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QUESTION/PROBLEM: Intelligence - Its Characteristics and Appropriate Assessment

last updated June 4, 1997





Example queries:

How much can IQ change over time?

Is there evidence of ethnic, racial or socioeconomic bias in intelligence testing?

What information is there about newer theories of intelligence, such as Howard Gardner's Multiple Intelligences theory, and their departure from traditional intelligence theories, such as that of Binet?


Table of Contents


COMMENTARY

There is much documentation in the ERIC database to indicate that, contrary to popular belief, intelligence is not a fixed construct, i.e., various factors that affect human development throughout the life span can promote or hinder the development of intelligence. A special warning is due to our patrons regarding the use of intelligence testing in early childhood for placement and tracking decisions; the early childhood education and educational measurement communities agree that developmentally appropriate practice mandates against pigeon-holing intellectual potential on the basis of early intelligence test scores.

We advise parents to consult their children's school guidance counselor or school psychologist for information about local intelligence testing policies, practices, and individual scores. If parents require an alternate source of expertise for intelligence testing of their children, then we advise that you seek a qualified private psychologist in your region. For assistance with the latter option, contact:

American Psychological Association
Office of Referral Services
750 1st Street NE
Washington DC 20002
telephone: 1-800-374-2721

[Table of Contents]


INTERNET RESOURCES

Identifying Gifted Students
One of the "Frequently Asked Questions" of The ERIC Clearinghouse on Disabilities and Gifted Education.

Test Descriptions
Online sources of descriptions of educational and psychological measures, as well as pointers to scholarly reviews, are available here.

[Table of Contents]


ERIC DOCUMENTS CITATIONS for Intelligence Tests/Intelligence Quotient


  EJ527624  EC614102
  IQ: Easy to Bash, Hard to Replace.
  Pyryt, Michael C.
  Roeper Review, v18 n4 p255-58 Jun   1996
  ISSN: 0278-3193
  Available From: UMI
  Document Type: JOURNAL ARTICLE (080);  POSITION PAPER (120)
  This article examines psychometric analysis regarding the viability 
and limits of IQ testing in the context of "The Bell Curve." It 
discusses eyeball analysis versus item analysis, mean differences, 
validity coefficients, general intelligence, and IQ and gifted 
education, and urges a search for intrapersonal and environmental 
catalysts that lead to the development of academic talents.  (DB)
  Descriptors: *Cognitive Measurement; Elementary Secondary Education; 
*Gifted; Intelligence Differences; *Intelligence Quotient; 
*Intelligence Tests; Measurement Techniques; *Psychometrics; Talent 
Development; Test Validity
  Identifiers: *Bell Curve (Herrnstein and Murray)


  EJ523389  PS524887
  Ethnic Differences in Children's Intelligence Test Scores: Role of 
Economic Deprivation, Home Environment, and Maternal Characteristics.
  Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; And Others
  Child Development, v67 n2 p396-408 Apr   1996
  ISSN: 0009-3920
  Available From: UMI
  Document Type: RESEARCH REPORT (143);  JOURNAL ARTICLE (080)
  Examined differences in intelligence test scores of black and white 
five-year-olds born premature with low birth weight.  Found that 
black children's IQ scores were 1 SD lower than those of white 
children.  Adjustments for ethnic differences in poverty reduced the 
differential by half; adjustments for differences in home environment 
reduced it by another 28 percent.  (HTH)
  Descriptors: *Blacks; Comparative Analysis; Family Environment; 
Intellectual Development; *Intelligence Quotient; Intelligence Tests; 
Mothers; Parent Influence; Poverty; *Preschool Children; *Racial 
Differences; Socioeconomic Influences; *Whites


  ED393261  EC304705
  The Use of IQ Tests in Special Education Decision Making and 
Planning. Summary of Two Workshops. Board Bulletin.
  Morison, Patricia, Ed.; And Others
  1996
  53p.; Summary report of two workshops of the Board on Testing and 
Assessment (LaJolla, CA, January 21, 1995 and Washington, DC, May 11, 
1995).
  Available From: Board on Testing and Assessment, National Research 
Council, 2101 Constitution Ave., N.W., Washington, DC 20418.
  EDRS Price - MF01 Plus Postage. PC Not Available from EDRS.
  Document Type: CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS (021);  REVIEW LITERATURE 
(070);  POSITION PAPER (120)
  This report synthesizes the key themes and ideas discussed at two 1-
day workshops addressing issues in the use of IQ tests in special 
education evaluation and placement.  The first section considers the 
background and legal context of the issue.  The next section looks at 
IQ tests in school settings.  Key ideas raised include the importance 
of never using a single test score to make decisions, inherent 
limitations of IQ scores, concerns about the validity of measuring 
complex mental abilities, and the relevance of the particular use to 
which the test is being put.  A section on student placement 
considers the role of the IQ test at the stages of referral, 
evaluation, and placement.  Alternative approaches to eligibility 
assessment, including curriculum-based measurement and assessment of 
cognitive correlates of reading failure, are reviewed.  The need for 
further research in such areas as effective treatment methods, 
effects of various kinds of classroom environments on individual 
differences in learning, and the malleability of intelligence is 
stressed.  Inset boxes provide summary information on such topics as 
the meaning and interpretation of IQ tests, IQ tests and the 
diagnosis of mild mental retardation, minority overrepresentation in 
special education, and use of IQ tests to diagnose learning 
disabilities.  An appendix gives the workshop agendas and lists of 
participants.  (Contains 68 references.) (DB)
  Descriptors: Cognitive Measurement; Court Litigation; Curriculum 
Based Assessment; Decision Making; *Disabilities; *Disability 
Identification; Educational Diagnosis; Educational Planning; 
Educational Policy; Elementary Secondary Education; Eligibility; 
*Intelligence Quotient; *Intelligence Tests; Learning Disabilities; 
Mild Mental Retardation; Reading Difficulties; Referral; Special 
Education; *Student Evaluation; *Student Placement; Test Bias; Test 
Validity
  Identifiers: Disproportionate Representation (Spec Educ)


  EJ525221  SO527589
  Psychometrics and Education. The Intelligence Quotient--A Social 
Indicator?
  Rhyn, Heinz
  Zeitschrift fur Padagogik, v41 n5 p765-79 Sep-Oct   1995
  ISSN: 0044-3247
  Document Type: REVIEW LITERATURE (070);  PROJECT DESCRIPTION (141); 
 JOURNAL ARTICLE (080)
  Target Audience: Researchers
  Criticizes and examines the motives behind Charles Murray's "The 
Bell Curve." Murray's book claimed that many social problems, 
including crime and poverty among blacks, could be explained by 
African Americans' lack of intelligence as evidenced by testing.  
Reveals the book's skewed methodology as well as its interest-guided 
financial support.  (MJP)
  Descriptors: Blacks; Educational Policy; Higher Education; 
*Intelligence Quotient; Intelligence Tests; Politics of Education; 
*Public Policy; *Race; *Racial Bias; Racial Discrimination; *Research 
Problems; Research Utilization; Scholarship; *Social Indicators; 
Social Problems; Social Scientists; Test Bias; Validity
  Identifiers: Bell Curve (The); Controversy; Germany; *Murray 
(Charles)


  EJ522236  SO527386
  Mental Testing and the Expansion of Educational Opportunity.
  Ackerman, Michael
  History of Education Quarterly, v35 n3 p279-300 Fall 
  1995
  ISSN: 0018-2680
  Available From: UMI
  Document Type: PROJECT DESCRIPTION (141);  JOURNAL ARTICLE (080)
  Target Audience: Researchers
  Discusses the development and uses of various aptitude tests in 
higher education from the 1920s through the early 1960s.  Although 
seen as a gateway to educational attainment for returning World War 
II veterans, intelligence testing faced criticism in the early 1960s 
as a restrictive practice.  (MJP)
  Descriptors: Educational Assessment; *Educational Attainment; 
Educational History; Educationally Disadvantaged; *Educational 
Mobility; *Educational Opportunities; Educational Policy; *Equal 
Education; Higher Education; *Intelligence Quotient; *Intelligence 
Tests; Military Personnel; Social Mobility; Test Bias; Test 
Reliability
  Identifiers: Warner (W Lloyd)


  ED393592  PS024102
  Outsmarting IQ: The Emerging Science of Learnable Intelligence.
  Perkins, David
  1995
  387p.
  ISBN: 0-02-925212-1
  Available From: The Free Press/Division of Simon and Schuster, 200 
Old Tappan Road, Old Tappan, NJ 07675-7095 ($23).
  Document Not Available from EDRS.
  Document Type: BOOK (010);  RESEARCH REPORT (143)
  Pychologists, educators, and others have challenged the idea of a 
fixed IQ.  This book uses recent research and earlier discoveries to 
argue that intelligence is not genetically set.  Noting that the idea 
of learnable intelligence reflects the belief that intelligence can 
be taught, the book outlines a theory of learnable intelligence, 
including ways in which it can be amplified.  The metaphor of 
"mindware" is used, which is "software for the mind"--programs 
individuals run in their minds to help them use data stored in memory.  
Part 1, "In Search of Intelligence," includes information on visible 
intelligence, the "fairness" of IQ, multiple intelligences, and 
strategic intelligence.  Part 2, "Learning Intelligence on Trial," 
includes a discussion of the "paradox" of intelligence, causes of 
defaults in thinking, and arguments from the standpoints of expertise 
and weak methods, along with a case for reflective intelligences.  
Part 3, "What the Mind is Made Of," uses the phrase "the right stuff" 
as a metaphor for the learnable intelligence theory, asking what 
"stuff" underlies intelligence.  The discussion includes kinds of 
knowing, realm theory, the theory of expertise, and how experiential 
and reflective intelligence are related.  Contains 233 references.  
(BGC)
  Descriptors: *Cognitive Style; Epistemology; Experiential Learning; 
Genetics; Intellectual Development; *Intelligence; Intelligence 
Differences; *Intelligence Quotient; *Intelligence Tests; Learning; 
Learning Processes; Memory; Problem Solving; Social Bias
  Identifiers: Fuzzy Concepts; *Multiple Intelligences; Realm Theory


  ED392863  UD030824
  "The Bell Curve": Does IQ and Race Determine Class and Place in 
America?
  Parker, Franklin
  [1995
  24p.
  EDRS Price - MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
  Document Type: REVIEW LITERATURE (070)
  "The Bell Curve" by Richard J. Herrnstein and Charles A. Murray has 
ignited a fierce academic debate.  They assert that IQ as measured by 
tests has replaced family wealth and status in determining jobs, 
income, class, and place in American life; that whites average 15 IQ 
points higher than blacks; and that high-IQ ruling elites, with fewer 
children than low-IQ nonwhites, are increasingly restricting 
nonwhites in ghettoes because of their social problems.  This article 
sets these controversial themes into the context of a brief history 
of IQ and testing, examines the views of some noted admirers and 
critics of the book, summarizes Murray's response to his critics, and 
places IQ and race issues into a social context that considers 
socioeconomic and political trends.  Murray contends that the book 
does not make as aggressive a case for genetic differences as critics 
argue.  Critics see "The Bell Curve" as a threat to equality of 
educational oppportunity, and their distress affirms the belief that 
all people deserve an equal chance.  "The Bell Curve" increases fears 
about race and class relations.  (Contains 151 references.) (SLD)
  Descriptors: Blacks; *Equal Education; *Genetics; *Intelligence 
Quotient; Intelligence Tests; Nature Nurture Controversy; Political 
Influences; *Racial Differences; Racial Discrimination; Social Class; 
Social Problems; Socioeconomic Status; *Test Use; Whites
  Identifiers: *Bell Curve (Herrnstein and Murray); Elites


  ED388428  PS023728
  Relationship of Intelligence Quotients to Academic Achievement in 
the Elementary Grades.
  Fisher, Janis L.
  30 Jun 1995
  12p.
  EDRS Price - MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
  Document Type: RESEARCH REPORT (143);  POSITION PAPER (120)
  This study examined the relationship between intelligence as 
defined by a verbal and nonverbal combined score, obtained on the 
Otis-Lennon School Ability Test and final grades received in the 
following six academic subjects: reading, math, spelling, science, 
English and social studies.  The sample for this study consisted of 
159 elementary students in grades 3-5.  The elementary school from 
which the sample was taken is located in rural Ohio, and which 
educates approximately 400 students, predominately white and from 
varied economic backgrounds.  Grades were drawn from students' files 
and converted to A=4, B=3, C=2, D=1.  Student intelligence quotient, 
involving a verbal and non-verbal score, was derived from the Otis-
Lennon Ability Test administered in the fall of the students' second 
grade year.  The results suggested a positive correspondence of 
relationship between intelligence and its ability to predict academic 
achievement.  A positive correlation was found between intelligence 
score and the subject of reading (.49), English (.50), social studies 
(.44), science (.51) and math (.47).  A lesser correlation was found 
with spelling (.30).  No significant differences were noted in 
correlations between intelligence of genders and any of the academic 
categories.  Contains 14 references.  (AA)
  Descriptors: *Academic Achievement; Academic Aptitude; *Correlation; 
Educational Diagnosis; Elementary Education; Evaluation Methods; 
Expectation; *Intelligence Quotient; Intelligence Tests; Mathematics 
Achievement; *Prediction; Reading Achievement; *Scores; *Student 
Evaluation; Teacher Expectations of Students; Writing Achievement
  Identifiers: Otis Lennon School Ability Test


  EJ531803  UD519564
  The Pseudoscience of Psychometry and "The Bell Curve."
  Graves, Joseph L., Jr.; Johnson, Amanda
  Journal of Negro Education, v64 n3 p277-94 Sum   1995
  Theme issue topic: "Myths and Realities: African Americans and the 
Measurement of Human Abilities."
  ISSN: 0022-2984
  Available From: UMI
  Document Type: POSITION PAPER (120);  REVIEW LITERATURE (070);  
JOURNAL ARTICLE (080)
  Argues that Herrnstein and Murray's "The Bell Curve" (1994) merely 
restates the notion that intelligence can be reduced to a single 
ordinal measure, i.e., the primary factor for determining group or 
individual social-class status.  Evidence from the biological 
sciences and quantitative genetics is presented that reveals that 
social inequality is solely a result of longstanding biases and 
differential opportunity structures.  (GR)
  Descriptors: Cognitive Development; *Genetics; Group Testing; 
*Intelligence; *Intelligence Tests; Racial Attitudes; *Racial Bias; 
Racial Relations; *Social Environment; Standardized Tests; *Test Bias
  Identifiers: *Bell Curve (Herrnstein and Murray)


  EJ521002  UD519083
  Testing Common Sense.
  Sternberg, Robert J.; And Others
  American Psychologist, v50 n11 p912-27 Nov   1995
  ISSN: 0003-066X
  Available From: UMI
  Document Type: REVIEW LITERATURE (070);  PROJECT DESCRIPTION (141); 
 JOURNAL ARTICLE (080)
  Explores the use of common sense testing and measurement as a means 
of predicting real-world performance.  The authors discuss practical 
versus book knowledge, examine several empirical studies of practical 
intelligence, describe tacit knowledge and the instruments used for 
testing it, and present findings from a tacit knowledge research 
program.  (GR)
  Descriptors: *Cognitive Ability; Experience; Intelligence Quotient; 
*Intelligence Tests; *Job Performance; *Predictive Measurement; 
Social Science Research; Success
  Identifiers: *Common Sense; Practical Knowledge; *Practical 
Reasoning


  EJ514039  RC510995
  IQ Testing in America: A Victim of Its Own Success.
  Krull, Catherine D.; Pierce, W. David
  Alberta Journal of Educational Research, v41 n3 p349-54 Sep 
  1995
  Theme issue title: Canadian Perspectives on "The Bell Curve."
  ISSN: 0002-4805
  Document Type: REVIEW LITERATURE (070);  POSITION PAPER (120);  
JOURNAL ARTICLE (080)
  Response to "The Bell Curve." Argues that correlations between IQ 
and U.S. social problems are created by the IQ selection process; in 
addition, emphasis on testing and innate abilities has produced 
lowered expectations of what students can achieve through hard work 
and learning, resulting in lower mathematics achievement among North 
American students than among work-oriented Japanese students.  (SV)
  Descriptors: Cognitive Ability; *Educational Attitudes; 
*Educational Testing; Elementary Secondary Education; *Intelligence 
Tests; Mathematics Achievement; *Social Problems; Social 
Stratification; Student Attitudes; *Teacher Expectations of Students; 
Work Ethic
  Identifiers: *Bell Curve (Herrnstein and Murray)


  EJ514037  RC510993
  For Whom "The Bell Curve" Toils.
  Livingstone, David W.
  Alberta Journal of Educational Research, v41 n3 p335-41 Sep 
  1995
  Theme issue title: Canadian Perspectives on "The Bell Curve."
  ISSN: 0002-4805
  Document Type: REVIEW LITERATURE (070);  POSITION PAPER (120);  
JOURNAL ARTICLE (080)
  Commentary on "The Bell Curve." Points out that Herrnstein and 
Murray do not acknowledge their politically conservative funding 
sources.  Discusses bias and inadequacies of IQ tests, lack of 
evidence of intergenerational reproduction of occupational classes, 
current underemployment of highly educated people, and the authors' 
recommendation to transfer educational resources to gifted students 
via a voucher system.  (SV)
  Descriptors: Educational Policy; Gifted; *Heredity; Intelligence 
Differences; *Intelligence Quotient; *Intelligence Tests; *Public 
Policy; *Social Class; Social Stratification; Test Bias; 
Underemployment
  Identifiers: *Bell Curve (Herrnstein and Murray); 
*Intergenerational Continuity; Occupational Status; Social Darwinism


  EJ514030  RC510986
  Keep Them Bells A-Tolling.
  Barrow, Robin
  Alberta Journal of Educational Research, v41 n3 p289-96 Sep 
  1995
  Theme issue title: Canadian Perspectives on "The Bell Curve."
  ISSN: 0002-4805
  Document Type: REVIEW LITERATURE (070);  POSITION PAPER (120);  
JOURNAL ARTICLE (080)
  Criticizes "The Bell Curve" for its lack of understanding of the 
philosophical nature of intelligence (and mind).  Points out that 
various philosophical attempts to analyze the concept of intelligence 
are routinely ignored by empirical workers in the field of IQ testing 
because such philosophical work makes obvious the lack of connection 
between IQ scores and intelligence.  (SV)
  Descriptors: Cognitive Ability; Inferences; *Intelligence; 
Intelligence Quotient; *Intelligence Tests; *Research Problems
  Identifiers: Assumptions (Testing); *Bell Curve (Herrnstein and 
Murray); *Philosophical Research; Philosophy of Science


  EJ514029  RC510985
  Does the IQ God Exist?
  Siegel, Linda S.
  Alberta Journal of Educational Research, v41 n3 p283-88 Sep 
  1995
  Theme issue title: Canadian Perspectives on "The Bell Curve."
  ISSN: 0002-4805
  Document Type: REVIEW LITERATURE (070);  POSITION PAPER (120);  
JOURNAL ARTICLE (080)
  Responds to "The Bell Curve" by arguing that IQ is merely a 
statistical fiction, an artificial construct not corresponding to any 
real entity.  Discusses the "seductive statistical trap of factor 
analysis" as it relates to IQ tests, multiple intelligences, content 
and bias of IQ tests, lack of validity of IQ tests for individual 
cases, and stability of IQ scores.  (SV)
  Descriptors: *Educational Diagnosis; Factor Analysis; *Individual 
Differences; Intelligence; Intelligence Differences; *Intelligence 
Quotient; *Intelligence Tests; Test Bias; *Testing Problems; Test Use
  Identifiers: *Bell Curve (Herrnstein and Murray); Multiple 
Intelligences


  ED386640  CG026458
  Intelligence Testing and the Emergence of School Psychology.
  Rickman, David L.
  [1995
  15p.
  EDRS Price - MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
  Document Type: REVIEW LITERATURE (070)
  School psychology, defined as the study and application of 
psychological principles to the educational setting, encompasses the 
study of learning and cognition, development, social behavior, 
individual differences, and measurement and statistics.  The purpose 
of this paper is to provide an historical account of the origins of 
educational psychology with a focus on its early history and major 
contributors.  Emphasis is placed on the importance of the notion of 
individual differences, the paradigm which has functioned as a major 
impetus in the development of intelligence testing.  Major 
contributors discussed are: Francis Galton, Granville Stanley Hall, 
Arnold Gesell, Lightner Witmer, William James and James McKeen 
Cattell.  It is concluded that the development of the intelligence 
test was largely a function of the zeitgeist of American society.  
The lack of innovations made in the assessment of intelligence is 
seen as a vestige of functionalism in that the currently used 
instruments meet the minimum needs of the individuals using them--
they have great pragmatic value for labeling and placement of 
individuals into special programs.  Contains six references.  (JBJ)
  Descriptors: *Educational Psychology; Educational Theories; 
Elementary Secondary Education; *Individual Differences; 
*Intelligence Tests; School Psychologists


  EJ494332  CG545824
  Intelligence Is Important, Intelligence Is Complex.
  Keith, Timothy Z.
  School Psychology Quarterly, v9 n3 p209-221 Fall   1994
  ISSN: 1045-3830
  Available From: UMI
  Document Type: POSITION PAPER (120);  REVIEW LITERATURE (070);  
JOURNAL ARTICLE (080)
  Offers alternative analyses and interpretations of Macmann and 
Barnett's research data and results.  Contends that intelligence is 
complex and that intelligence testing is important component of 
school psychological practice.  Discusses relation and frequent 
inconsistency between research and practice.  (CRR)
  Descriptors: Correlation; Counseling; Elementary Secondary 
Education; Evaluation; *Factor Analysis; *Intelligence Tests; 
*Performance Tests; *Verbal Tests
  Identifiers: Criterion Validity; *Wechsler Intelligence Scale for 
Children; Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children III


  EJ480693  CG544151
  Intellectual Assessment of Children from Culturally Diverse 
Backgrounds.
  Armour-Thomas, Eleanor
  School Psychology Review, v21 n4 p552-65   1992
  ISSN: 0279-6015
  Available From: UMI
  Document Type: REVIEW LITERATURE (070);  GENERAL REPORT (140);  
JOURNAL ARTICLE (080)
  Examines assumptions and premises of standardized tests of mental 
ability and reviews extant theories and research on intellectual 
functioning of children from culturally different backgrounds.  
Discusses implications of these issues and perspectives for new 
directions for intellectual assessment for children from culturally 
different backgrounds.  Considers changes in training and practice of 
school psychologists working with these children.  (Author/NB)
  Descriptors: Adolescents; Children; *Cultural Differences; *Culture 
Fair Tests; Elementary Secondary Education; *Evaluation Problems; 
*Intelligence Tests; *Standardized Tests


  EJ438145  PS518881
  How Much Does Schooling Influence General Intelligence and Its 
Cognitive Components? A Reassessment of the Evidence.
  Ceci, Stephen J.
  Developmental Psychology, v27 n5 p703-23 Sep   1991
  ISSN: 0012-1649
  Available From: UMI
  Document Type: JOURNAL ARTICLE (080);  REVIEW LITERATURE (070)
  Reviews the literature on the relationship between schooling, IQ, 
and the cognitive processes presumed to underpin IQ.  The data 
suggest the importance of quantity of schooling for IQ.  Schooling 
fosters the development of cognitive processes that underpin 
performance on IQ tests.  This development is unrelated to the 
quality of schools.  (BC)
  Descriptors: Achievement Tests; Adolescents; Attendance; Children; 
*Cognitive Processes; *Educational Attainment; *Educational Quality; 
Elementary Secondary Education; *Intellectual Development; 
*Intelligence Quotient; *Intelligence Tests; Memory; Perceptual 
Development
  Identifiers: *School Effects


  ED353068  PS021038
  The Stability of I. Q. in Preschool Years: A Review.
  Hutchens, Teresa A.; And Others
  Apr 1991
  23p.; Paper presented at the Meeting of the American Association 
for Counseling and Development (Reno, NV, April 21-24, 1991).
  EDRS Price - MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
  Document Type: EVALUATIVE REPORT (142);  CONFERENCE PAPER (150)
  The question of reliability in the intellectual assessment of young 
children is cause for concern among developmental psychologists and 
diagnosticians.  The issue of reliability is confounded by normal 
variability in skills during early childhood, by the problem of 
consistency across time of age-appropriate assessment measures, and 
by the selection of subsequent or concurrent measures.  Stability 
across time of measures of children's intellectual ability during 
infancy and the preschool years is of particular interest to those 
practitioners faced with diagnosis, placement, and treatment 
decisions.  Research to address temporal stability in mental 
measurement in the preschool period has yielded inconsistent findings.  
Differential results appear to be due, at least in part, to 
children's age at the time of evaluation, the choice of intellectual 
assessment instrument, the length of the test-retest interval, and 
unique characteristics of the sample studied.  Because the 
implications of the reliability of intellectual measures for 
controversial placement issues and long-range educational programming 
are significant, practitioners should identify trends in assessment 
practices that relate to the stability of assessment across time and 
across measures.  (MM)
  Descriptors: *Intellectual Development; *Intelligence Quotient; 
*Intelligence Tests; *Measurement Techniques; Measures (Individuals); 
*Preschool Children; Preschool Education; Testing Problems; Test 
Reliability; Test Validity
  Identifiers: *Age Appropriateness; *Temporal Stability; Test Retest 
Reliability


  EJ434512  EC601644
  Intellectual Assessment Tips.
  Taylor, Ronald L.
  Diagnostique, v16 n1 p52-54 Fall   1990
  ISSN: 0737-2477
  Available From: UMI
  Document Type: JOURNAL ARTICLE (080);  NON-CLASSROOM MATERIAL (055)
  Target Audience: Teachers; Practitioners
  This article offers advice on interpreting intelligence quotient 
(IQ) data and other results from intelligence tests.  Myths regarding 
the practical applications and broader implications of IQ profiles 
are debunked.  Several warnings are given regarding test use along 
with general statements of intelligence tests' strengths and 
weaknesses in classroom situations.  (PB)
  Descriptors: Classroom Techniques; Elementary Secondary Education; 
*Gifted; *Intelligence Quotient; *Intelligence Tests; *Learning 
Problems; *Student Evaluation; Teaching Methods; *Test Use


  EJ479091  CG544069
  The Dynamic Assessment of Intelligence: A Review of Three 
Approaches.
  Laughon, Pamela
  School Psychology Review, v19 n4 p459-70   1990
  ISSN: 0279-6015
  Available From: UMI
  Document Type: POSITION PAPER (120);  REVIEW LITERATURE (070);  
JOURNAL ARTICLE (080)
  Evaluates three approaches to dynamic assessment of intelligence in 
terms of their ability to address both classification and remediation 
functions of assessment in schools.  Argues that relative to 
traditional intelligence tests, dynamic approaches have failed to 
provide evidence of satisfactory technical characteristics, such as 
reliability and validity.  (Author/NB)
  Descriptors: *Cognitive Processes; *Evaluation Methods; 
*Intelligence; *Intelligence Tests
  Identifiers: *Dynamic Assessment of Intelligence


  EJ414469  UD515348
  The Coloring of IQ Testing: A New Name for an Old Phenomenon.
  Ford, Donna Y.; And Others
  Urban League Review, v13 n1-2 p99-111 Sum-Win 198  1990
  Available From: UMI
  Document Type: JOURNAL ARTICLE (080);  REVIEW LITERATURE (070)
  Addresses the impact of the ideology of IQ testing on African 
Americans and Asians.  Presents an overview and an analysis of 
scholarly treatises that illustrate that IQ testing continues to be 
one mechanism for maintaining racial prejudice and inequality in the 
United States.  (JS)
  Descriptors: *Asian Americans; Blacks; Cultural Differences; 
Culture Fair Tests; *Intelligence Differences; *Intelligence Tests; 
*Racial Bias; Racial Differences; *Test Bias; Test Validity; Whites


  EJ393107  UD514335
  Intelligence and IQ: Landmark Issues and Great Debates.
  Weinberg, Richard A.
  American Psychologist, v44 n2 p98-104 Feb   1989
  Special issue with the title "Children and Their Development: 
Knowledge Base, Research Agenda, and Social Policy Application."
  Available From: UMI
  Document Type: JOURNAL ARTICLE (080);  REVIEW LITERATURE (070)
  Describes the status of controversies regarding the definition of 
intelligence, its measurement, and the relative roles of heredity 
versus environment in the development of individual differences.  
Intelligence tests alone are inconclusive in examining individual 
children.  (Author/BJV)
  Descriptors: *Child Development; Child Psychology; Children; 
Cognitive Development; Definitions; Developmental Psychology; 
Intelligence; *Intelligence Tests; *Measurement Techniques; *Nature 
Nurture Controversy; *Psychological Studies; Public Policy; *Test 
Validity


  EJ387167  EC212094
  The Assessment of Cognition/Intelligence in Infancy.
  Shelton, Terri L.
  Infants and Young Children, v1 n3 p10-25 Jan   1989
  Document Type: JOURNAL ARTICLE (080);  REVIEW LITERATURE (070);  
NON-CLASSROOM MATERIAL (055)
  Target Audience: Practitioners
  The article reviews the development of infant cognitive assessment 
and describes selected tests.  Considerations in choosing, 
administering, and interpreting the results of infant 
intelligence/cognitive assessment instruments are outlined.  The 
usefulness of cognitive assessment is discussed as are new approaches 
to assessment.  (Author/DB)
  Descriptors: *Cognitive Development; *Evaluation Methods; *Infants; 
*Intelligence Tests; Test Interpretation


  EJ388048  SP518474
  Should You Know Your Child's IQ?
  Stockard, James W., Jr.
  PTA Today, v14 n1 p12-13 Oct   1988
  Available From: UMI
  Document Type: JOURNAL ARTICLE (080);  POSITION PAPER (120);  
HISTORICAL MATERIAL (060)
  Intelligence Quotient scores are only predictors of performance, 
not precise measures of intelligence.  They are most useful in 
conjunction with other assessments of potential such as achievement 
tests and daily performance.  An explanation of how scores are 
derived and a brief history of IQ testing are included.  (IAH)
  Descriptors: Aptitude Tests; Elementary Secondary Education; 
*Intelligence Quotient; *Intelligence Tests; Test Use


  EJ374308  SP517788
  Binet and the Nature of Intelligence Theory.
  Nash, Roy
  Interchange, v18 n4 p70-83   1987
  Available From: UMI
  Document Type: JOURNAL ARTICLE (080);  POSITION PAPER (120)
  An argument that Binet must be regarded as a major theoretician of 
functional intelligence and should be considered for what is regarded 
as classical intelligence theory is advanced.  A discourse on Binet's 
theory, its intellectual context and the developments it fostered is 
given.  (JL)
  Descriptors: *Cognitive Development; *Intelligence Quotient; 
*Intelligence Tests; *Psychometrics; *Test Theory
  Identifiers: *Binet (Alfred); Binet Simon Intelligence Scale


  ED283328  EC192757
  Review of Issues in Intelligence Test Use in Alberta Schools.
  Nov 1986
  45p.
  EDRS Price - MF01/PC02 Plus Postage.
  Document Type: REVIEW LITERATURE (070);  GENERAL REPORT (140)
  This review of issues involved in the use of intelligence tests in 
Alberta (Canada) schools included consideration of: the nature of 
intelligence; the measurement of intelligence (instrument variables, 
examiner variables, and interpretation variables); student rights; 
implications of intelligence test results in decision making 
(labeling of students, student placement); special populations 
(minority, English as a second language, learning-disabled, 
behaviorally disordered, physically disabled, and gifted students); 
and policies on intelligence tests in Canada and the United States.  
It was concluded that the present literature regarding this subject 
is inconclusive, with no general consensus existing on a single 
operational definition of intelligence.  Consensus, however, was 
found for three points: (1) the nature of intelligence is culturally 
relative; (2) ability alone rarely determines performance; and (3) 
intelligence is a dynamic, fluid, and multi-trait construct.  There 
was also a degree of agreement that, when properly used, intelligence 
tests provide useful information which can form the basis for 
constructive planning.  A survey of Alberta school jurisdictions 
showed a lack of consistency, continuity, and any uniform procedures 
across the province.  A glossary of testing related terms and a list 
of references are included.  (CB)
  Descriptors: Culture Fair Tests; *Disabilities; *Educational Policy; 
Elementary Secondary Education; Foreign Countries; *Gifted; 
*Intelligence Tests; Labeling (of Persons); Student Placement; 
Student Rights; Testing Problems; *Test Use
  Identifiers: *Alberta


  ED272882  CS209962
  Critical Thinking: Its Nature, Measurement, and Improvement.
  Sternberg, Robert J.
  [1986
  37p.
  EDRS Price - MF01/PC02 Plus Postage.
  Document Type: POSITION PAPER (120);  REVIEW LITERATURE (070)
  Critical thinking comprises the mental processes, strategies, and 
representations people use to solve problems, make decisions, and 
learn new concepts.  The study of critical thinking combines the 
educational, philosophical, and psychological traditions of thought.  
R. Ennis offers a philosophical taxonomy suggesting that critical 
thinking results from the interaction of a set of dispositions toward 
critical thinking with a set of abilities for critical thinking, 
while R. Sternberg's psychological taxonomy defines the skills 
involved in critical thinking to be of three kinds: metacomponents, 
performance components, and knowledge-acquisition components.  
Bloom's taxonomy of education puts knowledge at the lowest level, 
followed by comprehension, application, analysis, and synthesis, with 
evaluation at the highest level.  Tests for measuring critical 
thinking also come from the philosophical and psychological areas.  
The Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal, the Cornell Critical 
Thinking Test, and the New Jersey Test of Reasoning Skills are 
derived from the philosophical tradition.  The Triarchic Test of 
Intellectual Skills is psychologically derived, but does not try to 
separate critical thinking from intelligence.  Programs for training 
critical thinking include Copi's 1978 course in logic, Bransford and 
Stein's 1984 course called "The Ideal Problem Solver," Sternberg's 
1986 "Understanding and Increasing Intelligence," and Whimbey and 
Lochhead's 1982 "Problem Solving and Comprehension." Educators 
current concern with critical thinking offers students a new chance 
for developing critical thinking skills, but training must be brought 
into all aspects of the classroom to be successful.  (Tables 
outlining E.J.  Gubbins's Matrix of Thinking Skills, and Sternberg's 
program for training intellectual skills are appended.) (SRT)
  Descriptors: *Cognitive Tests; *Critical Thinking; Higher Education; 
*Intelligence Tests; *Logical Thinking; *Problem Solving; 
Psychological Testing; Secondary Education; Testing; Training Methods; 
Training Objectives


  EJ297590  UD510669
  Intelligence Testing Revisited.
  Stoddard, Ann H.
  Negro Educational Review, v35 n1 p17-24 Jan   1984
  Document Type: POSITION PAPER (120);  REVIEW LITERATURE (070)
  Discusses bias in intelligence testing and the misuse of 
intelligence tests scores.  Suggests that use of such tests be 
limited or supported by other modes of evaluation.  (CJM)
  Descriptors: *Culture Fair Tests; Educational Planning; Elementary 
Secondary Education; Grouping (Instructional Purposes); Intelligence 
Quotient; *Intelligence Tests; Minority Groups; Social Discrimination; 
*Test Bias; Test Interpretation


  EJ294314  UD510552
  What Should Intelligence Tests Test? Implications of a Triarchic 
Theory of Intelligence for Intelligence Testing.
  Sternberg, Robert J.
  Educational Researcher, v13 n1 p5-15 Jan   1984
  Available From: UMI
  Document Type: REVIEW LITERATURE (070);  POSITION PAPER (120)
  Argues that IQ tests work only for some people some of the time.  
Offers a theory that emphasizes the roles in intelligence of 
information-processing, the environmental context, and coping with 
novelty and automatization of task performance, as a possibility for 
improving levels of prediction.  (CMG)
  Descriptors: Cognitive Processes; *Epistemology; *Intelligence; 
*Intelligence Tests; *Standardized Tests; *Test Theory; *Test 
Validity


  ED259026  TM850398
  IQ Test Controversy: Past, Present, and Future Trends.
  Alford, David W.
  [1984
  24p.
  EDRS Price - MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
  Document Type: REVIEW LITERATURE (070)
  The controversies surrounding the use of intelligence quotient (IQ) 
tests with children are summarized.  This article discusses what 
intelligence is and how intelligence is measured.  It also examines 
factors which can affect measurement, including examiner training or 
bias, examinee age, misinterpretation of test scores, and poor tests.  
The appropriate uses of IQ tests are considered, as well as the 
abuses.  Past, present, and future trends in intelligence testing are 
described.  It is concluded that since trends suggest that more 
rather than less IQ testing will occur, efforts should be directed at 
developing better tests and reducing abuses.  (GDC)
  Descriptors: Culture Fair Tests; Educational Trends; Elementary 
Secondary Education; Futures (of Society); Intelligence; Intelligence 
Differences; *Intelligence Quotient; *Intelligence Tests; Nature 
Nurture Controversy; Response Style (Tests); Test Bias; *Testing 
Problems; *Test Use


  EJ305387  EC170165
  Intelligence Testing: The Mystique, the Myth, the Maelstrom, and 
the Mandate.
  Burton, Thomas A.
  Diagnostique, v8 n2 p101-06 Win   1983
  Available From: UMI
  Document Type: JOURNAL ARTICLE (080);  REVIEW LITERATURE (070);  
POSITION PAPER (120)
  The value of intelligence testing was extended beyond its intent, 
and psychologists were not answerable to any measure of 
accountability.  Recently, the value of testing has been challenged 
in the courts and is now restricted by legislative mandate.  
Continued resistance by psychologists may lead to the demise of 
standardized intelligence tests.  Author/CL)
  Descriptors: *Compliance (Legal); *Court Litigation; *Disabilities; 
Educational Trends; Intelligence Quotient; *Intelligence Tests; 
Psychologists


  ED235883  PS013846
  If Not I.Q. - What?
  Tyler, Ralph W.
  18 Sep 1980
  24p.
  EDRS Price - MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
  Document Type: REVIEW LITERATURE (070);  EVALUATIVE REPORT (142)
  The use of psychological and educational tests in World War I led 
to their adoption in schools for testing intelligence and achievement 
in order to classify students academically according to a national 
norm.  After World War II, rapid changes in occupational and social 
structure demanded the education and identification of students for 
employment.  As educational conditions changed, it became evident 
that several untenable assumptions had been made regarding 
standardized tests (for example, the assumption of difference between 
measured intelligence and achievement, and the assumption of the 
normal distribution of tested behaviors in the population).  Civil 
rights movements sought out bias and discriminatory practices 
regarding intelligence and aptitude tests.  This process led the 
Supreme Court of California to ban the use of intelligence tests in 
their public schools.  In the past, the results of intelligence tests 
have been used for four major purposes: (1) to predict the 
educational, occupational, and social potential of the individual; 
(2) to help the child and the parents plan for the child's education 
and career in terms of "realistic" goals; (3) to assign the child to 
a particular educational or training program or track; and (4) to 
indicate the appropriate environment in which a child with a low I.Q. 
should be placed.  These tests no longer serve to provide information 
that can help in planning for the continuous development of human 
beings.  Useful data can be obtained, however, and time and effort 
involved in collecting comprehension information may be reduced as 
experience and experiments reveal more economical means of assessment.  
(BJD)
  Descriptors: *Achievement Tests; Elementary Secondary Education; 
*Intelligence Tests; Occupational Tests; Psychological Testing; 
*Standardized Tests; *Test Bias

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