Dorothy Adkins is best known for her work in educational measurement, particularly in
the area of achievement tests. She has published extensively in the field of
measurement, and her books include Construction and Analysis of Achievement Tests (1947),
Factor Analysis of Reasoning Tests (1952), Test Construction: Development and
Interpretation of Achievement Tests (1960), and Statistics (1964). Dr. Adkins has
had a varied career; in the first decade after she received her doctorate, she worked in
tests and measurement activities for the University of Chicago, the U.S. Social Security
Board and the U.S. Civil Service Commission, where she served as the chief of the test
development section. She then joined the department of psychology at the University
of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, where she served as department chair. In 1966, she
became the Director of the Center for Research in Early Childhood Education at the
University of Hawaii. She has been the President of the Psychometric Society,
President of the APA Division of Evaluation and Measurement and President of the North
Carolina Psychology Association.
Anne Anastasi has made numerous contributions to the literature in the field of mental
testing, most especially with the four successive editions of her book Psychological
Testing, which appeared in 1954, 1961, 1968, and 1976. She spent the first twenty
years of her professional career at Queens College in New York before moving in 1951 to
Fordham University, where she remained until retirement. Dr. Anastasi has been
awarded honorary doctorates from Windsor University (1967), Villanova University (1971),
and Cedar Crest College (1971). She is a fellow of the American Psychological
Association and served as that organization's president in 1971-72. She received the
1977 ETS Award for Distinguished Service to Measurement.
Nancy Bayley's primary contribution to measurement was in the field of infant
intelligence. Her work in this area led her to develop the California First Year
Mental Scales (1933) and the Bayley Scales of Infant Development (1969). The author
of numerous books and articles in the field of child development, Bayley spent most of her
professional life at University of California at Berkeley with a ten year interim at
NIMH. She is a fellow of the American Psychological Association and was recipient of
that organization's Distinguished Scientific Achievement Award in 1966 and of the Stanley
Hall Award of the APA Division of Developmental Psychology in 1971.
Luella Buros was a very talented woman. Her early career was in the field of art and she was a recognized artist, with paintings exhibited in many of the top art shows and galleries. However, as a devoted wife and helpmate to Oscar Buros, creator of the Mental Measurements Yearbook and Tests in Print series, she realized that Oscar needed her assistance in order to fulfill his life mission: providing candidly critical evaluations of commercially available tests. So she gave up her active career as an artist to join Oscar in his crusade to protect the public and the public interest.
Luella and Oscar worked side by side on the work of the Institute. When Oscar died in 1978, Luella made sure that The Eighth Mental Measurements Yearbook, which was in the final stages of production at that time, was completed. Then she sought a new home for the Buros Institute so their work could be continued. But her support of the field of assessment did not stop when the Institute was transferred from Highland Park, NJ to the University of Nebraska-Lincoln. Luella continued to provide support, this time in terms of money to help the new Institute get started and Oscar's extensive library of measurement books to start a reference library.
Over the years, Luella continued her devotion to the Buros Institute and the field of assessment. She has made generous gifts to the Buros Institute to provide funds to support the Oscar K. Buros Library of Mental Measurements, a library that probably has the best test collection in the world. She has provided a major financial contribution to expand the scope of the Buros Institute by creating the Oscar and Luella Buros Center for Testing. By her vision and financial support, the Oscar and Luella Buros Institute will be a major center for assessment education, research and service. In addition to her financial support, Mrs. Buros' moral support for the continuation of the Buros tradition deserves mention. She was absolutely committed to improved testing practices and has served as a real inspiration to the Buros staff.
In 1995, Luella Buros was recognized her significant contributions to the field of assessment by receiving the Association for Assessment in Counseling's Exemplary Practices Award.
Although best known for her "Draw a Man" test, Florence Goodenough published
extensively in the measurement field. Beginning in the late 1920's she was among the first
to document the effects of environment on intelligence test scores. Her many books
and articles included The Measurement of Mental Growth (1931), and Mental Testing:
Its History, Principles and Application (1949). Dr. Goodenough spent virtually her
entire professional career at the Institute for Child Welfare at the University of
Minnesota. She was a fellow of the American Psychological Association and was
president of the National Council of Women Psychologists in 1938. She is presently
listed in Watson's directory of the outstanding contributors to the field of psychology.
Gertrude Hildreth is perhaps best known for her development of the Metropolitan
Readiness Tests and for her contribution to the Metropolitan Achievement Tests, both
widely used in schools today. However, many no longer recall her monumental
Bibliography of Mental Tests and Rating Scales, published in 1933 and 1939, the latter
covering a 50 year time period and over 4,000 titles. She issued a supplement
containing an additional 1,000 items in 1946. Dr. Hildreth was a psychologist with
the Lincoln School at Teacher's College, Columbia for over 20 years before moving to
Brooklyn College, where she remained until retirement. She was a fellow of the
American Psychological Association and was President of the APA Educational Psychology
Division in 1949. Her papers are in the ETS Archives.
Maud Merrill is best known for her extensive work on the Stanford-Binet Intelligence
Scale. Beginning in 1926, she and Lewis Terman collaborated on the first revision of
this instrument, which was a monumental task that took eleven years to complete; the two
forms of the revised version were initialed L and M, after the first names of Dr. Merrill
and Dr. Terman. Twenty years later, after her retirement, Dr. Merrill herself constructed
a second version of the Stanford-Binet. Dr. Merrill spent her career entirely at
Stanford University, where she established a psychological clinic for children. She
also served as a consultant for the Juvenile Court in San Jose and wrote a book on
delinquency. Her other publications include Measuring Intelligence: A Guide to
the Administration of the New Revised Stanford-Binet Test of Intelligence (with L. Terman,
1937) and Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale: Manual for the Third Revision Form L-M
Thelma Thurstone's major work was in test construction and the factor analysis of
mental abilities. With her husband, L.L.Thurstone, she contributed to the factorial
studies of intelligence which occupied the measurement world for a number of years and is
co-author of the Primary Mental Abilities test and the Learning to Think curriculum
materials designed to increase the mental abilities of children. Dr. Thurstone was a
test developer with the American Council on Education from 1924 to 1928. Later she
directed the Division of Child Studies for the Chicago Public Schools until she moved to
the University of North Carolina in 1951. She became director of the Psychometric
Laboratory there in 1955. She was a fellow of the American Psychological
Although best known for her work in individual differences, Leona Tyler has also contributed to the measurement field with her widely used book, Test and Measurements (1979). Her other books include The Psychology of Human Differences (3rd edition, 1965), Intelligence: Some Recurring Issues (1969), Individual Differences: Abilities and Motivational Directions (1974), and Individuality: Human Possibilities and Personal Choices in the Psychological Development of Men and Women (1978). Dr. Tyler has spent virtually her entire career at the University of Oregon. She was a Fullbright lecturer at the University of Amsterdam in 1962-63, and received the Distinguished Achievement Award from the University of Minnesota in 1963. She served as the President of the American Psychological Association in 1972-73.
Written and researched by Gary Saretzky. Information on Luella Gubrud Buros prepared by Barbara Plake. Web page created by Tracy Smith and Tim Corlis. For Feedback or comments, please contact Tracy Smith at tsmith#064;ets.org.
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