Date compiled: 12-1-95 Compiled by: Catherine Anderson Original Version: Jane Verostek;12/93 Huimin Hou; 4/95 INDEX 1) Introduction 2) Internet Resources Gopher  Listservs  Telnet  WWW  Optional: Electronic Journals and Newsletters  FTP [# or none] Other [# or none] 3) ERIC Resources ERIC Clearinghouses  ERIC Citations  ERIC Digests [3 4) How to Retreive ERIC Journal Articles and Documents 5) Hard Copy Resources Encyclopedias/Directories  Full-Length Studies [# or none] Indexes  Reviews  Directories [# or none] Biographical Sources [# or none] Bibliographies  Periodicals [# or none] Government Sources [# or none] Geographical Sources [# or none] Statistical Sources [# or none]
Educators believe that an individual's style of learning, if accommodated, can result in improved attitudes toward learning and an increase in productivity, academic achievement, and creativity. This InfoGuide is an attempt to share electronic resources on theories, research, programs, and techniques in the area of learning styles, covering learning style models (theories & research in personality, information-processing, social interaction, and instructional preference),learning style diagnosis (learning style inventories), learning style counseling,and learning styles and technology.
2. INTERNET RESOURCES
The Center for Excellence in Education (CEE) at Indiana University
CEE contains information on technology's role in implementing
styles differentiated instruction and multiple intelligence.
--> National Demonstration Program
--> Technology for Restructuring
--> Learning Styles
University of Maryland
This site contains information on service, workshops, and
concerning learning and learning disability.
--> Educational Resources
--> Academic Resources By Topic
--> Disability Resources
--> Information On Policy and People
The Pennsylvania State University
This site contains many documents on research on learning styles
--> Alphabetical Keyword Lists/
St. John's University
This site contains a wealth of resources on learning styles.
--> Education and Teaching Resources
--> Learning Style
ALTLEARN Alternative Approaches to Learning
ALTLEARN discussion list is broadly concerned with learning
at all levels.
To subscribe, address an email message to:
listserv#064;sjuvm.bitnet or listserv#064;sjuvm.stjohns.edu
In the body of the message, type:
EDSTYLE The Learning Styles Theory and Research List
EDSTYLE list discusses all forms of information about learning
The Pennsylvania State University PENpages & Teacher*PAGES
URL: telnet psupen.psu.edu
The site provides access to online catalog of resources on learning
Telnet psupen.psu.edu when connect press return.
At Username prompt type the abbreviation of your state (i.e. NY)
Defines Howard Gardner's 7 styles of intelligence.
One A.D.D. Place-Home
Provides information on multiple intelligence including effective
and strategies. Home sIte to Attention Deficit Disorder.
Broad Horizons publishes information on a variety of topics,
education. This site addresses both activities for specific
styles as well as multiple intelligence.
A good hypertext site that allows you to access the Learning
Development Center, the education gopher at St. John's, and the
Styles Network newsletter
Multiple Intelligence and School Reform
This site covers the theory of Multiple Intelligences, Dr. Gardner,
Educational Reform, and Harvard's Project Zero
Compensatory Education Plan, Bell's Independent School District,
The Bell's independent school district proposes that " If children
learn the way we teach, then we must teach them the way they
Describes their compensatory education program for elementary,
Learning Research and Development Center, University of Pittsburgh
Learning Research and Development Center. The mission of the
center is to "broaden scientific insights into all aspects of
to support the use of research in instructional settings as varied
classrooms, industries, and musuems.
St John's University, Jamaica, New York
Excellent source. Wealth of information including bibliographies,
conferences, and the Learning Styles Network Newsletter.
Learning Styles Inventory
Personalized learning style questionnaire.
GeoLinks- Minnesota Alliance for Geographic Education
A K-12 Geography Curriculum Development Tool which has thousands of
lessons that can be selected in numerous ways, including by
ASCD is an international, nonprofit organization providing
development in curriculum and supervision;encouraging research,
evaluation, and theory development; and disseminating information
education on issues such as inclusion, parental involvement, and
Learning is published semi-annually by the National Research Center
Student Learning (NRCSL), part of the University of Pittsburgh's
Research and Development Center (LRDC). NRCSL researchers
cognitive psychologists, social scientists, linguists, and
educators --explore the key processes that take place during
learning and identify the core ingredients of teaching excellence
the school curriculum.
To receive the newsletter, (1) send a message with your name and affiliation to the email address Learning#064;vms.cis.pitt.edu; or (2) write to Learning Research and Development Center, University of Pittsburgh, 3939 O'Hara Street, Pittsburgh PA 15260. EDUPAGE Edupage is published three times weekly by Educom. It summarizes leading newsstories that are pertinent to the field of education. **Instructions** To subscribe, address an email message to : listproc#064;educom.edu In the body of the message, type: Subscribe EDUPAGE
3. ERIC RESOURCES
Clearinghouse on Assessment and Evaluation
The Catholic University of America
210 O'Boyle Hall
Washington, DC 20064
Toll Free: (800) 464-3742
Fax: (202) 319-6692
ERIC Clearinghouse on DISABILITIES AND GIFTED EDUCATION (EC)
Council for Exceptional Children (CEC)
1920 Association Drive
Reston, Virginia 22091-1589
ERIC Clearinghouse on COUNSELING AND STUDENT SERVICES (CG)
University of NORTH CAROLINA AT GREENSBORO
School of Education
Greensboro, North Carolina 27412-5001
The ERIC database is accessible from the AskERIC Virtual Library
Type: gopher ericir.syr.edu
--> ERIC Bibliographic Database (RIE and CIJE)
Type: telnet ericir.syr.edu
login: gopher (hit enter to bypass password)
--> ERIC Bibliographic Database (RIE and CIJE)
Examples of useful search terms include:
Learning styles, learning modalities, learning processing, learning
strategies, learning theories, multiple intelligence, multisensory
learning, instructional preference, personality, individual
affective objectives, cognitive styles, Dunn and Dunn, Kolb.
Different Strokes: Learning Styles in the Classroom.
Training; v32 n3 p43-48 Mar 1995
Defines the four most widely recognized learning styles and
the need to adapt one's training style to fit the trainees. Also
the importance of understanding one's own learning preferences and
of coworkers. (JOW)
Rothschild, Jacqueline; Piland, William E.
Intercorrelates of Postsecondary Students' Learning Styles and
Community College Journal of Research and Practice; v18 n2 p177 88
Mar Apr 1994
Describes a study investigating the learning styles and personality
of community college and private university students. Identifies
broad types of learners (cooperative, independent, and
suggesting significant correlations between experimenting
types and learning style preferences. Discusses the role of faculty
addressing each type of learner. (24 references.) (MAB)
A Consumer's Guide to Learning Styles Programs.
School Administrator; v51 n1 p14 18 Jan 1994
To find out about learning styles programs and instruments,
contact the Arizona State University's Educational Information
perform an ERIC search,or request information from educational
associations, organizations, and experts. This article advises on
learning style models, designing supportive environments,
changes, balancing student needs, and identifying inappropriate
applications. (Contains 12 references.) (MLH)
Making Sense of Learning Styles.
School Administrator; v51 n1 p8 13 Jan 1994
Researchers and practitioners agree that learning styles stem from
nature/nurture combination; students of all styles can be
learners; students are more successful when using their style
and diverse teaching styles are essential. This article discusses
implementation issues, cultural factors, alternative teaching
sample programs, and assessment problems. Resources are listed.
Freeman, Michael K.; Whitson, Donna L
An Overview of Learning Style Models and Their Implications for
Journal of Adult Education; v20 n2 p11-18 Spr 1992
Reviews models of learning style, cognitive style, and
thinking style and makes recommendations: (1) style preferences are
unchangeable; (2) style refers to learner actions not ability; (3)
learning should be considered broader than cognitive achievement;
(4) teachers should adopt a bilateral approach to influencing
Cambell, Melvin; Burton, VirLynn
Learning in Their Own Style.
Science and Children; v31 n7 p22-24,39 Apr 1994
Presents a unit approach that utilizes Howard Gardner's seven
intelligences (Linguistic, Logical/mathematical, Spatial, Music,
Kinesthetic/body, Intrapersonal, and Interpersonal). Students are
a list of activities and make a contract to complete a certain
the list. A sample unit for fifth graders on the bodily systems is
Greensboro, North Carolina: Learning Style Program Boosts
Test Scores. 1994
Clearing House; v67 n3 p149-51 Jan-Feb 1994
Describes how a North Carolina elementary school altered teaching
to suit the varied learning styles of the students based on the
a learning styles inventory. Discusses changes made based on
perceptual preferences, time of day preferences, environmental
preferences, and sociological preferences. Notes that discipline
problems dropped dramatically and test scores rose precipitously.
Learning Styles of the Multiculturally Diverse.
Emergency Librarian; v20 n4 p24-32 Mar-Apr 1993
Discusses the findings of multicultural research using the Learning
Inventory and the Productivity Environmental Preference Survey.
Differences in learning style among students and young adults of
ethnic groups, between male and female students, between high
and underachievers, and between the gifted and nongifted are
(47 references) (EA).
Learning Styles and Culturally Diverse Students: A Literature
Irvine, Jacqueline Jordan; York, Darlene Eleanor
The concept of learning styles is based on the theory that an
responds to educational experiences with consistent behavior and
performance patterns. The complexity of the construct, the
problems related to its measurement, and the enigmatic relationship
between culture and the teaching and learning process means that
of research on learning styles must be interpreted and applied
carefully.Analyses presented in this paper suggest that the
conclusions in the literature that African American, Hispanic
and Indian students are field-dependent learners who prosper
when taught with field-dependent teaching strategies are premature
conjectural. Research does not support the supposition that members
particular ethnic group have the same learning style. The body of
does have implications for enhancing the academic achievement of
culturally diverse students by reminding teachers to be alert to
individual students'learning styles as well as their own actionsand
methods in reference to their students' cultural experiences and
learning environments. (Contains 102 references.) (SLD)
Culturally Specific Learning Styles: Some Suggestions for Teachers.
Sandhu, Daya S.
This paper examines the importance of culturally-specific learning
within the context of the Kentucky Education Reform Act of 1990.
posits that all students can learn, that students learn
that students learn better when they are taught utilizing their
learning modalities. A review of the literature indicates that all
cultures, communities, and families can be divided into two major
dimensions--traditional and modern--in terms of gender roles,
identity, sense of community, family identification, time
age status, importance of tradition, subservience to convention
authority, and spirituality/religion. Teachers need to understand
cultural style of students; to use a proactive approach to reach
those students whose values and needs differ from the mainstream;
exhort the message that "to be different means to be distinct but
inferior"; and to accommodate students with differing needs and
priorities by changing the learning style.
Learning Styles: Strategies for Successful Teaching.
Cherney, Elaine E.
For those educators who work with college students either as
advisors, or in learning centers, the construct of learning style
can be a
powerful tool in their interactions with students. Educators can
tune in to students' styles by listening to the verbs the students
informal assessment of students' learning styles is to have them
paragraph on how they learn best. Once the students have an
of their particular styles it is easier to help them understand how
utilize their learning strengths and strengthen their less dominant
modalities. Once students understand style it becomes much easier
them adjust and cope with style differences. (Contains a
instrument, a description of time management strategies for
learning styles, and four questions for teachers to ask themselves
next time they give their class an assignment.) Contains five
Communicating with Middle Childhood Students of Varied Learning
Social Studies and Language Arts-Related Strategies that Work.
Crane, Anne; And Others
This paper contains a variety of instructional strategies and a
research related to different learning styles. A learning styles
inventory, style profiles, and information regarding some types of
activities for students with different learning styles are
sample lesson plans introduce and describe the inductive learning
technique. A description of the Readers Theater strategy with
illustrations also is included. The lessons are designed for grade
could be modified for other grade levels and curricular areas. (EH)
Learning Styles and Schools: Making It Happen.;
The 4MAT system of instructional change is described. The 4MAT
an eight-step cycle of instruction that capitalizes on individual
styles and brain-dominance processing preference. Four major
styles are recognized: (1) imaginative; (2) analytic; (3) common
and (4) dynamic. Because in each style there are people with
left-mode, and whole-brain dominance, the 4MAT system uses
each mode throughout the learning styles. The 4MAT system is
conceptualized as a four-quadrant circle that makes an eight-step
cycle. It is recommended that the cycle be used in school districts
least two years to see benefits for students and teachers.
ongoing for 16 school districts in the United States and Canada
to the 4MAT system. Emphasis in successive quadrants is on personal
meaning, content and curriculum, usefulness, and creativity. Moving
through the cycle, teachers examine their own learning style
and in so doing they become more sensitive to student learning
instructional needs. In quadrant form, in the second year of 4MAT
implementation, evaluation practices change as learners are brought
accept greater responsibility for self-evaluation. It is also
use the 4MAT process as a system approach, with roles for
teachers, and students in each quadrant. Eight figures illustrate
discussion, and a 13-item bibliography is included. (SLD)
The full-text database of ERIC Digests are accessible from the AskERIC Virtual Library. URL: gopher://ericir.syr.edu:70/11/Digests **Instructions** Type: gopher ericir.syr.edu --> ERIC Digests File Or Type: telnet ericir.syr.edu login: gopher (hit enter to bypass password) --> ERIC Digests Files Examples of useful search terms include: Learning styles, Learning processing, Personality, Instructional Preference, Cognitive styles, Active learning, Multisensory learning, Individual Difference, Multiple Intelligence ED335175 May 1991 American Indian/Alaskan Native Learning Styles:Research and Practice ERIC Digest Swisher, Karen Educators of American Indian and Alaskan Native students are concerned for a growing number of students who do not find school a meaningful place. These students are becoming "school wweary." Studies of learning style among Native students provide some clues about this phenomenon, and this Digest presents a brief review of that literature. It includes a definition, specific examples, cautions about overgeneralizing learning style research, and suggestions for classroom practice. ED301143 88 Learning Styles ERIC Digest Claxon, Charles S.:Murrell, Patricia H. Teaching and learning practices in higher education urgently need improvement--witness the recommendations of several national commissions on higher education and the difficulties the faculty face with a diverse preparation of today's students. Learning style is a concept that can be important in this movement, not only in informing teaching practices but also in bringing to the surface issues that help faculty and administrators think more deeply about their roles and the organizational culture in which they carry out their responsibilities. ED341890 31 Dec 91 Learning Styles Counseling. ERIC Digest Griggs, Shirley. Increasinly, educational leaders are recognizing the process of learning is critically important and understanding the way individuals learn is the key to educational improvement. Shortcomings of education in general have been addressed in a "Nation at Risk" (national Commission on Excellence in Education, 1983) and "An Imperiled Generation: Saving Urban Schools" (carnegie Foundation, 1988). Evidence Abounds that the educational establishment in the United States is comparatively behind that of selected Western European and Asian nations in teaching youth the knowledge base and skills necessary to compete in a highly technical era.
4. How to Retrieve ERIC Journal Articles and Documents
References with an EJ (ERIC Journal) number are available through the originating journal, interlibrary loan services, or article reproduction clearinghouses: UMI (800) 248-0360 and ISI (800) 523-1850. References with ED (ERIC Documents) are available in ERIC microfich collections at more than 825 locations worldwide. Documents can also be ordered through EDRS: (800) 443-ERIC.
5. Hard Copy Resources
The International Encyclopedia of Education
Husen, T. & Postlethwaite, T.N., (ed.), Elsevier Science Ltd.,
The encyclopedia covers basic information on learning styles in the
area of cognitive styles and learning, learning process, learning
environment, and learning strategies.
American Educators' Encyclopedia
Dejnozka, E.L. & Kapel, D.E. (ed.), Westport, Conn: Greenwood Press
It's a one-volume work containing 2,000 short articles based on
and terms frequently found in literature of professional education.
Resources in Education
ERIC, Office of Educational Research & Improvement.
The H.W. Wilson Company.
EI is a quarterly index to educational publications in English. It
includes periodical index, yearbooks, and monographs.
Exceptional Child Education Resources
ECER journal is a quarterly publication of abstract that has been
added most recently to the ECER database. It is designed as
resources for teachers, administrators, researchers, teacher
psychologists, and others concerned with issues related to
Social Sciences Citation Index
Institute for Scientific Information, Inc..
The SSCI is a calender year inde, coving indexes of almost every
discipline in the social sciences. Learning style related
can be found in the subject Educational Research.
ARBA Guide to Education
Brewer, D.J. (ed.), Littleton, CO: Libraries Unlimited, 1985
ARBA lists more than 450 reference publications in the field of
It offers evaluations of the cited works. It also includes full
bibliographic information and prices.
Current Bibliographical Source in Education 2nd
Paris: UNESCO, 1984
It includes bibliographies of books, periodical articles,
reports, conference proceedings, and registers of research
doctoral and other thesis.
Sex Difference & Learning: an annotated bibliography of education
New York, Garland Pub.
Perceptual & Motor Skills Bahavior Engineering Associations It's a bimonthly journal covering articles on perception, motor skills, and general methodology. The approach is interdisciplinary, including such field as anthropology, physical education, physical therapy, etc.. Learning styles Associations Simulation & Gaming Sage Periodical Press It is a journal of the Association for Business Simulation and Experiential Learning. The Education Forum Kappa Delta Pi It publishes original inquiries, discourses, and discussions of contemporary issues, problems, and possibilities in education. Elementary School Guidance and Counseling American Association for Counseling and Development It is concerned with guidance and counseling of elementary or middle school students in their education. Exceptional Children Council for Exceptional Children It features articles on professional issues of concerns special educators, and on the education and development of exceptional students. Gifted Children Quarterly National Association for Gifted Children It publishes articles on the theory and research related to the psychology and education of gifted and talented children. Journal of Educational Psychology American Psychology Association It features articles reporting original research and theoretical work dealing with learning and cognition as they relate to problems of instruction. Journal of Reading, Writing and Learning Disabilities International This bimonthly periodical explores research directly related to reading, writing and learning disabilities. Teaching Exceptional Children Council for Exceptional Children This journal serves teachers of handicapped and gifted children. It features articles that deal with practical methods and materials for classroom use.
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