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QUESTION/PROBLEM: Bilingual Special Education Assessment

last updated January 16, 1998





Example queries:

What are recommended assessment practices for identifying the presence of learning disabilities in bilingual or limited-English-speaking children?

In the diagnosis of special educational needs, what are the implications of students' cultural differences or bilingualism or limited-English-speaking status?

What are general resources regarding educational policies and classroom practices for bilingual special education?


Table of Contents


INTERNET RESOURCES

Center for Equity and Excellence in Education (CEEE) Test Database
A project of the The Region III Comprehensive Center at George Washington University's Center for Equity and Excellence in Education (CEEE) and the ERIC Clearinghouse on Assessment and Evaluation, the CEEE Test Database is a collection of abstracts and descriptions of almost 200 tests commonly used with Limited English Proficent students.

Assessment & Accountability [in Bilingual Education]
This section of the Online Library of the National Clearinghouse for Bilingual Education (NCBE) contains recent, full-text, online reports from a variety of institutions and researchers that cover all educational levels. Especially pertinent to the topic of bilingual special education assessment are:

Reducing Bias In The Assessment of Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Populations
To Refer Or Not to Refer: Untangling the Web of Diversity, "Deficit," and Disability
Prereferral Activities: One Way to Avoid Biased Testing Procedures and Possible Inappropriate Special Education Placement for American Indian Students

Selected Resources: Identification and Assessment of Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Students with Disabilities, 1993-1996
A "minibib" from The ERIC Clearinghouse on Disabilities and Gifted Education

The assessment of bilingual pupils: observations from recent Welsh experiences by Dylan V. Jones, September 1997
This paper, a presentation at the British Educational Research Association, 1997, is offered courtesy of Education-line.

[Table of Contents]


ERIC DOCUMENTS CITATIONS FOR BILINGUAL SPECIAL EDUCATION ASSESSMENT

  EJ513519  EC612637
  Assessment of Students with Learning Disabilities: Current Issues 
and Future Directions.
  Scruggs, Thomas E.; Mastropieri, Margo A.
  Diagnostique, v20 n1-4 p17-31 199  1995
  ISSN: 0737-2477
  Available From: UMI
  Document Type: JOURNAL ARTICLE (080);  REVIEW LITERATURE (070)
  Current issues in the assessment of students with learning 
disabilities are identified, including use of physiological and 
neuropsychological measures, discrepancy criteria, curriculum-based 
measurement, dynamic assessment, performance and portfolio 
assessment, and assessment of learning disabilities in bilingual and 
multicultural contexts.  (Author/DB)
  Descriptors: Bilingual Education; Competency Based Education; 
Curriculum Based Assessment; *Disability Identification; Educational 
Trends; Elementary Secondary Education; *Evaluation Methods; 
*Learning Disabilities; Limited English Speaking; Multicultural 
Education; Portfolio Assessment; *Student Evaluation; Trend Analysis
  Identifiers: Discrepancy Formulas; Dynamic Assessment


  EJ511759  EC612222
  The Social Construction of Ability and Disability: I. Profile Types 
of Latino Children Identified as Language Learning Disabled.
  Ruiz, Nadeen T.
  Journal of Learning Disabilities, v28 n8 p476-90 Oct 
  1995
  ISSN: 0022-2194
  Available From: UMI
  Document Type: JOURNAL ARTICLE (080);  RESEARCH REPORT (143)
  An ethnographic study of one elementary bilingual special education 
classroom found three profile types of students, ranging from severe 
language learning disabilities to normal abilities.  Results show the 
inadequacy of the medical model and support a contextual performance 
view that acknowledges the role of instructional context in revealing 
the range of students' communicative and academic competence.  
(Author/DB)
  Descriptors: *Ability Identification; Bilingual Education; *Context 
Effect; *Disability Identification; Elementary Education; Ethnography; 
Evaluation Methods; Language Impairments; *Learning Disabilities; 
*Limited English Speaking; Models; *Performance Factors; Severity (of 
Disability); Special Needs Students; Student Evaluation


  ED379917  FL022759
  Instructional Assessment. An Integrative Approach to Evaluating 
Student Performance.
  Fradd, Sandra Homlar; And Others
  1994
  509p.
  ISBN: 0-201-53964-0
  Available From: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, Rt. 128, 
Reading, MA 01867 ($28.95).
  Document Type: TEACHING GUIDE (052);  RESEARCH REPORT (143)
  Target Audience: Teachers; Administrators; Practitioners
  This book meets a critical assessment need which is the need to 
develop legally and educationally defensible assessment procedures 
for use with non-English language background students who are still 
in the process of learning English.  The purpose of this text is to 
provide educators with both the information on which to make 
effective educational decisions and the knowledge and insight to 
enable them to apply this information in both theoretical and 
practical contexts.  The chapters in this volume are: Chapter 1, 
"Concepts of Instructional Assessment"; Chapter 2, "Understanding 
Second Language Performance"; Chapter 3, "Assessing Oral Language 
Performance"; Chapter 4, "Differentiating Language Disorders from the 
Effects of Limited Opportunities for Language Learning"; Chapter 5, 
"Towards an Integrative Academic Performance Assessment"; Chapter 6, 
"Assessing Academic Performance through Contextualized Measures"; 
Chapter 7, "Advocacy in the Assessment Process"; Chapter 8: 
"Identifying Special Needs"; and Chapter 9 "Using Assessment 
Information To Promote Instructional Effectiveness." An appendix with 
guidelines for instructional assessment is included.  (Contains 671 
references.) (CK)
  Descriptors: *Decision Making; *Educational Diagnosis; English 
(Second Language); *Evaluation Methods; *Evaluation Research; 
Information Utilization; Instructional Effectiveness; Learning 
Disabilities; Limited English Speaking; Oral Language; Problem 
Solving; Second Language Instruction; Second Language Learning; 
Special Needs Students; Student Evaluation; *Teacher Effectiveness


EJ429883  EC600946
  Meeting the Needs of Culturally and Linguistically Diverse 
Exceptional Learners: Prereferral to Mainstreaming.
  Hoover, John J.; Collier, Catherine
  Teacher Education and Special Education, v14 n1 p30-34 Win 
  1991
  Available From: UMI
  Document Type: JOURNAL ARTICLE (080);  PROJECT DESCRIPTION (141);  
REVIEW LITERATURE (070)
  Target Audience: Teachers; Practitioners
  This article discusses prereferral intervention, mainstreaming, and 
appropriate education for culturally and linguistically diverse 
exceptional learners.  One approach for addressing prereferral 
intervention at district or school building levels is described, 
emphasizing the need to expand training to meet the needs of minority 
non-Hispanic students in special and mainstream classes.  (Author/PB)
  Descriptors: *Disabilities; Elementary Secondary Education; 
Intervention; *Mainstreaming; *Minority Group Children; Non English 
Speaking; Teaching Methods
  Identifiers: Bilingual Special Education; *Prereferral Intervention

  
  EJ429881  EC600944
  POWER: A Process for Meeting the Instructional Needs of Handicapped 
Language-Minority Students.
  Fradd, Sandra H.; Bermudez, Andrea B.
  Teacher Education and Special Education, v14 n1 p19-24 Win 
  1991
  Available From: UMI
  Document Type: JOURNAL ARTICLE (080);  PROJECT DESCRIPTION (141)
  Target Audience: Teachers; Practitioners
  A field-tested instruction and assessment model is described that 
fosters development of second-language skills by integrating writing 
with listening, speaking, reading, and problem solving.  The model 
draws upon elements of process-oriented instruction, whole language 
learning, cooperative learning, cognitive mapping, and reading and 
writing across the curriculum.  (Author/PB)
  Descriptors: Classroom Techniques; Cognitive Mapping; Cooperative 
Learning; *Disabilities; Educational Diagnosis; Elementary Secondary 
Education; Second Language Learning; *Special Education; Student 
Evaluation; *Teaching Methods; Whole Language Approach; Writing 
Across the Curriculum
  Identifiers: Bilingual Special Education


 EJ429884  EC600947
  Assessment and Intervention Model for the Bilingual Exceptional 
Student (AIM for the BESt).
  Ortiz, Alba A.; Wilkinson, Cheryl Yelich
  Teacher Education and Special Education, v14 n1 p35-42 Win 
  1991
  Available From: UMI
  Document Type: JOURNAL ARTICLE (080);  PROJECT DESCRIPTION (141)
  Target Audience: Practitioners
  This article describes a service delivery system for limited 
English proficiency students in regular and special education 
programs using problem-solving teams and criterion-referenced and/or 
curriculum-based assessment, with an emphasis on reciprocal 
interaction teaching.  Goals include improved academic performance 
and more reliable referral of such students.  (Author/PB)
  Descriptors: *Disabilities; Educational Diagnosis; Elementary 
Secondary Education; *Handicap Identification; *Limited English 
Speaking; Mainstreaming; Minority Group Children; Problem Solving; 
*Regular and Special Education Relationship; Student Evaluation; Test 
Bias
  Identifiers: Bilingual Special Education

  
  ED343770  RC018629
  American Indians and Alaska Natives with Disabilities.
  Johnson, Marilyn J.
  [1991
  43p.; In: Indian Nations At Risk Task Force Commissioned Papers. 
See RC 018 612.
  Document Type: REVIEW LITERATURE (070)
  American Indian and Alaska Native children with special needs 
experience the same ineffective and inefficient services as other 
minority language children.  This paper discusses the special needs 
of Native children, assessment and curriculum issues, and 
recommendations for improvement.  It provides statistics for various 
categories of handicaps and for Native preschool children, school-
aged children, and adults.  Some conditions affecting Native children 
at high rates are described: learning disabilities, fetal alcohol 
syndrome, communication disorders, hearing impairments, and 
meningitis.  Support for the education of disabled persons has been 
secured through legislation, particularly P.L.  94-142, which 
outlines procedures for screening, referral, assessment, placement, 
and staffing.  Nevertheless, assessment practices have been 
criticized.  Particularly relevant for Native students are criticisms 
related to cultural and linguistic test bias, the creation of self-
fulfilling prophecies, and the widespread use and misuse of 
standardized tests.  Alternative assessment practices include 
academic task analysis, pluralistic assessment, culture-fair 
procedures, an advocacy-oriented model, and addition of a 
sociocultural dimension.  Curriculum issues and recommendations are 
related to bilingual special education, the Regular Education 
Initiative, early childhood education, reading instruction, 
mathematics instruction, and functional life skills.  Also discussed 
are teacher shortages, parent and community involvement, the need for 
preschool programs, and future Native programming needs.  This paper 
contains over 150 references.  (SV)
  Descriptors: Alaska Natives; *American Indian Education; American 
Indians; *Curriculum Development; *Disabilities; *Educational 
Diagnosis; Elementary Secondary Education; *Special Education; 
Special Needs Students; *Student Evaluation; Student Placement; 
Teaching Methods
  Identifiers: Bilingual Special Education; Education for All 
Handicapped Children Act

  
  EJ429885  EC600948
  Assessment Concerns: A Study of Cultural Differences, Teacher 
Concepts, and Inappropriate Labeling.
  Jacobs, Lila
  Teacher Education and Special Education, v14 n1 p43-48 Win 
  1991
  Available From: UMI
  Document Type: JOURNAL ARTICLE (080);  RESEARCH REPORT (143)
  Target Audience: Teachers; Practitioners
  An ethnographic study is reported using participant and 
nonparticipant observations, interviews, and analysis of school files 
on 77 Hmong students to probe factors affecting tendencies to 
incorrectly label Hmong students as learning disabled.  Case studies 
are discussed in the context of Hmong history, refugees' experiences, 
and language factors.  (Author/PB)
  Descriptors: Bias; Case Studies; Educational Diagnosis; Elementary 
Secondary Education; Ethnography; Handicap Identification; *Hmong 
People; Labeling (of Persons); *Learning Disabilities; Minority Group 
Children; *Non English Speaking; Refugees; *Social Bias


  ED329094  EC300090
  Bilingual Learning Disability Services in Illinois--A Myth?: A Look 
at Policy.
  Assaf-Keller, Miryam
  Oct 1990
  42p.; Paper presented at the Council for Exceptional Children 
Symposium on Culturally Diverse Exceptional Children (Albuquerque, 
NM, October 18-20, 1990).
  Document Type: CONFERENCE PAPER (150)
  This paper reviews statutes and recommended practices established 
by the Illinois State Board of Education for the identification of 
learning disabilities (LD) in culturally and linguistically diverse 
exceptional (CLDE) students, and reports the findings of a survey on 
LD bilingual services provided to Hispanic students in the Chicago 
(Illinois) Public Schools and surrounding districts.  Such assessment 
variables as discrepancy criteria, processing criteria, and 
sociocultural factors are considered.  The paper discusses the 
prevalence of Hispanic students enrolled in bilingual special 
education and possible factors impacting on their level of 
representation.  A survey of 20 Chicago and area public schools, with 
approximately a 50% return rate, collected data on the types of 
services provided to CLDE students in LD.  The study focused on types 
of programs, length of existence of the programs, numbers of students 
enrolled, professionals involved in the utilization of standardized 
tests for LD identification, criteria utilized for LD identification, 
instruments utilized for language proficiency evaluations, 
instruments and procedures utilized for educational assessments, and 
instructional materials utilized for the instruction of academic 
subjects.  The paper concludes that state-mandated nondiscriminatory 
assessment and placement procedures are not being exercised, and that 
program availability appears to be the determinant factor in student 
placement.  (Approximately 75 references) (JDD)
  Descriptors: *Bilingual Education; Cultural Differences; 
Educational Diagnosis; Educational Discrimination; Educational Policy; 
Educational Practices; Elementary Secondary Education; *Handicap 
Identification; Hispanic Americans; Incidence; Language Handicaps; 
*Learning Disabilities; Limited English Speaking; Program 
Implementation; State Programs; *State Standards; Student Placement
  Identifiers: Chicago Public Schools IL; *Illinois



  ED321427  EC222033
  Assessing the Language Difficulties of Hispanic Bilingual Students. 
Abstract 23: Research & Resources on Special Education.
  Aug 1989
  8p.
  Available From: ERIC/OSEP Special Project on Interagency 
Information Dissemination, Council for Exceptional Children, 1920 
Association Dr., Reston, VA 22091 ($1.00 each, minimum order $5.00).
  Document Type: BIBLIOGRAPHY (131);  SERIAL (022);  ERIC PRODUCT 
(071)
  Target Audience: Practitioners; Researchers
  This research summary identifies major factors affecting the 
validity of language assessments in bilingual students.  The four 
factors include: (1) determining which language is dominant and in 
which language the child should be tested; (2) recognizing that 
bilingual children may use language in a way that is qualitatively 
different from that of monolingual children; (3) recognizing the 
influence of cultural differences and the local environment; and (4) 
overcoming the insufficiencies of existing diagnostic instruments.  
Literature-based recommendations for selecting a battery of language 
assessments are offered, and research needs are listed.  A 35-item 
bibliography on assessing language disorders in bilingual students 
accompanies the research summary.  (JDD)
  Descriptors: *Bilingual Students; Cultural Differences; Diagnostic 
Tests; Elementary Secondary Education; *Evaluation Methods; *Handicap 
Identification; Hispanic Americans; *Language Handicaps; *Language 
Tests; Research Needs; Student Evaluation; Test Bias; Testing 
Problems


  EJ400670  EC221583
  Adaptation of a Screening Test for Bilingual and Bidialectal 
Populations.
  Norris, Marylee K.; And Others
  Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, v20 n4 p381-90 
Oct   1989
  Document Type: JOURNAL ARTICLE (080);  RESEARCH REPORT (143)
  Target Audience: Practitioners; Researchers
  An adaptation of the Hannah-Gardner Test of Verbal and Nonverbal 
Language Functioning was developed to be used in screening the 
language skills of 540 low-income Black, English-dominant Hispanic, 
and Anglo preschool children.  The procedures used to calculate local 
norms and other issues involved in screening minority populations are 
discussed.  (Author/JDD)
  Descriptors: Bilingual Students; Handicap Identification; *Learning 
Disabilities; Limited English Speaking; *Local Norms; Minority Group 
Children; *Nonstandard Dialects; Nonverbal Ability; Preschool 
Children; Preschool Education; *Screening Tests; Testing Problems; 
*Test Norms; *Verbal Ability
  Identifiers: *Hannah Gardner Test of Nonverbal Verbal Lang Funct

  
  EJ399084  EC221176
  Language Disorder or Difference? Assessing the Language Skills of 
Hispanic Students.
  Langdon, Henriette W.
  Exceptional Children, v56 n2 p160-67 Oct   1989
  Special Issue: Meeting the Multicultural Needs of the Hispanic 
Students in Special Education.
  Document Type: RESEARCH REPORT (143);  JOURNAL ARTICLE (080);  NON-
CLASSROOM MATERIAL (055)
  Target Audience: Practitioners
  Seventeen bilingual speech and language pathologists submitted 
assessment reports on 51 limited-English-proficiency students and 44 
Anglo students with suspected language disorders.  Analysis indicated 
that a heavy diagnostic emphasis continues to be placed on results of 
discrete-point tests.  A protocol to assess limited-English-speaking 
students suspected of a language or learning disability is offered.  
(Author/MSE)
  Descriptors: *Educational Diagnosis; Elementary Secondary Education; 
*Hispanic Americans; *Language Skills; *Learning Disabilities; *
Limited English Speaking; Spanish Speaking; *Test Use


  EJ399080  EC221172
  Defining Mild Disabilities with Language-Minority Students.
  Rueda, Robert
  Exceptional Children, v56 n2 p121-28 Oct   1989
  Special Issue: Meeting the Multicultural Needs of the Hispanic 
Students in Special Education.
  Document Type: PROJECT DESCRIPTION (141);  POSITION PAPER (120);  
JOURNAL ARTICLE (080)
  Target Audience: Practitioners
  A discussion of special education placement of language-minority 
students with mild disabilities focuses on current eligibility 
criteria, proposing that problems in assessment, diagnosis, and 
placement reflect problems with larger issues in special education, 
especially continuing reliance on the psychometric paradigm.  Reform 
attempts are categorized as system maintenance, improvement, or 
restructuring.  (Author/MSE)
  Descriptors: *Educational Change; *Educational Diagnosis; 
Elementary Secondary Education; Eligibility; *Limited English 
Speaking; *Mild Disabilities; Special Education; *Student Placement; 
Testing Problems


EJ399079  EC221171
  A Theoretical Framework for Bilingual Special Education.
  Cummins, Jim
  Exceptional Children, v56 n2 p111-19 Oct   1989
  Special Issue: Meeting the Multicultural Needs of the Hispanic 
Students in Special Education.
  Available From: UMI
  Document Type: PROJECT DESCRIPTION (141);  JOURNAL ARTICLE (080)
  Target Audience: Practitioners
  A theoretical matrix for conceptualizing issues within bilingual 
special education is outlined.  Issues addressed include the 
difficulty of distinguishing learning disabilities from second-
language-learning problems, nondiscriminatory assessment of language 
and intellectual skills, effects of bilingual interactions at home 
and school, and appropriate pedagogy and intervention.  (Author/MSE)
  Descriptors: *Bilingual Education; Bilingualism; *Disabilities; 
Educational Theories; Elementary Secondary Education; *Handicap 
Identification; High Risk Students; *Intervention; Learning 
Disabilities; Learning Problems; *Second Language Learning; Social 
Discrimination; *Special Education
  Identifiers: *Bilingual Special Education


  EJ393730  EC220440
  A Socio-Cultural Framework for the Assessment of Chinese Children 
with Special Needs.
  Lee, Alice
  Topics in Language Disorders, v9 n3 p38-44 Jun   1989
  Theme Issue: Language Assessment and Intervention with LEP 
Children: Implications from an Asian/Pacific Perspective.
  Document Type: JOURNAL ARTICLE (080);  PROJECT DESCRIPTION (141);  
NON-CLASSROOM MATERIAL (055)
  Target Audience: Practitioners
  Subcultural differences existing among various Chinese immigrant 
groups are described, through examination of such cultural 
characteristics as languages, religions, philosophy, and family life.  
Two case studies reveal the difficulties inherent in conducting 
educational evaluations of Chinese children with special needs.  
(JDD)
  Descriptors: *Chinese Americans; Cultural Background; *Cultural 
Differences; *Disabilities; *Educational Diagnosis; Elementary 
Education; *Handicap Identification; *Limited English Speaking; 
Sociocultural Patterns


  ED309591  EC220582
  Preventing Inappropriate Referrals of Language Minority Students to 
Special Education. Occasional Papers in Bilingual Education.
  Garcia, Shernaz B.; Ortiz, Alba A.
  NCBE New Focus, n5 Jun 1988  Jun 1988
  13p.
  Document Type: REVIEW LITERATURE (070);  PROJECT DESCRIPTION (141); 
 SERIAL (022)
  It is often difficult to distinguish those students with learning 
problems due to individual differences in learning styles or 
achievement difficulties from those students with specific disorders; 
failure to do so sometimes results in inappropriate referral of 
language minority students to special education.  It also contributes 
to disproportionate representation of those students in special 
education.  These children suffer from the stigma of being labelled 
handicapped and may lose ground academically.  Formal prereferral 
intervention is recommended, governed by a clearly articulated set of 
procedures followed by all personnel.  Teacher assistance teams can 
be used to facilitate prereferral problem-solving.  This process 
provides valuable insights for classroom teachers and team members 
regarding potential sources of student difficulties and can help 
distinguish learning problem types.  At each step of the process, 
specific questions should address such issues as the problem; 
curricula and instructional materials; teacher characteristics; 
teaching style; teacher expectations and perceptions; student 
characteristics such as language proficiency, culture, and 
socioeconomic status; exposure to the curriculum; evaluation of 
instructional effectiveness; and alternative interventions.  
Prereferral intervention in which the major objective is to improve 
the effectiveness of regular education is a cost-effective approach.  
(MSE)
  Descriptors: *Educational Diagnosis; Elementary Secondary Education; 
English (Second Language); *Handicap Identification; Instructional 
Effectiveness; Intervention; *Learning Problems; *Limited English 
Speaking; Referral; School Policy; Special Education; *Student 
Placement
  Identifiers: *Prereferral Intervention


  ED300979  EC211274
  Sociocultural Issues in the Assessment and Classroom Teaching of 
Language Minority Students. Crosscultural Special Education Series, 
Volume 3.
  Sue, Stanley
  Apr 1988
  36p.; The document was produced by Resources in Special Education. 
For volumes 1 and 2 of this series, see EC 211 272-273.
  Available From: Resources in Special Education, 650 University 
Ave., Room 201, Sacramento, CA 05825.
  Document Type: NON-CLASSROOM MATERIAL (055)
  Target Audience: Teachers; Practitioners
  This guide examines problems in the assessment, evaluation, and 
teaching of language minority children who come from diverse 
sociocultural backgrounds.  School systems must find valid means to 
assess linguistic minority students and must offer instructional 
approaches that can facilitate growth and development.  General 
guidelines for assessment include understanding the referral 
question, selecting assessment tools based upon reliability and 
validity, using caution in interpreting test results, employing more 
than one measure, and avoiding inferences not warranted by the tests.  
The guidelines are applicable when using such assessment tools as 
observations, interviews, objective personality inventories, or 
projectives.  Sociocultural influences are likely to have a major 
impact on the student's performance on intellectual assessment, on 
evaluations of learning disabilities, and on the measurement of 
socioemotional adjustment.  Care must be taken so that assessment 
procedures accurately measure the characteristic of interest rather 
than sociocultural factors.  Teachers can provide an educational 
atmosphere that enhances the growth and development of all students 
by understanding their own as well as their students' cultural 
backgrounds, by incorporating ethnically diverse teaching materials 
in class, and by helping parents to become actively involved in the 
education of their children.  References are included.  (JDD)
  Descriptors: Bilingual Students; *Communication Disorders; Cultural 
Context; *Cultural Influences; Educational Diagnosis; Elementary 
Secondary Education; English (Second Language); *Evaluation Methods; 
*Limited English Speaking; Minority Groups; *Sociocultural Patterns; 
*Student Evaluation; Teaching Methods


  ED293679  RC016591
  Bilingual Special Education Is Appropriate for Mexican-American 
Children with Mildly Handicapping Conditions. ERIC Digest.
  Rodriguez, Richard F.
  Jan 1988
  15p.
  Document Type: POSITION PAPER (120);  ERIC PRODUCT (071)
  Target Audience: Practitioners
  Mexican American children have made poor progress in special 
education programs as currently structured.  Existing data appear to 
indicate that minority children, particularly Mexican American, 
continue to be placed in special education out of proportion to their 
numbers in the general population.  Although the Education for All 
Handicapped Children Act (PL 94-142) requires that each child 
referred to special education receive a comprehensive assessment 
using valid tests administered in the child's dominant language, 
current assessment practices lead to mislabelling and misplacing 
Mexican American students.  Lack of trained personnel makes it 
impossible to provide appropriate services to bilingual special 
education children as mandated by PL 94-142.  The development of 
instructional programs is hampered by lack of knowledge about the 
learning styles and cognitive development in minority group, 
bilingual children.  Comprehensive, evaluated programs taking these 
factors into account have not been developed or proven effective for 
minority group handicapped children.  A school district's philosophy 
of bilingual education and the type of language instruction provided 
will have a major impact on bilingual special education students.  
Parental involvement in a child's total educational program has 
recently become a principle intervention strategy and should be used 
with minority group parents.  (JHZ)
  Descriptors: *Bilingual Education; Educational Diagnosis; 
Educational Needs; Elementary Secondary Education; *Instructional 
Development; Limited English Speaking; Mexican American Education; 
*Mexican Americans; *Mild Disabilities; Minority Group Teachers; 
*Parent Role; Parent School Relationship; Preservice Teacher 
Education; *Special Education; Teacher Education Curriculum; Teacher 
Qualifications
  Identifiers: ERIC Digests


  ED339785  UD028454
  Psychoeducational Assessment of Minority Group Children: A 
Casebook.
  Jones, Reginald L.
  1988
  426p.
  ISBN: 0-943539-00-5
  Available From: Cobb and Henry Publishers, P.O. Box 4900, Berkeley, 
CA 94704-4900 ($39.95).
  Document Type: BOOK (010);  COLLECTION (020)
  This volume presents an introduction and 14 case studies by various 
authors on psychoeducational procedures for assessing minority group 
children.  Included are the following papers: (1) "Psychoeducational 
Assessment of Minority Group Children: Issues and Perspectives" (R.  
L. Jones); (2) "Dynamic Assessment: The Learning Potential Assessment 
Device" (H.  C. Haywood); (3) "The Use of Budoff's Learning Potential 
Assessment Techniques with a Mexican-American, Moderately Handicapped 
Student" (R.  M. Hausman); (4) "Rudy Garcia: A SOMPA Case Study" (J.  
A. Morrison); (5) "The Texas Environmental Adaptation Measure: Test 
Development and Standardization, and a Case Study" (L.  S. Scott and 
A. T. Fisher); (6) "The Behavioral Assessment of Conduct Disorder in 
a Black Child" (W.  A. Anderson, Jr.); (7) "Behavioral Assessment and 
Special Education Evaluation: A Successful and Necessary Marriage" (J.  
M. Taylor); (8) "Nondiscriminatory Assessment and Informal Data 
Gathering: The Case of Gonzaldo L." (H.  T. Cervantes); (9) "Gloria: 
A Bilingual/Learning Disabled Student" (H.  W. Langdon); (10) "An 
Alternative Model for Identification of Potentially Gifted Students: 
A Case Study" (M.  G. Dabney); (11) "Adaptation of the Learning 
Potential Assessment Strategy to Special Education Diagnostic 
Classroom Settings" (R.  M. Hausman); (12) "Nonbiased Assessment of 
the Preschool Child" (M.  L. McEvoy and D. W. Barnett); (13) "Case 
Study of an Emotionally Disturbed Eskimo Boy--Utuk" (D.  L. McIntosh 
and H. G. W. Bischoff); (14) "Informal Assessment of Intellectual 
Ability Using Piagetian Tasks" (L.  Taylor); and (15) "Using Student 
Performance Data in Academics: A Pragmatic and Defensible Approach to 
Non-Discriminatory Assessment" (M.  R. Shinn and G. A. Tindal).  
Biographical sketches of the authors and author and subject indexes 
are included.  (JB)
  Descriptors: Adjustment (to Environment); Behavioral Science 
Research; Bilingual Education; Case Studies; *Educational Diagnosis; 
Elementary Secondary Education; Group Testing; *Handicap 
Identification; *Minority Group Children; *Psychoeducational Methods; 
*Psychological Evaluation; Student Evaluation; Test Bias
  Identifiers: Dynamic Assessment

  
  ED300978  EC211273
  The Nature of Bilingualism: Implications for Special Education. 
Crosscultural Special Education Series, Volume 2.
  Ruiz, Nadeen T.
  Jan 1988
  43p.; The document was produced by Resources in Special Education. 
For volumes 1 and 3 of this series, see EC 211 272-274.
  Available From: Resources in Special Education, 650 University 
Ave., Room 201, Sacramento, CA 05825.
  Document Type: NON-CLASSROOM MATERIAL (055);  REVIEW LITERATURE 
(070)
  Target Audience: Teachers; Practitioners
  This monograph presents language factors related to bilingualism, 
to assist educators to distinguish normal phenomena due to 
bilingualism from symptoms of a handicapping condition.  The first 
section, called "The Nature of Bilingualism," discusses the diversity 
of bilingual students and their dynamic use of two languages, 
focusing on simultaneous and sequential bilingual children, first 
language acquisition in bilingual children, language varieties, 
language loss, codeswitching, and cognitive development in bilingual 
children.  The section entitled "Second Language Development" 
explores the role of primary language interference; the similarity 
between the processes of first and second language acquisition; the 
rate of second language acquisition; and the factors of age, access 
to peers, cultural group membership, personality and individual 
strategies, motivation and attitude, and formal instruction in 
English as a second language.  The final section, "Language 
Proficiency," examines relative language proficiency and language 
dominance, presents a model of bilingual proficiency, and reviews the 
problems of comparably limited bilingual children.  A list of 64 
references is appended.  (JDD)
  Descriptors: *Bilingualism; Code Switching (Language); Cognitive 
Development; *Communication Disorders; Elementary Secondary Education; 
*Handicap Identification; Interference (Language); Language 
Acquisition; Language Dominance; *Language Proficiency; Language 
Skill Attrition; *Limited English Speaking; Models; *Second Language 
Learning

  
  ED300977  EC211272
  Bilingual and Special Education: Procedural Manual for Program 
Administrators. Crosscultural Special Education Series, Volume 1.
  Vasquez-Chairez, Maria
  Apr 1988
  69p.; The document was produced by Resources in Special Education. 
For volumes 2 and 3 of this series, see EC 211 273-274.
  Available From: Resources in Special Education, 650 University 
Ave., Room 201, Sacramento, CA 05825 ($10.00).
  Document Type: NON-CLASSROOM MATERIAL (055)
  Target Audience: Administrators; Practitioners
  This handbook clarifies how to meet legal requirements when the 
same student population qualifies for both bilingual and special 
education programs.  Legal streamlining of existing California-
mandated requirements for bilingual and special education is 
emphasized.  The handbook begins with a discussion of the 
difficulties encountered when providing educational services to 
pupils with limited English proficiency who demonstrate academic 
deficiencies, and outlines procedures for distinguishing between a 
true disability and a language difference.  Types of bilingualism and 
their effect on school achievement are examined.  The use of the 
Student Study Team is suggested in the student referral process; such 
teams combine regular education teachers and specialists working 
together to develop an intervention plan emphasizing parent and 
student involvement.  A detailed comparison of bilingual and special 
education law is presented.  Specific legal requirements of 
California bilingual laws and special education laws are paralleled 
to assist in efficiently implementing the legislation.  The handbook 
then presents administrative steps that combine two separate laws 
into one single procedure from the point of referral to placement.  
Appendices discuss: (1) methods for ascertaining legal compliance, 
and (2) sunset program provisions for five California special 
education and bilingual education programs.  (JDD)
  Descriptors: Bilingual Education; *Compliance (Legal); 
*Disabilities; Educational Administration; Elementary Secondary 
Education; Eligibility; *Handicap Identification; Intervention; Legal 
Problems; Legal Responsibility; *Limited English Speaking; Referral; 
*Special Education; State Legislation; State Programs; *Student 
Placement
  Identifiers: *California


  EJ391040  RC507332
  The Relative Importance of Language and Culture in Making 
Assessment Decisions about Hispanic Students Referred to Special 
Education.
  Metz, Isaura Barrera
  NABE: The Journal for the National Association for Bilingual 
Education, v12 n3 p191-218 Spr   1988
  Document Type: JOURNAL ARTICLE (080);  RESEARCH REPORT (143)
  Finds that seven educational diagnosticians: did not give equal 
consideration to student language and culture variables in four 
decisions about bilingual special education assessment methods, 
varied in reliability across decisions, and showed higher reliability 
when aware of own decision making processes.  Contains 20 references 
and 10 statistical tables.  (SV)
  Descriptors: Bilingual Education; *Decision Making; *Educational 
Diagnosis; Educational Research; Elementary Secondary Education; 
Methods Research; School Psychologists; Special Education
  Identifiers: *Bilingual Special Education; *Simulated Cases 
Questionnaire

  
  ED301604  TM012611
  Relationships among Language Proficiency, Language of Test 
Administration and Special Education Eligibility for Bilingual 
Hispanic Students with Suspected Learning Disabilities.
  Wilkinson, Cheryl Yelich; Holtzman, Wayne H., Jr.
  Apr 1988
  31p.; Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American 
Educational Research Association (New Orleans, LA, April 5-9, 1988).
  Document Type: CONFERENCE PAPER (150);  RESEARCH REPORT (143)
  The relationship between the relative language proficiencies of 
bilingual children and their scores on tests administered in one or 
both languages was studied in students referred to special education 
because of suspected learning disabilities.  Bilingual Hispanic 
students (25 males and 15 females) in grades 2 through 4 from an 
urban school district, who had been referred to special education and 
were considered as limited English proficient, were assessed using 
intelligence and achievement tests in English and Spanish.  Only a 
moderate relationship was found between language proficiency and IQ 
and achievement test scores.  Most test means did not differ for 
Spanish- and English-dominant children.  Most of the children 
demonstrated fairly equal proficiency in both languages.  Stronger 
relationships might have been obtained for children whose proficiency 
in one language much exceeded their proficiency in the other.  The 
effect of the language of test administration on IQ scores was 
difficult to assess.  However, between 9% and 17% of the group 
qualified for learning-disabled services on the basis of English (but 
not Spanish) scores; thus, underscoring the need to consider native 
language assessment for all bilingual children.  Twelve data tables 
and one graph conclude the document.  (SLD)
  Descriptors: Achievement Tests; Bilingual Education; *Bilingual 
Students; Diagnostic Tests; Elementary Education; Eligibility; 
English; *Hispanic Americans; Intelligence Tests; Language Dominance; 
*Language Proficiency; Language Tests; *Learning Disabilities; 
Limited English Speaking; Spanish Speaking; *Special Education; Test 
Bias; *Testing

  
  EJ366047  EC201637
  Sociocultural Considerations When Referring Minority Children for 
Learning Disabilities.
  Collier, Catherine; Hoover, John J.
  Learning Disabilities Focus, v3 n1 p39-45 Fall   1987
  Document Type: JOURNAL ARTICLE (080);  REVIEW LITERATURE (070);  
POSITION PAPER (120)
  Target Audience: Practitioners
  The article discusses sociocultural considerations in dealing with 
culturally and linguistically different children referred for 
specific learning disabilities.  Some behaviors which appear to 
indicate a learning disability may, in fact, be normal for the 
child's cultural background or may be a byproduct of the 
acculturative process.  (Author/DB)
  Descriptors: *Cultural Differences; *Educational Diagnosis; 
Elementary Secondary Education; *Handicap Identification; *Limited 
English Speaking; *Minority Groups; *Student Evaluation


  ED303953  EC212150
  Program Suggestions for the Provision of Special Education Services 
to Limited English Proficient Students in Michigan Schools.
  [1987
  43p.
  Document Type: NON-CLASSROOM MATERIAL (055)
  Target Audience: Practitioners
  This document outlines processes necessary for the identification 
of and the educational planning for limited English proficient 
students who may be eligible for special education programs in 
Michigan.  The importance of avoiding inappropriate referrals and 
misdiagnoses due to misinterpretation of cultural and linguistic 
diversity is stressed.  The process involved in determining student 
placement encompasses seven steps: child study team consultation, 
referral, evaluation, meeting to develop the individualized education 
plan (IEP), delivery of programs and services, IEP annual review, and 
3-year reevaluation.  This guide outlines procedures for pre-
referral; referral; evaluation, focusing on language proficiency and 
dominance, determination of the influences of cultural differences, 
utilizing translators/interpreters, assessing academic functioning 
levels of the student in both languages, assessing affective and 
behavioral components related to the suspected handicap, and special 
education assignment; continuum of services in both special education 
and bilingual or English as a second language programs; instructional 
techniques; and funding sources.  (JDD)
  Descriptors: Cultural Background; *Disabilities; *Educational 
Diagnosis; *Educational Planning; Elementary Secondary Education; 
*Handicap Identification; *Limited English Speaking; Referral; 
Special Education; Student Evaluation; *Student Placement
  Identifiers: *Michigan


  ED288896  TM870632
  Test Resource Guide, 1987.
  1987
  366p.
  Document Type: NON-CLASSROOM MATERIAL (055);  BOOK-PRODUCT REVIEW 
(072)
  Target Audience: Practitioners
  The Test Resource Guide (TRG) is designed to provide professionals 
in the New York City (New York) Public Schools with a compendium of 
assessment devices for use in decision making; specifically, 
determining eligibility for special education services, planning an 
instructional program, and charting progress.  The introduction to 
TRG describes: (1) testing procedures; (2) the psycho-educational 
model of assessment adopted by the New York City Board of Education; 
(3) standards for achieving quality assessments; and (4) the uses, 
development, and organization of TRG.  This guide may be used as part 
of the assessment planning phase to help select appropriate tests, as 
a tool for increasing professional awareness of available tests 
across a number of domains, and as a staff development tool.  
Approximately 340 pages of test reviews and information are presented.  
Test reviews include the following items: intended purpose of the 
test, description, norm data, reliability, validity, and a section 
containing special alerts, effective uses, and comments.  A wide 
range of tests are reviewed: tests of academic functioning 
(achievement batteries, readiness, reading, language arts, 
mathematics), adaptive behavior, cognitive functioning, communication 
and language, perceptual and motor functioning, social-emotional 
assessment, bilingual-limited English proficiency, and vocational 
assessment.  State and federal laws and regulations are discussed.  
Chancellor's regulations are appended, as well as a publisher's 
directory, glossary, and bibliography.  (MDE)
  Descriptors: Academic Achievement; *Diagnostic Tests; *Disabilities; 
Educational Diagnosis; Educational Testing; Elementary Secondary 
Education; Handicap Identification; *Limited English Speaking; Non 
English Speaking; *Special Education; Test Interpretation; *Test 
Reviews; Test Selection; Test Use; *Vocational Evaluation
  Identifiers: Education for All Handicapped Children Act; New York 
City Board of Education; School Based Support Teams


  EJ349287  EC191680
  Policy Issues Associated with Serving Bilingual Exceptional 
Children.
  Garcia, Shernaz B.; Yates, James R.
  Journal of Reading, Writing, and Learning Disabilities 
International, v2 n2 p123-37   1986
  Document Type: JOURNAL ARTICLE (080);  POSITION PAPER (120)
  Target Audience: Policymakers
  Considered in this article addressing the policy issues of 
educational services to bilingual exceptional children are: 
characteristics of Hispanic learning disabled students, special 
education policy and practice, program availability, personnel, 
identification and placement, programs, and professional development.  
(DB)
  Descriptors: *Bilingual Students; *Disabilities; *Educational Needs; 
*Educational Policy; Elementary Secondary Education; Handicap 
Identification; Hispanic Americans; Learning Disabilities; 
Professional Development; *Program Development; *Student Placement


ED322701  EC231893
  Handicapped Language Minority Students: Past, Present and Future.
  Rangel, Elizabeth S.
  4 Apr 1986
  34p.; Master's Research Paper, Georgetown University. Appendixes A 
and D contain small/broken type. Best copy available.
  Document Type: REVIEW LITERATURE (070);  POSITION PAPER (120);  
THESIS (042)
  The paper provides a current and historical overview of the 
educational inequities suffered by handicapped language minority 
students and explores the future of bilingual special education.  The 
review covers such areas as a pending court case, the lack of laws 
dealing specifically with bilingual special education, 
overrepresentation of language minority students in special education 
classes, the inappropriate use and interpretation of standardized 
tests with this population, litigation concerning discriminatory 
procedures for intelligence quotient testing, and increasing 
underrepresentation in some areas of language minority children in 
programs for the mildly handicapped.  A proposal is offered which 
advocates the use of bilingual special education to serve handicapped 
language minority students.  Considered are myths (e.g., the 
bilingual child will suffer mental fatigue) and counter arguments 
(e.g., bilingualism may result in increased mental flexibility) 
concerning educational effects of bilingualism.  Research is reviewed 
supporting the value of a bilingual approach with handicapped 
students, including the mentally retarded, and recent trends in 
government support for bilingual special education are noted.  
Appendixes provide supporting detail concerning student placement in 
special education, court cases, and research on the positive effects 
of bilingualism.  Contains 50 references.  (DB)
  Descriptors: *Bilingual Education; Court Litigation; *Disabilities; 
Educational Legislation; Elementary Secondary Education; *Limited 
English Speaking; Minority Groups; Non English Speaking; *Special 
Education; Student Evaluation; *Student Placement; Test Bias
  Identifiers: *Bilingual Special Education

  
  ED292280  EC202063
  Characteristics of Limited English Proficient Hispanic Students 
Served in Programs for the Speech and Language Handicapped: 
Implications for Policy, Practice and Research. Part III.
  Ortiz, Alba A.; And Others
  30 Sep 1986
  85p.; For Part I, see ED 267 578; Part II, see ED 290 309.
  Document Type: RESEARCH REPORT (143)
  This document is Part III of a research study examining special 
education service delivery for limited English proficient (LEP) 
Hispanic students who have been placed in programs for the learning-
disabled, speech handicapped, and mentally retarded.  The objectives 
of Part III of this study were: (1) identify the characteristics of 
Hispanic students referred, assessed, and placed in speech and/or 
language handicapped programs; (2) examine district policies and 
practices governing special education services for LEP students; (3) 
determine implications for improving policies and practices in the 
referral, assessment, and placement of these students; and (4) 
suggest future research directions.  Speech and or/language 
handicapped LEP Hispanic students (n=124) in grades 2-5 in three 
large urban school districts in central Texas provided the sample.  
Descriptive statistical procedures were used to analyze data on 
student demography, referral, eligibility, speech and language 
evaluations, and placement.  Results indicated that the procedures 
used by speech and language pathologists in the identification and 
diagnosis of communication disorders virtually ignored students' LEP 
status.  Analysis of school district policies showed that little 
information was provided concerning safeguards to protect LEP 
students from being inappropriately placed in special education.  
Preliminary recommendations for delineating policy and improving 
practice are offered.  A 90-item reference list is included.  (JDD)
  Descriptors: Board of Education Policy; Communication Disorders; 
*Delivery Systems; *Disabilities; Educational Diagnosis; Educational 
Practices; Elementary Education; *Handicap Identification; *Hispanic 
Americans; Language Proficiency; Learning Disabilities; *Limited 
English Speaking; Referral; School Districts; Spanish Speaking; 
Special Education; Speech Handicaps; Speech Pathology; Student 
Evaluation; *Student Placement; Therapists
  Identifiers: Texas


  ED252986  EC171319
  Decision Models to Assist in Assessment Procedures for Bilingual 
Exceptional Children.
  Holtzman, Wayne H., Jr.; Mendoza, Patricia
  Aug 1984
  11p.; Paper presented at Annual Convention of the American 
Psychological Association (92nd, Toronto, Canada, August 24-28, 
1984).
  Document Type: CONFERENCE PAPER (150);  NON-CLASSROOM MATERIAL 
(055)
  The reasons for overrepresentation of Hispanic children in the 
learning disability service category are examined, and two assessment 
models designed to accommodate the needs of limited English 
proficient (LEP) and bilingual exceptional children are analyzed.  
The first model, a modification of J. Tucker's model, proposes parent 
consultation at every stage of the assessment process and relies on a 
variety of different types of data from different sources.  P. 
Mendoza's Coordinated Service Delivery Model is also described, and 
its advantages are noted to include delineation of procedural 
safeguards at the preassessment stage to validate referral of 
culturally/linguistically different students or LEP students.  This 
model emphasizes determination of specific levels of language 
proficiency through a comprehensive language assessment.  It is 
suggested that an integration of two models holds the most promise.  
(CL)
  Descriptors: Bilingual Education; *Cultural Differences; Decision 
Making; Elementary Secondary Education; *Learning Disabilities; 
*Limited English Speaking; *Models; Non English Speaking; *Spanish 
Speaking; Special Education; *Student Evaluation; *Student Placement

  
  ED312811  EC221269
  Performance of Hispanic Educable Mentally Retarded, Learning 
Disabled, and Nonclassified Students on the WISC-RM, SOMPA, and S-
KABC: Short-Term Study One. Final Report.
  Rueda, Robert; And Others
  [1985
  184p.; Paper presented at the Annual Convention of the Council for 
Exceptional Children (67th, San Francisco, CA, April 3-7, 1989). 
Product of Handicapped-Minority Research Institute.
  Document Type: CONFERENCE PAPER (150);  RESEARCH REPORT (143);  NON-
CLASSROOM MATERIAL (055)
  Target Audience: Researchers
  The study examined performance of limited-English proficient 
Hispanic students on a battery of psychometric instruments designed 
to appropriately assess linguistic minority students.  Subjects 
consisted of three groups: 44 nonhandicapped, 45 learning-disabled, 
and 39 mildly mentally retarded elementary-level students.  
Instruments included the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children 
Revised, Mexicano; Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children--Spanish 
Edition; and Physical Dexterity Tasks and Bender Visual Motor Gestalt 
Test of the System of Multicultural Pluralistic Assessment.  Results 
indicated that the psychometric properties of the instruments were 
within acceptable ranges for use with students such as those in the 
sample.  In addition, in general, the patterns of scores on the 
instruments were in the expected directions, given the diagnostic 
classifications assigned to the students in the school setting.  A 
second part of the analysis utilized California state eligibility 
criteria to calculate the numbers of students in the school-assigned 
diagnostic groups who met the state requirements for these 
designations.  Results indicated large discrepancies between the 
school-assigned categories and the categories suggested through the 
use of the study instruments in conjunction with applicable state 
guidelines.  Appendices include a manual for the determination of a 
severe discrepancy between intellectual ability and achievement as 
defined by California regulations.  (Author/JDD)
  Descriptors: Classification; *Cognitive Measurement; Educational 
Diagnosis; Elementary Education; Evaluation Methods; *Hispanic 
Americans; *Learning Disabilities; *Limited English Speaking; *Mild 
Mental Retardation; Performance; *Student Evaluation; Testing
  Identifiers: California; Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children 
(Spanish); System of Multicultural Pluralistic Assessment; Wechsler 
Intelligence Scale for Child Rev Mexicano


  EJ305223  CG527036
  Assumptions and Interpretations of the SOMPA in Estimating Learning 
Potential.
  Brooks, Benjamin L.; Hosie, Thomas W.
  Counselor Education and Supervision, v23 n4 p290-99 Jun 
  1984
  Document Type: JOURNAL ARTICLE (080);  GENERAL REPORT (140)
  Focuses on the interpretation of the Sociocultural Scales and 
Estimated Learning Potential scales of the System of Multicultural 
Pluralistic Assessment by counselors making placement decisions.  
Presents case examples illustrating assumptions counselors must make 
and controversial aspects of the system.  (JAC)
  Descriptors: *Academic Aptitude; Culture Fair Tests; Diagnostic 
Tests; Educational Diagnosis; Elementary Secondary Education; 
Eligibility; Special Education; *Student Evaluation; Students; *Test 
Interpretation
  Identifiers: *Estimated Learning Potential; Sociocultural Scales; 
*System of Multicultural Pluralistic Assessment


  EJ294994  EA517395
  The LD Label and the Spanish-Dominant Secondary Student.
  Ainsa, Trisha
  NASSP Bulletin, v68 n470 p105-09 Mar   1984
  Document Type: GENERAL REPORT (140)
  After identifying shared characteristics that cause some Spanish-
dominant students to be inappropriately labeled learning disabled, 
the author recommends strategies for addressing such students' 
educational needs.  (MJL)
  Descriptors: *Educational Diagnosis; *English (Second Language); 
Labeling (of Persons); *Learning Disabilities; *Limited English 
Speaking; Secondary Education; *Secondary School Students; *Spanish 
Speaking; Student Characteristics


  ED254987  EC172038
  The Role of Language Assessment Data in Diagnosis and Intervention 
for Linguistically/Culturally Different Students.
  Maldonado-Colon, Elba
  Aug 1984
  27p.; Paper presented at the Annual Convention of the American 
Psychological Association (92nd, Toronto, Canada, August 24-28, 
1984).
  Document Type: CONFERENCE PAPER (150);  RESEARCH REPORT (143)
  Findings are reviewed from a descriptive study which evaluated 
special education placement of Hispanic students.  A clinical case 
study approach was used to analyze student characteristics from 
individual program folders, and policy and practice were examined.  
The appropriateness of the data, expertise of the professionals, and 
the role of the languages of the bilingual and limited English 
proficient (LEP) students were examined.  Findings revealed that: the 
linguistic characteristics of Hispanics, bilingual, and LEP students 
were evaluated with the same instrumentation used for native English 
speakers; a minimal role was ascribed to the native language in the 
evaluation process; English speech and language production and poor 
academic performance along with teacher referral were the most 
significant variables determining special education placement; and 
professionals' data analysis demonstrated limited professional 
abilities and knowledge related to special linguistic and culturally 
different populations.  Recommendations are offered for 
professionals, including greater emphasis in teacher preparation 
programs on working with linguistically/culturally different 
students; additional training for diagnosticians; and increased focus 
on identifying best practices for referral, assessment, diagnosis, 
placement, and intervention of bilingual and LEP students.  (CL)
  Descriptors: Cultural Differences; *Diagnostic Tests; *Educational 
Diagnosis; Elementary Education; *Limited English Speaking; Spanish 
Speaking; Special Education; Student Evaluation; Student Placement; 
*Test Bias; Testing Problems; *Test Use
  Identifiers: *Placement in Special Education


  EJ282740  EC152146
  Multicultural Considerations in Assessment and Treatment of 
Learning Disabilities.
  Lynch, Eleanor W.; Lewis, Rena B.
  Learning Disabilities: An Interdisciplinary Journal, v1 n8 p93-103 
Aug   1982
  Document Type: JOURNAL ARTICLE (080);  POSITION PAPER (120);  
RESEARCH REPORT (143)
  Some of the critical factors that have prevented equitable 
treatment of the minority student with learning disabilities are 
considered.  Attention is directed to definitional issues, 
discriminatory practices in special education, issues in 
identification and assessment, treatment considerations, and 
difficulties inherent in the differentiation of learning disability 
and cultural differences.  (Author/SEW)
  Descriptors: Change Strategies; *Cultural Differences; Diagnostic 
Teaching; Educational Diagnosis; Educational Discrimination; 
Elementary Secondary Education; Handicap Identification; *Learning 
Disabilities; *Minority Groups; Parent Attitudes; Parent School 
Relationship; *Student Evaluation


  ED231596  RC014206
  Bilingual Special Education Resource Guide.
  Thomas, Carol H., Ed.; Thomas, James L., Ed.
  1982
  201p.
  Available From: The Oryx Press, 2214 N. Central at Encanto, 
Phoenix, AZ 85004 ($25.00).
  Document Type: REVIEW LITERATURE (070);  NON-CLASSROOM MATERIAL 
(055);  COLLECTION (020)
  Target Audience: Practitioners
  Intended as a resource guide for individuals involved with 
educational programming for the bilingual special child, the book's 
two parts include seven articles and essays by experienced 
professionals and a list of 343 sources of information and assistance.  
The book commences with a fact sheet on bilingual education for 
exceptional children.  Part I of the book deals with such subjects as 
issues and concerns related to the education of exceptional bilingual 
students, assessment of the bilingual handicapped student, curriculum 
development for culturally different exceptional children, the 
children's social and emotional needs, communication with parents, 
career opportunities for bilingual special children, and teacher 
education.  Part II lists 5 funding agencies, 29 agencies dealing 
with special education/handicapped issues, 22 national and regional 
centers, 49 desegregation assistance centers and training institutes, 
18 teacher training programs, 22 bilingual/bicultural special 
education training projects, 2 networks, 12 indexes and databases, 
and 15 journals and newsletters.  The book concludes with a directory 
of 101 individuals to consult for expert assistance, a listing of 68 
producers and distributors of materials, and a 165-item bibliography 
of resources for further study.  (NQA)
  Descriptors: Agencies; *Bilingual Education; *Bilingual Students; 
Curriculum Development; *Disabilities; Educational Diagnosis; 
Elementary Secondary Education; Employment Opportunities; Exceptional 
Persons; Federal Programs; *Information Sources; *Minority Group 
Children; Parent Participation; Psychological Needs; Resource 
Materials; *Special Education; Teacher Education
  Identifiers: Culturally Different Students


  ED220675  CE033620
  Identify and Diagnose Exceptional Students. Module L-2 of Category 
L--Serving Students with Special/Exceptional Needs. Professional 
Teacher Education Module Series.
  Bell, Jennifer A.
  1982
  52p.; For related documents, see CE 033 619.
  Available From: American Association for Vocational Instructional 
Materials, 120 Driftmier Engineering Center, University of Georgia, 
Athens, GA 30602.
  Document Type: INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIAL (051)
  Target Audience: Practitioners; Students
  This module, one in a series of performance-based teacher 
educational learning packages, focuses on skills that vocational 
educators and other occupational trainers need to create learning 
environments that are accessible, accommodating, and equitable in 
meeting instructional needs of exceptional students.  The purpose of 
the module is to give educators skill in identifying those students 
who have special instructional needs and in diagnosing what those 
needs are.  Introductory material provides terminal and enabling 
objectives, prerequisites, necessary resources, terminology, and 
general information.  The main portion of the guide includes four 
learning experiences based on the enabling objectives.  Each of the 
first three learning experiences includes educational activities with 
information sheets, case studies, and self evaluation forms.  
Optional activities are also provided.  Completion of the first three 
study sections should lead to achievement of the terminal objective 
administered in the fourth and final learning experience that 
includes a teacher-performance assessment form.  (YLB)
  Descriptors: Adults; Adult Vocational Education; Behavioral 
Objectives; Case Studies; *Competency Based Teacher Education; 
Diagnostic Teaching; Disabilities; *Educational Diagnosis; 
*Exceptional Persons; Gifted; *Handicap Identification; Higher 
Education; Individualized Instruction; Informal Assessment; Job 
Skills; Learning Activities; Learning Modules; Limited English 
Speaking; Minority Groups; *Needs Assessment; Nontraditional 
Occupations; Retraining; Student Evaluation; Student Needs; Talent 
Identification; Teacher Evaluation; Teaching Skills; Vocational 
Education; *Vocational Education Teachers
  Identifiers: Special Needs Students


  ED219946  FL013095
  Procedures for Assessing Learning Problems of Students with Limited 
English Proficiency.
  Freytes, Celeste E.
  1982
  22p.
  Available From: Not available separately; see FL 013 091.
  Document Type: NON-CLASSROOM MATERIAL (055)
  A procedure for identifying students with limited English 
proficiency who have special needs is presented and a procedure for 
assessment is described.  Before implementing an assessment process, 
the students and their special needs must be identified.  A five-step 
identification process is recommended, which considers the child's 
task failure, identification of problems not primarily due to 
learning problems, the physiological component, the discrepancy 
component or intra-individual differences in performance, and 
discovery of the child's preferred learning style.  When the special 
needs have been identified, a four-step assessment procedure can be 
undertaken.  The four steps involve the following components: (1) 
content areas or the specific knowledge-based skills needed to learn 
effectively; (2) sociocultural factors, which provide a frame of 
reference for looking into different learning styles; (3) socio-
economic dimensions; and (4) assessment strategies.  Finally, some 
observations are made on assessment instruments and the bilingual 
child.  Appendices provide references for the criteria for test 
selection; a form, "Criteria for Test Selection"; and references of 
annotated bibliographies of tests for use with bilingual students.  
(AMH)
  Descriptors: *Bilingual Education; *Bilingual Students; *Diagnostic 
Tests; *Educational Diagnosis; Elementary Education; *Learning 
Disabilities; *Limited English Speaking; Student Needs

 
  ED302990  EC211877
  A Guide to Working with Minority Language Students in Special 
Education.
  Gelb, Steven
  [1982
  39p.
  Document Type: NON-CLASSROOM MATERIAL (055)
  Target Audience: Teachers; Practitioners
  This monograph provides special educators with guidelines to help 
them succeed in their work with minority language students.  It 
emphasizes the necessity for bringing the social context into 
educational planning, in its discussion of such topics as the history 
of limited English proficient (LEP) children in special education, 
classroom needs of LEP handicapped children, methods of working with 
minority language parents, and issues in the assessment of LEP 
children.  An introductory chapter discusses the diversity among LEP 
children and the achievement of LEP children in schools.  An 
historical perspective on minority language students and special 
education focuses on the growth of ungraded classes for "backward" 
children between 1900 and 1920, the rise of intelligence tests and 
their use on LEP children, overrepresentation of minority children in 
special education, and current efforts toward change.  Classroom 
needs call for consideration of assimilationism versus pluralism, 
teacher attitudes, cross-cultural communication, motivation, 
multicultural curriculum, and teaching English as a second language.  
Assessment of minority language students requires standardized 
testing as well as nonstandardized measures of language proficiency 
in both the child's first and second languages, measures of adaptive 
behavior, and naturalistic observations of the child in various 
settings.  (JDD)
  Descriptors: *Bilingual Education; *Disabilities; *Educational 
History; Elementary Secondary Education; English (Second Language); 
*Handicap Identification; Intelligence Tests; *Limited English 
Speaking; Minority Groups; Multicultural Education; Parent 
Participation; Special Education; Student Evaluation; *Student Needs

  
  ED229892  EC151667
  Second Year Validation Studies of the Brockton Battery: A Special 
Needs Assessment for Linguistic Minority Students. (The Tests of 
Reading Readiness and the Scales of Adaptive Behavior).
  Sennett, Kenneth H.
  1982
  159p.; Paper presented at the Council for Exceptional Children 
National Topical Conference on Bilingual Special Education (Phoenix, 
AZ, October 31-November 2, 1982). Print is light and broken. For 
related information, see ED 204 882.
  Document Type: CONFERENCE PAPER (150);  EVALUATIVE REPORT (142);  
TEST, QUESTIONNAIRE (160)
  Procedures are described to determine reliability and validity of 
the Brockton (Massachusetts) Battery's Tests of Reading Readiness and 
the Adaptive Behavior Scales, which were developed to assess 
performance levels of Hispanic, Portuguese, and Cape Verdean normal 
and high risk children.  Among reasons given for development of the 
instruments are availability of few tests with an appropriate Spanish 
vocabulary, few in Portuguese, and none in Crioulo, a Portuguese-
African dialect used by 212 local children from the Cape Verdean 
Islands.  Discussed are the statistical analyses of the 2 year 
validation studies involving reliability and validity correlation 
between results achieved by 55 first grade Hispanic and Cape Verdean 
students on the 15 Reading Readiness Tests and the Holt Mastery Tests.  
Use of the "Predictive Index" to refer grade 1 children from 
bilingual programs to special education evaluation is outlined.  
Explained are development and validation of "Adaptive Behavior 
Scales" for age levels 2 through 14 for self maintenance which 
examines four behavioral areas: (1) membership in a peer group, (2) 
membership in a family, (3) membership in a community group, and (4) 
consumer activities.  Appendixes, which constitute half the document, 
include statistical tables and the tests in the three languages.  
(MC)
  Descriptors: *Adaptive Behavior (of Disabled); Bilingual Education; 
Cultural Differences; *Disabilities; Early Childhood Education; 
Elementary Secondary Education; Handicap Identification; Limited 
English Speaking; Non English Speaking; Portuguese; *Reading 
Readiness Tests; Spanish Speaking; Statistical Analysis; Test 
Construction; *Test Reliability; *Test Validity
  Identifiers: *Brockton Battery; *Cape Verdeans

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