension Test Performance.
  Wong, Bernice Y. L.
  Canadian Journal for Exceptional Children, v2 n4 p128-32 Sum 
  1986
  Document Type: NON-CLASSROOM MATERIAL (055);  REVIEW LITERATURE 
(070);  JOURNAL ARTICLE (080)
  Target Audience: Practitioners
  Successful instructional strategies for enhancing the reading 
comprehension and comprehension test performance of learning disabled 
students are described.  Students are taught to self-monitor their 
comprehension of expository materials and stories through recognition 
and analysis of recurrent elements and problem passages, content 
summarization, and analysis of reading comprehension questions.  (CB)
  Descriptors: Elementary Secondary Education; Inquiry; *Learning 
Disabilities; *Questioning Techniques; *Reading Comprehension; 
Reading Tests; Self Evaluation (Individuals); *Teaching Methods; 
*Test Wiseness


  ED268772  EC182388
  Teaching Test-Taking and Note-Taking Skills to Learning Disabled 
High School Students.
  Anderman, Robert C.; Williams, Jane M.
  1 Apr 1986
  93p.; Paper presented at the Annual Convention of the Council for 
Exceptional Children (64th, New Orleans, LA, March 31-April 4, 1986). 
Document contains light type.
  Available From: Dr. Jane Williams, Wheaton High School, 12601 
Dalewood Dr., Wheaton, MD 20906 ($2.00 to cover mailing costs).
  EDRS Price - MF01 Plus Postage. PC Not Available from EDRS.
  Document Type: CONFERENCE PAPER (150);  TEACHING GUIDE (052)
  Target Audience: Teachers; Practitioners
  The materials were developed to help prepare eleventh and twelfth 
graders to be successful in an academic environment when their school 
history indicated little chance for success.  The booklet includes 
instructional materials to teach test-taking and note-taking, two 
skills many failing students lack.  A syllabus is included for each 
unit along with class notes, activity sheets, and unit tests with 
answer keys.  The instructional materials are designed for students 
with a wide range of skill levels.  The test-taking unit covers such 
topics as strategies for answering multiple choice test items, true-
false test questions, fill-in-the-blank questions; preparing for 
tests; and understanding words used in essay questions.  The unit on 
notetaking addresses such aspects as listening skills and notetaking 
from lectures and written materials.  (CL)
  Descriptors: Course Content; High Schools; *Learning Disabilities; 
*Notetaking; *Study Skills; Test Items; *Test Wiseness


  EJ327846  CS732104
  Teaching Test-Taking Techniques to the Gifted.
  Chaika, Glori
  Clearing House, v59 n4 p182-84 Dec   1985
  Document Type: JOURNAL ARTICLE (080);  TEACHING GUIDE (052)
  Target Audience: Teachers; Practitioners
  Describes a test-taking course designed to prepare seventh-grade 
students for the SAT.
  Descriptors: *Academically Gifted; *Course Content; Elementary 
Secondary Education; *Standardized Tests; *Teaching Methods; *Test 
Coaching; *Test Wiseness


  ED286308  EC200486
  Test Preparation and Test Taking Techniques. Postsecondary 
Intervention Model for Learning Disabilities. Study Manual #1.
  Friedman, Brenda G.; And Others
  Aug 1985
  19p.; For other manuals in this series, see EC 200 487-490.
  EDRS Price - MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
  Document Type: NON-CLASSROOM MATERIAL (055)
  Target Audience: Practitioners; Students
  The booklet offers techniques to help language learning disabled 
college students and their tutors improve test-taking performance.  
The importance of mastering time management and study skills is 
stressed.  Basic notetaking guidelines are presented, including use 
of a two-column system so that material on the right may be 
consolidated and interpreted on the left.  An example of such an 
approach is offered.  Use of charts, diagrams, and simple line 
drawings is discussed, as is the need for continual repetition and 
drill along with other memory aids.  Suggestions for better test 
performance focus on the following test types: true-false, multiple 
choice, matching questions, sentence completion, and essays.  
Examples of each type are offered along with recommended approaches 
to the type of test.  Key words in essay questions are listed and 
explained.  Students are advised to proofread answers before turning 
tests in and to review patterns of errors on returned tests so as to 
better direct their study habits for future exams.  (CL)
  Descriptors: *College Students; Higher Education; *Learning 
Disabilities; *Notetaking; Response Style (Tests); *Study Skills; 
Test Anxiety; Test Coaching; *Test Wiseness; *Tutoring


  ED254997  EC172049
  Improving the Test-Taking Skills of Learning Disabled Students.
  Scruggs, Thomas E.; Jenkins, Vesna
  Feb 1985
  10p.; Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Association for 
Children and Adults with Learning Disabilities (San Francisco, CA, 
February 20-23, 1985).
  EDRS Price - MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
  Document Type: CONFERENCE PAPER (150);  NON-CLASSROOM MATERIAL 
(055)
  Target Audience: Practitioners
  Research on test taking skills of LD (learning disabled) students 
is reviewed and implications for improving the skill are noted.  
Among findings considered are that separate answer sheets appear to 
inhibit the performance of LD students, LD students can benefit from 
training and demonstrate improved attitudes toward testing, and 
students should answer all questions and should be encouraged to 
change any answer of which they are unsure.  Intervention in test 
taking includes six quidelines: focus on the appropriate stimulus, 
attend to all distractors, answer all questions, never skip an 
answer, guess at an answer if necessary, and attend to the 
appropriate stimulus in the question.  The paper concludes with four 
multiple choice questions designed to illustrate test-taking skills 
and strategies.  (CL)
  Descriptors: Elementary Secondary Education; *Intervention; 
*Learning Disabilities; Teaching Methods; *Test Wiseness


  ED256083  EC170490
  Teaching Test-Taking Skills to Learning Disabled and Behaviorally 
Disordered Children. SUPER SCORE: Test Taking Manuals and Workbooks.
  Scruggs, Thomas E.; Williams, N. Joanne
  2 Jul 1984
  312p.; Part of this document in: Scruggs, Thomas E. The 
Administration and Interpretation of Standardized Achievement Tests 
with Learning Disabled and Behaviorally Disordered Elementary School 
Children. Final Report. See EC 170 489.
  EDRS Price - MF01/PC13 Plus Postage.
  Document Type: TEACHING GUIDE (052);  INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIAL (051)
  Target Audience: Students; Practitioners
  The package presents a training approach for increasing test-taking 
skills of learning disabled (LD) and behaviorally disordered (BD) 
children along with a research study illustrating the approach's 
effectiveness with 92 LD or BD elementary students.  The approach 
focuses on such strategies as attending to appropriate stimuli, 
marking answers carefully, using time well, and avoiding errors.  The 
package presents lesson plans and student workbooks (with correct 
answers) on such topics as: (1) word study skills, including 
vocabulary, contractions, and syllables, and (2) reading 
comprehension.  Each lesson presents a script for the trainer, ideas 
for remedial work, optional activity suggestions, and a review of 
previous lessons.  (CL)
  Descriptors: *Attention Control; *Behavior Disorders; Elementary 
Education; *Learning Disabilities; Lesson Plans; *Reading 
Comprehension; Test Coaching; *Test Wiseness; Word Recognition; *Word 
Study Skills


  ED254143  HE018108
  A Learning and Study Skills Manual on Strategies for Academic 
Survival in College.
  Cade, John
  1984
  128p.
  EDRS Price - MF01 Plus Postage. PC Not Available from EDRS.
  Document Type: INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIAL (051);  TEST, QUESTIONNAIRE 
(160)
  Target Audience: Students
  Materials to help disadvantaged students at Bowie State College 
gain learning and study skills are presented.  Guidelines, 
questionnaires and self-assessment forms, and learning activities on 
the following subjects are provided: time management, study methods, 
note-taking and test-taking strategies, and decision-making.  
Included is the Effective Study Test, which will be used as a pre-
test and post-test assessment measure.  To help students in time 
management, charts for scheduling activities are included, with 
instructions for checking and readjusting available time, along with 
a checklist for determining what is interfering with study time.  
Study techniques, including identifying questions, active reading, 
reciting, and reviewing, are covered.  Tips for taking effective 
notes and three alternative forms (paragraph, sentence, or outline) 
are considered, along with the Cornell System of Note-Taking.  Also 
covered are approaches to improve listening, outlining, and 
memorization, including the repeat method of memorization.  Examples 
of test items are included, with instructions on objective and essay 
tests.  The Goal Assessment Survey to evaluate decision-making skills 
is also provided, along with forms to help students organize 
educational and career plans.  (SW)
  Descriptors: College Students; *Decision Making Skills; 
Educationally Disadvantaged; Guidelines; Higher Education; 
Memorization; *Notetaking; Objective Tests; Questionnaires; *Study 
Skills; *Test Wiseness; *Time Management
  Identifiers: *Bowie State College MD

[Table of Contents]

ERIC Documents Citations for Overcoming Test Anxiety


  EJ516198  EC612767
  Prevent School Failure: Treat Test Anxiety.
  Austin, J. Sue; And Others
  Preventing School Failure, v40 n1 p10-13 Fall   1995
  ISSN: 1045-988X
  Available From: UMI
  Document Type: JOURNAL ARTICLE (080);  NON-CLASSROOM MATERIAL (055)
  Target Audience: Teachers; Practitioners
  This article provides suggestions for treating test anxiety by 
training students in stress management strategies.  Detailed 
instructions for teaching deep muscle relaxation are provided, 
followed by an introduction to Wolpe's (1958) technique of systematic 
desensitization, which features identification of a hierarchy of 
anxiety-producing situations and visualization of pleasant situations.  
(PB)
  Descriptors: Coping; *Desensitization; Elementary Secondary 
Education; *Emotional Problems; Imagery; *Relaxation Training; 
*Stress Management; *Test Anxiety; Visualization


  EJ509261  SP524388
  Treating Test Anxiety. A Review of Three Approaches.
  Nicaise, Molly
  Teacher Education and Practice, v11 n1 p65-81 Spr-Sum 
  1995
  Theme issue title: "Classroom and Behavior Management."
  Document Type: REVIEW LITERATURE (070);  JOURNAL ARTICLE (080)
  Promising developments in test anxiety treatment research help 
decrease the related physiological responses, strengthen the ability 
to handle tensions through study skills and test-taking training, and 
use cognitive restructuring and cognitive supports to handle 
problematic testing situations.  The article reviews the three 
philosophies and presents examples of treatment interventions.  (SM)
  Descriptors: Behavior Modification; Cognitive Restructuring; 
College Students; Coping; Elementary School Students; Elementary 
Secondary Education; Higher Education; Literature Reviews; Relaxation 
Training; Secondary School Students; *Stress Management; Student 
Attitudes; Student Behavior; Study Skills; *Test Anxiety; *Test 
Wiseness
  Identifiers: Physiological Response


  ED392830  TM024508
  Test Anxiety: Theory, Assessment, and Treatment. The Series in 
Clinical and Community Psychology.
  Spielberger, Charles D., Ed.; Vagg, Peter R., Ed.
  1995
  252p.
  ISBN: 0-89116-212-7
  ISSN: 0146-0846
  Available From: Taylor & Francis, 1900 Frost Road, Suite 101, 
Bristol, PA 19007-1598 ($49.95).
  Document Not Available from EDRS.
  Document Type: BOOK (010);  COLLECTION (020);  EVALUATIVE REPORT 
(142)
  It is not surprising that a broad array of treatment programs have 
been developed to reduce test anxiety, since the consequences can be 
serious.  The contributions in this volume review and evaluate the 
theory of test anxiety, its measurement, its manifestations, and 
possible treatments and their outcomes.  The following chapters are 
included: (1) "Test Anxiety: A Transactional Process Model" (Charles 
D. Spielberger and Peter R. Vagg); (2) "Measurement of Test Anxiety: 
An Overview" (Scarvia B. Anderson and William I. Sauser, Jr.); (3) 
"An Evaluation of Test Anxiety Scales: Convergent, Divergent, and 
Predictive Validity" (Jeffrey R. Bedell and Herbert A. Marlowe); (4) 
"Theory and Measurement of Test Anxiety as a Situation-Specific 
Trait" (Volker Hodapp, Peter G. Glanzmann, and Lothar Laux); (5) 
"Case Studies of Test-Anxious Students" (William D. Anton and E. 
Michael Lillibridge); (6) "Test Anxiety, Hemispheric Lateralization, 
and Information Processing" (James D. Papsdorf, Jess H. Ghannam, and 
John Jamieson); (7) "Perspectives on Mathematics Anxiety and Test 
Anxiety" (William D. Anton and Mark C. Klisch); (8) "Anxiety and Test 
Performance" (Samuel Ball); (9) "Systematic Desensitization, Study 
Skills Counseling, and Anxiety-Coping Training in the Treatment of 
Test Anxiety" (Hector P. Gonzalez); (10) "Cognitive Therapy, Study 
Counseling, and Systematic Desensitization in the Treatment of Test 
Anxiety" (Benjamin Algaze); (11) "Comparison of Cognitive Therapy and 
Rational-Emotive Therapy in the Treatment of Test Anxiety" (Tucker M. 
Fletcher and Charles D. Spielberger); (12) "Systematic 
Desensitization, Cognitive Coping, and Biofeedback in the Reduction 
of Test Anxiety" (John C. Parker, IV, Peter R. Vagg, and James D. 
Papsdorf); (13) "Cognitive Therapy, Study Skills Training, and 
Biofeedback in the Treatment of Test Anxiety" (Peter R. Vagg and 
James D. Papsdorf); and (14) "Treatment of Test Anxiety: Application 
of the Transactional Process Model" (Peter R. Vagg and Charles D. 
Spielberger).  (Contains 435 references.) (SLD)
  Descriptors: Biofeedback; *Cognitive Processes; Coping; 
*Educational Assessment; Mathematics Anxiety; Measurement Techniques; 
*Outcomes of Treatment; *Test Anxiety; Test Results; *Theories; 
*Therapy; Validity
  Identifiers: Empirical Research; *Systematic Desensitization


  ED392120  EA027340
  Test Anxiety? Try a Stick of Gum...
  Wilmore, Elaine L.
  [1995
  7p.
  EDRS Price - MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
  Document Type: NON-CLASSROOM MATERIAL (055)
  American schools face pressure to increase their students' test 
scores.  Research reports have shown American students to be 
particularly stressed over test taking partially because of other 
outside interests in their lives that also take up time.  This paper 
offers tips to help students relieve stress arising from the testing 
situation.  Students should practice taking tests, be prepared, read 
the directions slowly and carefully, think positively, and relax.  
One research study found that students who were allowed to chew gum 
during a test received slightly higher scores than did students who 
were not allowed to chew gum.  A conclusion is that relaxed students 
will be better able to concentrate on their tests.  (LMI)
  Descriptors: High Schools; Scores; *Test Anxiety; *Testing; 
*Testing Problems; Test Wiseness


  EJ487656  CG545362
  On the Relationship between Test Anxiety and Test Performance.
  Birenbaum, Menucha; Nasser, Fadia
  Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development, v27 n1 
p293-301 Apr   1994
  ISSN: 0748-1756
  Available From: UMI
  Document Type: RESEARCH REPORT (143);  JOURNAL ARTICLE (080)
  Investigated relationships between test anxiety and test 
performance among 431 10th graders from 15 classes of 2 Arab high 
schools in Israel.  Findings revealed two types of test-anxious 
students: those who lack test-taking skills and those who lack study 
skills.  Findings suggest that deficit and interference models of 
test anxiety complement each other.  (Author/NB)
  Descriptors: Foreign Countries; *Grade 10; High Schools; High 
School Students; *Performance; *Study Skills; *Test Anxiety; *Test 
Wiseness
  Identifiers: *Israel


  ED379312  TM022673
  Group Reduction of Test Anxiety: Does It Really Work?
  Ross, David B.
  Oct 1994
  15p.
  EDRS Price - MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
  Document Type: RESEARCH REPORT (143)
  This article summarizes the performance of 52 college students who 
completed a one-credit class for the reduction of test anxiety.  The 
anxiety reduction program uses a variety of study skills and 
behavioral strategies to improve school performance.  The 8-to-10 
week class is taught in small groups of from 2 to 6 students.  
Content focuses on: (1) understanding anxiety; (2) effective time 
management; (3) managing the moment of crisis; (4) active reading and 
memory; (5) healthy living habits; (6) test-taking strategies; and 
(7) rational thinking.  Participants demonstrated slightly higher 
grade averages and improved course completion.  Personal comments 
from the students suggested that some of them had experienced great 
changes in attitude toward school and life in general.  (Contains 6 
references.) (SLD)
  Descriptors: Academic Achievement; *College Students; *Group 
Instruction; Higher Education; Instructional Effectiveness; 
*Prevention; *Student Attitudes; *Test Anxiety; Test Wiseness; Time 
Management


  EJ478597  SP522969
  Putting the Lid on Test Anxiety.
  Bakunas, Boris
  Learning, v22 n2 p64-65 Sep   1993
  ISSN: 0090-3167
  Available From: UMI
  Document Type: NON-CLASSROOM MATERIAL (055);  JOURNAL ARTICLE (080)
  Most students suffer some test anxiety.  A two-pronged approach to 
holding students' test anxiety at bay suggests that teachers keep 
testing low-key to minimize fear and that students learn a systematic 
study method so they will be prepared.  Some children may need 
professional help to conquer their fears.  (SM)
  Descriptors: Elementary Secondary Education; School Counseling; 
Student Attitudes; *Study Skills; Teacher Responsibility; *Test 
Anxiety; *Test Wiseness


  EJ456003  HE530666
  Coping with Test Anxiety.
  Mealey, Donna L.; Host, Timothy R.
  College Teaching, v40 n4 p147-50 Fall   1992
  ISSN: 8756-7555
  Available From: UMI
  Document Type: JOURNAL ARTICLE (080);  RESEARCH REPORT (143)
  Target Audience: Teachers; Practitioners
  Research suggests several types of test-anxious students.  
Techniques for lessening anxiety include teaching metacognitive and 
learning strategies, using cooperative learning activities, and 
creating a nonthreatening environment.  A survey of 102 developmental 
reading college students indicated that teacher behavior during 
testing and pretest review are important to minimizing test-anxiety.  
(MSE)
  Descriptors: *Classroom Environment; Classroom Techniques; *College 
Instruction; College Students; *Cooperative Learning; *Coping; 
Developmental Studies Programs; Higher Education; Reading Instruction; 
Student Attitudes; Study Skills; Surveys; *Teacher Behavior; *Test 
Anxiety; Testing


  EJ453970  CE524358
  The Impact of Testing on Student Motivation.
  Eschenmann, K. Kurt
  Journal of Epsilon Pi Tau, v18 n1 p28-32 Win-Spr   1992
  Available From: UMI
  Document Type: JOURNAL ARTICLE (080);  POSITION PAPER (120)
  Techniques for reducing test anxiety include fostering study 
skills, reducing competition, using tests to meet a variety of needs, 
providing feedback, optimizing the test environment, setting 
realistic goals, and explaining the testing process.  (SK)
  Descriptors: Feedback; *Student Motivation; Study Skills; *Test 
Anxiety; *Testing


  EJ409942  CG537561
  Techniques for Overcoming Test Anxiety.
  Wilkinson, Charlotte M.
  Elementary School Guidance and Counseling, v24 n3 p234-37 Feb 
  1990
  Available From: UMI
  Document Type: JOURNAL ARTICLE (080);  PROJECT DESCRIPTION (141)
  Describes classroom guidance session for overcoming test anxiety.  
Discusses role of the teacher in setting up session and as class 
discussion leader.  Discusses role of the counselor in the 
minilecture format; sources of test anxiety; self-assessment of test 
anxiety; importance of careful test preparation; listening to self-
talk; and follow up with other learning approaches.  (ABL)
  Descriptors: Classroom Techniques; *Counseling Techniques; 
Counselor Role; *Elementary Education; *Elementary School Students; 
*School Counseling; Teacher Role; *Test Anxiety


  EJ381145  TM514040
  Improving Examination Performance through the Clenched Fist 
Technique.
  Stanton, Harry E.
  Contemporary Educational Psychology, v13 n4 p309-15 Oct 
  1988
  Document Type: JOURNAL ARTICLE (080);  EVALUATIVE REPORT (142)
  The literature on the use of hypnosis in an educational setting is 
briefly reviewed, and a hypnotic approach involving the use of the 
clenched fist as a conditioned trigger to improve examination 
performance is described.  A study of 60 high school students 
indicates that the approach can improve test outcomes.  (TJH)
  Descriptors: *High School Students; *Hypnosis; Response Style 
(Tests); *Secondary Education; *Test Anxiety; Test Coaching; Test 
Wiseness
  Identifiers: *Clenched Fist Technique


  EJ374309  SP517789
  How Do We Balance Test Anxiety and Achievement?
  Berliner, David; Casanova, Ursula
  Instructor, v97 n8 p14-15 Apr   1988
  Document Type: JOURNAL ARTICLE (080);  POSITION PAPER (120)
  A study of German fifth graders correlates high levels of test 
anxiety with decreased student achievement.  To minimize this effect, 
teachers must foster a balance between efficient use of class time 
with attention to student needs.  Suggestions on how to create a 
learning, rather than a testing, environment are given.  (JL)
  Descriptors: *Academic Achievement; Foreign Countries; *Teacher 
Effectiveness; *Teacher Student Relationship; Teaching Methods; *Test 
Anxiety; Theory Practice Relationship
  Identifiers: Germany


  ED294651  PS017140
  Helping Your Child Learn at School: How Parents Support Good Study 
Habits in the Home.
  Maloney, Raymond
  Aug 1987
  15p.
  Available From: Minerva Press, Inc., 6653 Andersonville Road, 
Waterford, MI 48095 ($0.79 each plus $0.50 postage and handling. Bulk 
rates are also available).
  EDRS Price - MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
  Document Type: NON-CLASSROOM MATERIAL (055)
  Target Audience: Parents
  Provided are suggestions for parents who want to know how best to 
help their children develop study habits that will insure a good 
chance for school success.  After a description of the importance of 
good study habits, the responsibilities of parents, teachers, and 
students for developing appropriate study settings and behaviors are 
set out.  Subsequently discussed are: (1) concentration; (2) 
motivation; (3) setting of goals that are realistic, specific, have a 
definite deadline, and are associated with rewards; (4) use of self-
talk for achievement; and (5) test anxiety.  Concluding material 
offers parents a "quick guide" to study skills for children.  
Additional resources for use in helping children succeed in school 
are listed.  (RH)
  Descriptors: *Children; Guidelines; *Motivation; Objectives; 
*Parent Role; Positive Reinforcement; Student Role; *Study Habits; 
Teacher Role; *Test Anxiety
  Identifiers: *Concentration; *Goal Setting


  ED289059  CE049286
  Test Anxiety Reduction. Student Handbook.
  Silverman, Eda; Hanna, Joyce
  May 1987
  17p.; For related documents, see CE 049 285-287.
  EDRS Price - MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
  Document Type: INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIAL (051)
  Target Audience: Students
  This handbook is intended to illustrate to students that they are 
not alone in their fear of tests and to help students reduce their 
own test anxiety.  The handbook is a compilation of writings 
contributed by students who attended an adult basic education (ABE) 
program to prepare teenage and adult students to take the General 
Educational Development (GED) test.  The poems, articles, and 
crossword puzzle included in the handbook reveal their authors' 
personal feelings about tests and explain how learning about methods 
to reduce test anxiety helped them to perform better in testing 
situations.  (MN)
  Descriptors: Adult Basic Education; *Behavior Modification; *Change 
Strategies; Coping; High School Equivalency Programs; Relaxation 
Training; *Stress Management; Student Developed Materials; *Test 
Anxiety; *Test Wiseness
  Identifiers: 310 Project; *General Educational Development Tests


  ED289058  CE049285
  Test Anxiety Reduction. Student Workbook.
  Silverman, Eda; Hanna, Joyce
  May 1987
  28p.; For related documents, see CE 049 286-287.
  EDRS Price - MF01/PC02 Plus Postage.
  Document Type: INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIAL (051)
  Target Audience: Students
  This student workbook is intended for use in helping teenage and 
adult basic education (ABE) students reduce their anxiety over tests 
in general and over the General Educational Development (GED) test in 
particular.  Exercises are provided to help students analyze and 
understand their feelings about and while taking tests, recall the 
childhood messages that they received that have led to their test 
anxiety, analyze their strengths and weaknesses, learn about and 
prepare for taking a test at their designated test site, practice and 
learn general strategies for taking multiple-choice tests, develop 
individual test-taking strategies, learn basic relaxation techniques, 
and develop a plan to handle their test anxiety.  (MN)
  Descriptors: Adult Basic Education; *Behavior Modification; *Change 
Strategies; Coping; High School Equivalency Programs; Relaxation 
Training; *Stress Management; *Test Anxiety; *Test Wiseness
  Identifiers: 310 Project; *General Educational Development Tests


  ED280899  TM870262
  Help Your Child Improve in Test-Taking.
  [1987
  5p.
  EDRS Price - MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
  Document Type: NON-CLASSROOM MATERIAL (055)
  Target Audience: Parents
  This leaflet describes simple techniques for developing children's 
ability to do well on tests, as derived from research done through 
the Office of Educational Research and Improvement.  Suggestions for 
parents are divided into five sections: (1) Why Test?; (2) Ask the 
School; (3) Avoid Test Anxiety; (4) Do's and Don'ts; and (5) After 
the Test.  Check lists offer step-by-step methods for reducing test 
anxiety, preparing for tests, taking tests, judging a child's 
progress, and encouraging good study habits.  (LMO)
  Descriptors: Elementary Secondary Education; Learning Strategies; 
*Parent Materials; Parent Teacher Cooperation; Standardized Tests; 
Study Skills; Teacher Made Tests; *Test Anxiety; *Test Coaching; 
*Test Wiseness
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