Fairness in Testing
Date compiled:12-10-95 Compiled by:Heather M. Van Inwegen INDEX 1) Introduction 2) Internet Resources Gopher - 4 Listservs - 3 Telnet - none WWW - 5 Optional: Electronic Journals and Newsletters - 3 FTP - none Other - none 3) ERIC Resources ERIC Clearinghouses - 2 ERIC Citations - 10 ERIC Digests - 3 4) How to Retrieve ERIC Journal Articles and Documents 5) Hard Copy Resources Encyclopedias/Directories - none Full-Length Studies - 3 Indexes - none Reviews - none Directories - none Biographical Sources - none Bibliographies - 1 Periodicals - 5 Government Sources - 1 Geographical Sources - none Statistical Sources - none Associations - 1 Videos - 3 Databases - 1
Testing is a primary tool of education. Regardless of its form, testing must center on the fair use of tests scores, rather than on the scores themselves. The focus of this InfoGuide is on the general practices and guidelines that K-12 educators can perform to ensure that students will be assessed in a fair and equal manner. This assessment may not take the form of traditional tests. Alternate means of educational assessment are focused on including authentic assessment, portfolios, and student evaluation along with how to use the results of traditional testing methods to evaluate students in a fair manner.
2. INTERNET RESOURCES
Arizona State University Gopher
This lengthy article "Educational Assessment Reassessed: The Usefulness
of Standardized and Alternative Measures of Student Achievement as
Indicators for the Assessment of Educational Outcomes" by William L. Sanders
and Sandra P. Horn discusses the debate on standardized testing and
alternative means of assessment and advocates the use of multiple
indicators of student learning, including those provided by standardized
tests. A well thought out and researched paper with a list of
-->ASU Campus-Wide Information/
-->Education Policy Analysis Archive
-->Archives (Full Text of All Articles)
National Center for Research on Evaluation, Standards, and Student
The goal of the UCLA Center for the Study of Evaluation (CSE) is to
improve the quality of education in America through systematic
evaluation practices. From the above menu, you can view or search a variety of
areas including CSE/CRESST Technical Reports, News Letters, and
Alternative Assessment Databases.
-->CRESST/UCLA - Research on Evaluation and Testing
National Council on Measurement in Education (NCME)
The NCME is committed to the continual improvement of testing and
measurement practices in education. Although many of its members are
college faculty, much of the information provided can help k-12
educators, especially the section under Testing Tips and Issues with
topics like "Reliability of Test Scores", and "How Difficult Should a Test Be."
-->National Council on Measurement in Education (NCME)/
-->Testing Tips and Issues
Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory (NWREL)
The Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory is an independent,
educational research and development institution whose mission is to work
with schools and communities to improve educational outcomes for
children, youth, and adults. On the menu page for Evaluation and
Assessment, you are given a number of bibliographies you can assess in
the areas of reading assessment, mathematics and science assessment,
alternative assessment in mathematics and science, and portfolio assessment.
-->NWREL Program and Content Areas
-->Evaluation and Assessment/
Goal is to provide educators with fast, convenient, and topical
electronic discussion forum focusing on issues related to educational
assessment in grades k-12.
To subscribe, send an email to:
In the body of the message, type:
American Educational Research Association Division D. Studies
educational measurement and research methodology.
To subscribe, send an email to:
In the body of the message, type:
The Education Policy Analysis Forum is a discussion forum on all aspects
of education policy but they tough upon testing and assessment quite
To subscribe, send an email to:
In the body of the message, type:
Buros Institute of Mental Measurements
Homepage of the Buros Institute of Mental Measurements. Their mission is
to provide professional assistance, expertise and information to users of
commercially published tests and to promote meaningful and appropriate
test selection, utilization, and practice. News, articles, links and
email are all headings on this page. Among the articles listed is "The
Code of Fair Testing Practices in Education" and under digest articles is
"Standards for Teachers Competence in Educational Assessment of Students."
Center for Research on Evaluation, Standards, and Student Testing
Homepage of the Center on Evaluation, Standards, and Student Testing.
From this page you can access their publications (CRESST Line Newsletter,
Evaluation Comment Newsletter) back to 1991. General interest papers and
technical reports are also available. You can also order two videos from
them: "Portfolio Assessment" and "Assessing the Whole Child" (see video
section of this InfoGuide). You can also access other education and
evaluation sites from here. This site is easy to navigate and contains the
most comprehensive information on testing/assessment.
North Central Regional Educational Laboratory
NCREL is a not-for-profit organization devoted to "researching and
implementing best practices in public schools so that all students
achieve standards of educational excellence." If you click on NCREL
Program Areas and Staff, you can see a list of curriculum, instruction,
assessment and evaluation program staff. This list gives you the
individuals area of specialty and their e-mail addresses so you can
Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory
NWREL is an independent, nonprofit, educational research and development
laboratory. Their mission is to "work with schools and communities to
improve educational outcomes for children, youth, and adults. This site
contains some information on programs regarding fairness in testing and
puts out a newsletter, Equity Issues that focuses on gender and racial
discrimination issues. They have a program specifically for Mathematical
and science assessment that is useful. A list of other educational sites
is also given.
Pathways to School Improvement
You can assess this site from the NCREL homepage but it is such a useful
site, I am listing is separately. By clicking on "topics" and then
"assessment' under "teaching" you can find a list of critical issues in
asssessment. Besides listing upcoming articles, current articles are
available. In the article "Integrating Assessment and Instruction in
Ways that Support Learning" you can hear what teachers have done
in regard to this issue. You can also click on some key phrases, like
alternative assessment, and be led to another list of information on the
topic. This is a great source and easy to navigate.
The CRESST Line Newsletter URL: http://www.cse.ucla.edu/Publications/CLdirectory.html The CRESST Line Newsletter addresses many issues relating to testing. Some issues are designated to one topic (portfolio use, standards). Published twice-a-year, you can download issues from as far back a Fall 1991. Evaluation Comment Newsletters URL: http://www.cse.ucla.edu/publications/evalcomment.html The Evaluation Comment Newsletters are published once-a-year and cover topics like "What Works in Performance Assessment", "Portfolio Assessment: Whose Work Is It?", and "Assessment Questions: Equity Answers." You can download copies of this newsletter back to Winter 1991. Daily Report Card URL: http://www.utopia.com/mailings/reportcard/ The Daily Report card is a summary of news in K-12 education that is produced thrice-weekly by the National Education Goals Panel. Even though this journal is devoted to all the news in K-12 education, they hit upon testing and assessment often.
3. ERIC RESOURCES
Clearinghouse on Assessment and Evaluation
Catholic University of America
210 O'Boyle Hall
Washington, DC 20064-4035
Telephone: 202-319-5120; 800: 800-464-ERIC (3742)
Adjunct ERIC Clearinghouse for the Test Collection
Educational Testing Services (ETS)
ETS Test Collection
Rosedale and Carter Raods
Princeton, New Jersey 08541
The ERIC database is accessible from the AskERIC Virtual Library
Type: gopher ericir.syr.edu
--> ERIC Bibliographic Database (RIE and CIJE)
Type: telnet ericir.syr.edu
login: gopher (hit enter to bypass password)
--> ERIC Bibliographic Database (RIE and CIJE)
Examples of useful search terms include: fair* and test*, assess*, portfolio,
FairTest: Charting a Course for Testing Reform.
Zappardino, Pamela H.
Clearing House; v68 n4 p248-52 Mar-Apr 1995
Presents examples of test bias and test misuse. Discusses FairTest
(National Center for Fair and Open Testing) program areas and initiates
at the elementary, secondary, and higher education levels. Discusses
keeping the community informed.
Adjustment in Assessment Scores and Their Usage: A Taxonomy and
Evaluation of Methods.
Kehoe, Jerard F.; Tenopyr, Mary L.
Psychological Assessment; v6 n4 p291-303 Dec 1994
Methods of adjusting group differences in assessment and test scores
are described, classified, and evaluated. Investigations of the
relationship between intended use of test scores and the appropriate
meaning of scores is essential for fair test treatment in assessment.
Complex, Performance-Based Assessment: Expectations and Validation Criteria.
Linn, Robert L.; and others
Educational Researcher; v20 n8 p15-21 Nov 1991
Increasing emphasis on assessment and concern about assessment
techniques have stirred interest in alternative assessment forms, for
which evidence is needed about consequences, transfer of performance on
specific assessment tests, and assessment fairness. Criteria concerning
consequences, fairness, transfer generalizability, cognitive complexity,
content quality, content coverage, meaningfulness, and cost efficiency
Preparing Students for Testing: Should We Promote Test Wiseness? EREAPA
Publication Series No. 93-1.
Wheeler, Patricia H.; Haertel, Geneva D.
Test-taking skills and methods used to prepare students for taking an
examination are independent of knowledge and skills in the content area
being tested. Test-taking skills do not give students the correct answers,
but do allow the student to concentrate on answering questions without being
confused by the mechanics of the test. Students who lack test-taking skills
should be identified, and helped to become test wise, through ethically and
educationally sound techniques. Tests should be fair and appropriate and
should be scored in a proper manner. Teaching test-taking skills is not a
quick remedy for poor instruction and insufficient learning, but it can help
the student in learning, interpersonal relationships, work activities,
and other situations they will encounter throughout life. A list of 24
resources on preparing students for testing, an ERIC digest on test-taking
skills, and a Department of Education publication on test taking are
attached. (Contains 28 references.) (SLD)
Assessment Questions: Equity Answers. Proceedings of the 1993 CRESST
Conference (Los Angeles, California, September 12-14, 1993). Evaluation
Focusing on one of the critical questions in the shift to new forms of
assessment, researchers, policymakers, and teachers met at the 1993 Center
for Research on Evaluation, Standards, and Student Testing (CRESST) to
consider equity in assessment. The opening remarks of CRESST co-director
Robert Linn stressed that equity is at the center of debates over assessment
and new standards. Synopses of the remarks of a number of speakers are
grouped under the following headings: (1) the definition of equity; (2) the
evaluation of the fairness of assessments; (3) data from large-scale
assessment programs; (4) costs of performance assessment; (5) equity and
assessment design; (6) portfolios; (7) group assessment; (8) equity and the
interpretation of assessment results; (9) equity and the research agenda;
and (10) reports from working groups on the design of equity-sensitive
performance assessments. The concluding remarks of Adam Urbanski of the
Rochester (New York) Teachers Association pointed out that reforming
schools is a long and difficult process that must involve the entire
community. A list of CRESST and Center for the Study of Evaluation reports
available is included. (SLD)
K-12 Testing Fact Sheet.
This paper contends that much of the time and money devoted to standardized
testing in the United States is misspent. Too many tests are poorly
constructed, unreliable, and unevenly administered. Multiple-choice
tests cannot measure thinking skills or real problem-solving ability. In
addition, many examinations are biased racially, culturally,
linguistically, and by social class and gender. Use of these flawed tests
leads to inaccurate and inappropriate decisions for individual children
and harms the entire educational system because standardized tests provide
little useful information for educational improvement. The National
Center for Fair and Open Testing (FairTest) urges changes in the use of
tests to eliminate mass testing of young children for readiness,
placement, and promotion. No decisions about a child should be made
primarily on the basis of test scores and tests must be no more than one
small part of an assessment. Valid and comprehensive unbiased alternatives
must be developed. These themes are expanded on in the following sections: (1)
"What's Wrong with Standardized Tests?"; (2) "Tests Used in K-12"; (3)
"Better Options for Assessing Education"; (4) "Alternatives in the
States"; (5) "Excerpts from the Statement of the Campaign for Genuine
Accountability"; and (6) "FairTest Goals and Principles." (SLD)
How Standardized Testing Damages Education.
Despite the many limitations of standardized tests, schools use them to
determine if children are ready for school, to group students for
instruction, to diagnose learning disabilities and other handicaps, and to
guide and control the curriculum and teaching methods. No test is good enough
to serve as the sole or primary basis for important educational decisions for
an individual child, and test content is a very poor basis for determining
curriculum content and teaching methods. Students from low-income and
minority groups are more likely to be retained in grade or placed in a lower
track, while those from white middle and upper income groups are more
likely to be given educationally advantageous placements. Because raising the
test score is so often the single most important indicator of school
improvement, teaching comes to resemble testing more and more. Teaching to
the test can only improve student capabilities and knowledge if the test is
good. Better methods than standardized tests for educational improvement
and accountability already exist in assessment measures based on student
performance. These methods of assessment are as reliable as are
standardized multiple-choice tests and are used successfully in other
An Investigation of Students' Affective Responses to Alternative
Despite the number of studies investigating affective aspects of test
taking, little is known about how students perceive the kinds of extended
performance assessments currently being developed for state and local
testing programs. This paper presents two studies that address these
issues. In the first, hands-on science tasks were administered to 20
sixth-grade and 29 fifth-grade students who thought aloud as they performed
each task and answered interview questions afterward. In the other study,
mathematics items were administered in three formats (multiple choice,
short-answer constructed response, and extended problems) to 29 high
school students who were interviewed after completing the items in each
format. Results of both studies indicate a great deal of variability in the
affective responses of students to novel assessment formats, and they
suggest some possible influences on these responses, including the
importance of the nature of engagement and students' perceptions of
validity and fairness. Three tables and one figure present study findings.
(Contains 16 references.) (SLD)
Performance Assessment. Policy Bulletin, No. PB-B13.
At the root of the performance assessment movement is fairly widespread
dissatisfaction with high-stakes multiple-choice tests. Many critics of
multiple-choice tests argue that to improve instruction, tests themselves
will have to improve. Hundreds of schools around the country are already
experimenting with performance assessments, and many states are also
experimenting with performance assessment. The states farthest along the
road to performance assessment are Connecticut and Vermont. Vermont is the
first state to use portfolios as part of a statewide assessment program.
Among the advantages of performance assessments are the authenticity of
what they say about what is assessed, the ways in which they offer students
genuine intellectual challenges, and the opportunity they offer for
restructuring schools. Problems with performance assessments are
recognized in the areas of scoring, validity, instruction versus
accountability, time constraints and teacher resistance, and cost. Those
who decide to explore performance assessments can benefit from the
experience of those who have already worked in this area. A supplement lists
27 resources for those interested in performance assessment, as well as
organizations active in the field and state contact people. (SLD)
Performance Assessment: What's Out There and How Useful Is It
"Some observations are offered about alternative assessment
devices, performance assessments in particular. The act of conducting
alternative assessment does not automatically ensure good assessment.
Users must become knowledgeable consumers of published alternative
assessment tools and developers of local and classroom assessments.
Performance and other alternative assessments are a useful part of the
assessment arsenal; they must be carefully integrated into large-scale
assessments and the public must become educated consumers of the
information offered by alternative assessment. Annotated bibliographies
of 117 articles about alternative assessment gathered by the Test Center
of the Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory are included in the
following areas: (1) mathematics; (2) reading; and (3) portfolios.
Charts summarize assessment instruments, anthologies, achievement tests
in speaking and listening, and educational agencies interested in
alternative assessment. Criteria for selecting and reviewing assessment
tools in speaking and learning are also summarized in tabular form.
The full-text database of ERIC Digests are accessible from the AskERIC Virtual Library. URL: gopher://ericir.syr.edu:70/11/Digests **Instructions** Type: gopher ericir.syr.edu --> ERIC Digests File Or Type: telnet ericir.syr.edu login: gopher (hit enter to bypass password) --> ERIC Digests Files Examples of useful search terms include: test*, fair*, assess*, portfolio ED338705 The Center for Research on Evaluation, Standards, and Student Testing (CRESST). ERIC/TM Digest. Baker, Eva L.; Linn, Robert L. "The Center for Research on Evaluation, Standards, and Student Testing (CRESST) attempts to advance the understanding of educational quality by research and development on the design, implementation, analysis, and use of assessment information. CRESST's research programs are directed at five major goals: (1) provide leadership to improve assessment policy and practice at the national, state, and local levels; (2) improve the quality, sensitivity, and fairness of student performance assessments; (3) improve the validity of models and indicators for judging the quality of schools; (4) improve understanding of assessment development, implementation, and effects as they occur in school practice; and (5) improve understanding of assessment policy and its contribution to educational improvement. An expanded set of criteria are being developed and refined for judging the validity of educational assessment. Research currently focuses on the following programs: (1) Program 1, building the infrastructure for improved assessment; (2) Program 2, designs for learning-based assessment (prototypes and models); and (3) Program 3, collaborative development and improvement of assessments in practice. The CRESST team is composed of researchers from the: (1) Center for Study of Evaluation at the University of California (Los Angeles); (2) University of Colorado; (3) RAND Corporation; (4) University of Chicago (Illinois); (5) University of California (Santa Barbara); and (6) University of Pittsburgh (Pennsylvania). (SLD)" 1991 ED351150 The Portfolio and Its Use: Developmentally Appropriate Assessment of Young Children. ERIC Digest. Grace, Cathy Educators use the term "authentic assessment" to refer to the practice of realistic student involvement in the evaluation of student achievement. Authentic assessments are performance-based and instructionally appropriate. One method of authentic assessment is the assembly and review of a portfolio of a student's work. The portfolio is a record of a child's process of learning, and includes work samples, records of observations, and screening tests. Ideally, a portfolio includes observations in the following forms: (1) anecdotal records, which are useful for recording spontaneous events; (2) checklists or inventories, which should be based on the development associated with the acquisition of skills; (3) rating scales, which are used to measure behavior that has several components; (4) children's responses to questions; and (5) screening tests, which identify children's skills. Besides containing a wide variety of work samples, portfolios used in early childhood education should contain a statement of purpose. Once the material in a portfolio is organized by chronological order and category, the teacher can evaluate the child's achievements. Portfolios are not meant for comparing children to each other, but for documenting individual children's progress over time. The use of portfolios also provides teachers with a built-in system for planning parent-teacher conferences. (BC) 1992 ED328611 The Case for Authentic Assessment. ERIC Digest. Wiggins, Grant Based on material prepared for the California Assessment Program, an argument in favor of authentic assessment is presented, and authentic assessment is contrasted with traditional standardized tests. An assessment is authentic when student performance on intellectual tasks is directly examined. Comparatively, traditional assessment relies on indirect or proxy items. Issues addressed include cost, effort and time requirements, and public suspicions regarding the objectivity of authentic assessment. It is contended that a move toward more authentic tasks and outcomes improves teaching and learning. In authentic assessments, students have greater clarity about their obligations and are asked to master more engaging tasks, and teachers can see assessment results as meaningful and useful for improving instruction. Conventional testing is probably adequate if the aim is to monitor performance. However, tests must be composed of exemplary tasks, criteria, and standards if the goal is to improve performance across the board. A five-item list of additional reading materials is included. (TJH); 1990
4. How to Retrieve ERIC Journal Articles and Documents
References with an EJ (ERIC Journal) number are available through the originating journal, interlibrary loan services, or article reproduction clearinghouses: UMI (800) 248-0360 and ISI (800) 523-1850. References with ED (ERIC Documents) are available in ERIC microfiche collections at more than 825 locations worldwide. Documents can also be ordered through EDRS: (800) 443-ERIC.
5. Hard Copy Resources
Implementing Performance Assessment: A Guide to Classroom, School and
This 56 page handbook is written for teachers, parents, school
administrators, policymakers and education reform activists. Topics
covered include observations, projects and tasks, performances,
portfolios and equity issues. A comprehensive bibliography of follow-up
sources is included along with ways in which people with different
relationships to schools can help change how students are assessed and
The Fractured Marketplace for Standardized Testing.
Walter M. Haney, George F Madaus, Robert Lyons. Kluwer Academic. 1993.
Topics include "The Testing Industry", "The Extent of the Marketplace for
Tests and Social Investment in Educational Testing", "The Structure of
the Testing Industry and Implications for the Quality of Tests and Test
Use", "Test Validity",and "Alternative Strategies that might be Employed to
Improve the Use and Prevent the Misuse of Tests as Instruments of Social
and Educational Policy." Even though there is a section on military
testing, the majority of this book will give educators a better
understanding of the history and future of standardized tests. SAT's and
Iowa Tests are covered. The use of charts and graphs help to understand
the findings of the studies. A large bibliography is included.
Assessing Student Performance: Exploring the Purpose and Limits of Testing.
Grant P. Wiggins. Jossey-Bass. 1993.
The focus of this book is to consider what testing should involve if
the students intellectual and moral interests are primary. The book is
aimed at teachers, school administrators with curriculum and testing
responsibilities, and others with a stake in better testing. Grant
believes that student assessment should improve performance, not just
monitor of audit it, and testing should be only a small facet of
assessment. A great source for teachers to understand and change how
they assess students. A comprehensive bibliography is included.
Culture-Fair Tests. Annotated Bibliography of Tests.
Test Collection, Educational Testing Services. 1990.
Fifty-six tests included in this bibliography are designed as culture
fair by the publisher. Culture fair or culture free tests are defined
as having freedom form verbal, content, or emotional loadings that
differ among cultures. All ages are represented.
FairTest. Cambridge, MA
A quarterly newsletter that discusses contains news on the testing
reform movement and reports on lawsuits, research, policy changes, new
exams, and conferences. An excellent source which is not as technical as
some of the following journals.
Studies in Educational Evaluation
Arieh Lewy. Pergamon Press.
Evaluation of educational approaches and concerns related to the
evaluation of students constitutes the focus of this journal.
Applied Measurement in Education
Lawrence Erlbaum Assocs.
This journal is intended for both practitioners and researchers who "are
interested in research likely to have an impact on education measurement
practices." It includes reviews of measurement approaches, new
strategies, and original thought.
Educational Measurement: issues and practice
John J. Fremer. National Council on Measurement in Education
Educational measurement in all its forms is covered , as well as various
views and opinions. A section called "ITEMS" covers a wide range of
Journal of Educational Measurement
Mark Reckase. National Council on Measurement in Education
Journals mission is to "promote greater understanding and improved
measurement techniques in education." Extremely technical and extensive
use of statistics is common.
Testing in American Schools: Asking the Right Questions.
U.S. Congress Office of Technology Assessment. U.S. Government Printing
A comprehensive report on educational testing with an emphasis on new
approaches. Chapters include Policy Options, Testing in Transition,
Educational Testing Policy, A History of Educational Testing in the
United States, How Other Countries Test, Standardized Tests in Schools,
Performance Assessment, and Information Technologies and Testing. The
use of charts, graphs and a 37 page separate summary book make this 300+
page booklet an excellent source.
National Center for Fair and Open Testing
Cambridge, MA 02139
Seeks to ensure that the 100 million standardized tests administered
annually are fair, open and educationally sound. Works to eliminate
racially, culturally, and sexually biased questions on standardized
tests, including aptitude tests, intelligence tests, and professional
certification exams, by removing questions that measure culturally
specific information rather than certain knowledge differences.
The Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory (NWREL) in Portland,
OR, has developed a 14-module, 45-hour introductory video series on
classroom assessment. Topics include helping teachers integrate teaching
and testing; writing good items for paper-and-pencil tests; measuring
thinking; assessing reading, writing, mathematics, and science; using
sound grading practices; understanding standardized tests; and using
portfolios. Each video workshop averages three hours in length and costs
$125. To learn more about classroom assessment training, contact
NWREL at 1-800-547-6339. To order videotapes, contact IOX, 5301
Beethoven Street, Suite 109, Los Angeles, CA 90066-7061; (310) 822-
The National Center for Research on Evaluation, Standards, and Student
Testing has produced a 10-minute videotape called "Portfolio Assessment
and High Technology" for school districts, principals, and teachers
interested in building portfolio programs. Issues such as developing
standards for portfolios, selecting pieces, and involving parents in the
portfolio process are covered. The tape is $10. To order, contact
UCLA/CRESST, 405 Hilgard Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 90024-1522; (310) 206-1532.
"Assessing the Whole Child" is a personal, impassioned portrait of how
teacher Charlotte Higuchi uses performance-based assessments in her
classroom of diverse 3rd- and 4th-grade students. "What I get from
performance-based assessments is the child," says Higuchi,
"standardized tests will never give you that." Narrated by Patrick
Stewart, this 18-minute video production shows students participating in
a variety of performance assessments including portfolios,
self-evaluations, exhibitions, and journals, all used by Higuchi to
assess the progress of her students. Each assessment shows
student-teacher communication and classroom interaction, emphasizing
small-group collaboration. Included in each video is a teacher oriented
handbook that discusses what teachers need in order to effectively
implement performance assessment. The tape and booklet is $15. To order,
contact UCLA/CRESST, 405 Hilgard Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 90024-1522;
Containing listings from over 250 developers of new assessments, the "Alternative Assessments in Practice" database will be of special use to teachers, school district administrators, assessment developers and others interested in new methods for assessing student growth. The database contains detailed information about each assessment, including subject matter and skills measured, assessment type and purpose, scoring characteristics, and availability of the assessment. The cost is $15 and includes an easy-to-use Hypercard program for Apple Macintosh computers, a single double-density disk, a 50-page manual with comprehensive, step-by-step illustrations, and a built-in on-line help feature. To order, call Kim Hurst at (310) 206-1532 or E-mail her at kim#064;cse.ucla.edu.
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