What are local policies across the United States for student promotion / grade repetition?
In order to sidestep the undesirable options of either retention or social promotion, what educational practices are recommended to boost the achievement of students
at high risk of academic underachievement ?
What are the special considerations regarding retention of young children in early childhood education? Have transition classes proven to be beneficial or harmful?
When Retention Is Recommended, What Should Parents Do?  - by Anne S. Robertson
[Topical Overviews in Full-Text]
Promotion Policies in the Urban High School  - by Michael Webb & Paul Bunten
Grade Retention and Promotion  - by Karen Steiner
OTHER INTERNET-ACCESSIBLE DOCUMENTS
Taking Responsibility for Ending Social Promotion: A Guide for Educators and State and Local Leaders  - U.S. Department of Education
Promotion or Retention: Which One Is Social?  - by Jeannie Oakes, Harvard Education Letter
Passing on Failure: District Promotion Policies & Practices  - American Federation of Teachers
Repeating Grades in School: Current Practice and Research Evidence  - Consortium for Policy Research in Education [pdf]
[Table of Contents]
MAJOR BIBLIOGRAPHIC RESOURCES
[Check your local library or bookstore for access]
Amadio, M. (1996). Primary school repetition: a global perspective.
Geneva, Switzerland: UNESCO, International Bureau of Education.
American Federation of Teachers. Passing on failure: district
promotion policies and practices. Washington, DC: Author. Available:
Educational Research Service. (1997). Retention in grade, K-6.
(ERS info-file 190). Arlington, VA: Author.
Eisemon, T. (1997). Reducing repetition: issues and strategies.
(Fundamentals of Educational Planning No. 55). Paris: UNESCO, International
Institute for Educational Planning.
Holt, J.C. (1995). How children fail. (Classics in Child
Development). Reading, MA: Perseua Books.
McCoy, A.R. (1998). Grade retention and school performance: an extended
investigation. (Institute for Research on Poverty Discussion Paper
No. 1167-98). Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin-Madison, Institute for
Research on Poverty.
Retention and social promotion: Hearing before the Committee
on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions, United States Senate,
106th Congress, 1st Sess. 54 (1999).
U.S. Department of Education. (1999). Taking responsibility for
ending social promotion: a guide for educators and state and local
leaders. Washington, DC: Author. Available:
[Table of Contents]