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ERIC Documents Database Citations & Abstracts for Report Cards in Elementary Secondary Education


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Search Strategy:
Report Cards [as ERIC Descriptor, with heavily weighted status]
AND
Elementary Secondary Education or Elementary Education or Intermediate Grades or Middle Schools or Junior High Schools or High Schools or Secondary Education [as ERIC Descriptors]
  ED418415  CS216300
  Language Arts Portfolios in the Elementary Classroom.
  Shaw, Linda Newcome
  1998
  75p.; M.A. Thesis, Salem-Teikyo University. Some appended materials 
may not be legible.
  Document Type: THESIS (042)
  Should portfolios replace the traditional report card or be used in 
conjunction with other evaluative methods? A study assessed the value 
of portfolios as an evaluation tool and the popularity of their use.  
Research supports the use of portfolios as a viable means of 
assessment, yet studies are inconclusive and do not support 
portfolios as a better alternative to other forms of assessment.  
This study was conducted in Randolph County, West Virginia, to 
determine the assessment methods that are utilized by the elementary 
teachers.  The advantages and disadvantages of using portfolios in 
the evaluative process were revealed.  Results from 69 elementary 
teacher surveys were utilized.  The research results indicated that 
the majority of teachers prefer the traditional report card with 
letter grades rather than a portfolio approach to student evaluations.  
Findings suggest that a combination approach is being used by many 
Randolph County elementary teachers and conclude that portfolios 
should not replace the report card.  To be most effective, portfolio 
evaluation should be combined with other assessment methods.  
(Contains a 53-item bibliography; a sample teacher survey, a letter 
to the district superintendent, and evaluation forms.) (Author/CR)
  Descriptors: Academic Records; Elementary Education; *Evaluation 
Methods; Evaluation Problems; Evaluation Research; Grades 
(Scholastic); *Language Arts; *Portfolio Assessment; *Report Cards; 
*Student Evaluation; Teacher Attitudes; Teacher Surveys
  Identifiers: Randolph County School District WV

  
  EJ568626  EC619397
  Report Card Grading Adaptations for Students with Disabilities: 
Types and Acceptability.
  Munk, Dennis D.; Bursuck, William D.
  Intervention in School and Clinic, v33 n5 p306-08 May 
  1998
  ISSN: 1053-4512
  Document Type: JOURNAL ARTICLE (080);  RESEARCH REPORT (143)
  A survey of 368 elementary and secondary regular education teachers 
and a survey of 274 high school students with and without 
disabilities examined the acceptability of report card grading 
adaptations for students with disabilities.  Teachers were willing to 
make adaptations but students perceived use of individualized 
adaptations as unfair.  (CR)
  Descriptors: *Disabilities; Elementary Secondary Education; High 
School Students; Peer Acceptance; *Report Cards; School Surveys; 
*Student Attitudes; *Student Evaluation; Student Surveys; *Teacher 
Attitudes; Teacher Behavior; Teacher Surveys
  Identifiers: *Testing Accommodations (Disabilities)

  
  ED425407  CG028977
  Report Cards: Stepping Away from Tradition.
  Whittle, Sharon L.
  1997
  8p.; In: China-U.S. Conference on Education. Collected Papers. 
(Beijing, People's Republic of China, July 9-13, 1997); see CG 028 968.
  Document Type: PROJECT DESCRIPTION (141);  CONFERENCE PAPER (150)
  One of the primary aspects of a reporting system is to maintain 
consistency between what is taught, what is tested, and what is 
reported to parents.  This paper explores one school district's 
experience in changing how student progress is reported to parents 
for the elementary division from kindergarten to grade five.  Over 
the last decade, what was being taught was not reflected on the 
report card.  The change process and the new report design are both 
presented.  A committee was formed which included teachers, parents, 
and administrators.  A time line was established.  The committee 
reviewed relevant literature and examined report cards from other 
school districts.  The first year included the steps of exploration 
of ideas, developing common themes, a reporting system philosophy and 
beliefs, and developing skill areas for the progress report.  During 
the second year, an initial design was created, debated, and tested.  
Parent meetings were held to explain the new format.  Many teacher 
team meetings were used to refine ideas.  After the first 
distribution of the new design, a survey was taken of parents and 
teachers.  Additional revisions were made in the third year; and 
surveys indicate positive reactions and general satisfaction.  
(Author/EMK)
  Descriptors: Change Strategies; Elementary Education; Public 
Schools; *Report Cards; *Student Evaluation
  
  
  EJ544245  EA533266
  Questionnaire Design for Strategic Planning Surveys.
  McNamara, James F.
  International Journal of Educational Reform, v6 n1 p105-16 Jan 
  1997
  ISSN: 1056-7879
  Document Type: EVALUATIVE REPORT (142);  JOURNAL ARTICLE (080)
  Shares some high-yield questionnaire items that school 
practitioners can use to design strategic-planning surveys to be 
conducted at the start of a five-year planning cycle.  Recommends two 
basic types of quantitative questionnaire items focused on program 
evaluation and needs assessment.  Recommends three qualitative 
questionnaire items allowing respondents to offer more personal 
information about accomplishments.  (12 references) (MLH)
  Descriptors: *Design Requirements; Elementary Secondary Education; 
*Questionnaires; *Report Cards; *Strategic Planning; *Surveys

  
  ED408582  CS215849
  Writing Effective Report Card Comments.
  Shafer, Susan
  1997
  65p.
  ISBN: 0-590-06882-2
  Available From: Scholastic, Inc., 2931 East McCarty Street, 
Jefferson City, MO 65102 ($8.95).
  Document Type: BOOK (010);  NON-CLASSROOM MATERIAL (055)
  Target Audience: Practitioners; Teachers
  This book offers time-saving tips from teachers on writing 
effective report card comments.  The book presents the best 
strategies, tips, and lists of useful phrases that encourage children 
and lists words to avoid.  It is a resource that will allow teachers 
to collect assessment information easily and to describe students' 
performances clearly and constructively.  The book also gives concise 
advice on how to prompt parents to support learning at home.  
Following an introduction, the book's chapters are: (1) Report Cards 
in the Assessment Process; (2) Teachers' Philosophies about Teaching 
and Kids; (3) Methods for Assessing Students; (4) Tips for Writing 
Report Card Narratives; (5) Words and Phrases That Work; (6) What Do 
Parents Want?; (7) Strategies for Resolving Possible Problems; and 
(8) Guidelines, Formats, Schedules, and Tips.  Contains a 
bibliography.  (CR)
  Descriptors: Academic Achievement; *Academic Records; *Achievement 
Rating; Audience Awareness; Elementary Secondary Education; Grades 
(Scholastic); Parent Teacher Cooperation; *Report Cards; *Student 
Evaluation; *Teacher Response; Teacher Responsibility; Teacher Role; 
Teacher Student Relationship
  Identifiers: *Writing Contexts

  
  EJ535706  EA532813
  Grades: The Final Frontier in Assessment Reform.
  Cizek, Gregory J.
  NASSP Bulletin, v80 n584 p103-10 Dec   1996
  ISSN: 0192-6365
  Document Type: EVALUATIVE REPORT (142);  JOURNAL ARTICLE (080)
  Lack of knowledge and interest in grading translates into a serious 
information breakdown in education.  Reforming classroom assessment 
and grading practices will require educators' commitment to 
professional development, classroom-relevant training programs, help 
from professional organizations and testing experts, a coordinated 
vision, consistently developed and applied policies, teacher 
collaboration, and revamped student attitudes toward grades.  (13 
references) (MLH)
  Descriptors: *Change Strategies; *Grading; *Professional 
Development; *Report Cards; Secondary Education; *Student Evaluation; 
*Teacher Responsibility

  
  EJ519715  EA531662
  So Johnny's Been Bad. What Else Is New?
  Watson, Dan; Rangel, Lyle
  Principal, v75 n4 p27-28 Mar   1996
  ISSN: 0271-6062
  Document Type: EVALUATIVE REPORT (142);  JOURNAL ARTICLE (080)
  When parent-teacher conferences don't improve a problem student's 
behavior, a systematic change strategy is needed.  Daily report cards 
are effective if they divide the day into segments, provide 
evaluations for each segment, feature increasingly demanding goals, 
provide parent reinforcement, use mild punishment, and accrue 
reinforcement rewards.  A sidebar discusses medication issues.  (MLH)
  Descriptors: Attention Deficit Disorders; *Behavior Modification; 
*Behavior Problems; Change Strategies; *Classroom Techniques; 
*Discipline; Elementary Education; Parent Education; *Parent Teacher 
Cooperation; Positive Reinforcement; Punishment; *Report Cards
  Identifiers: Medications


  EJ517915  EC612752
  Report Card Grading and Adaptations: A National Survey of Classroom 
Practices.
  Bursuck, William; And Others
  Exceptional Children, v62 n4 p301-18 Feb   1996
  ISSN: 0014-4029  
  Document Type: JOURNAL ARTICLE (080);  RESEARCH REPORT (143)
  A national survey of elementary and secondary general education 
teachers (n=368, response rate of 52%) examined classroom grading 
practices, including grading adaptations for students with 
disabilities.  Results indicated that teachers found certain 
adaptations (pass-fail grades, portfolios, multiple grades, and 
grading for effort) useful for students both with and without 
disabilities.  (DB)
  Descriptors: Classroom Techniques; *Disabilities; Educational 
Practices; Elementary Secondary Education; Evaluation Methods; 
*Grading; Inclusive Schools; National Surveys; *Report Cards; 
*Student Evaluation; *Teacher Attitudes
  Identifiers: *Academic Accommodations (Disabilities)

  
  ED405358  TM026194
  Bibliography of Assessment Alternatives: Grading. Innovative Assessment.
  Northwest Regional Educational Lab., Portland, OR. Test Center.
  Sep 1996
  31p.
  Sponsoring Agency: Office of Educational Research and Improvement 
(ED), Washington, DC.
  Document Type: BIBLIOGRAPHY (131)
  This bibliography includes papers about grading and reporting, 
sample report card formats, training materials on grading and 
reporting, and first-person narratives from educators who have tried 
to reform the ways they grade students.  The first section of this 
annotated bibliography is a listing of the articles in alphabetical 
order by primary author, and the second section is an index using 
content descriptors developed for the paper.  Items in this 
bibliography may be borrowed free of charge in Alaska, Idaho, 
Montana, Oregon, and Washington.  Users in other states are charged a
handling fee.  A shelf number is listed at the end of each annotation.  
Contains 50 annotated references.  (SLD)
  Descriptors: Annotated Bibliographies; *Educational Assessment; 
Elementary Secondary Education; Grades (Scholastic); *Grading; Higher 
Education; *Report Cards; *Scoring; *Student Evaluation; *Training
  Identifiers: United States (Northwest)

  
  EJ527448  EA530069
  Implementing a New Elementary Progress Report.
  Clarridge, Pamela Brown; Whitaker, Elizabeth M.
  Educational Leadership, v52 n2 p7-9 Oct   1994
  ISSN: 0013-1784  
  Document Type: PROJECT DESCRIPTION (141);  JOURNAL ARTICLE (080)
  Dissatisfied with the mismatch between letter grades and their new 
(state-mandated) curricular emphases, the Tucson (Arizona) Public 
Schools began experimenting with rubric descriptions of student 
progress.  The prototype progress report assesses students in two 
general categories: learner qualities and content areas.  Frequent 
communication with parents hastened the system's acceptance.  (MLH)
  Descriptors: Elementary Education; *Grading; Pilot Projects; 
Program Descriptions; *Report Cards; *Student Evaluation; *Teacher 
Expectations of Students
  Identifiers: *Performance Assessment; *Performance Based Evaluation; 
Tucson Public Schools AZ

  
  EJ488813  SP523449
  The Use of a Daily Report Card to Address Children's School Behavior
Problems.
  Long, Nicholas; Edwards, Mark
  Contemporary Education, v65 n3 p152-55 Apr   1994
  Theme issue title: "Problem Students."
  ISSN: 0010-7476  
  Document Type: NON-CLASSROOM MATERIAL (055);  JOURNAL ARTICLE (080)
  A structured daily report card program can provide more consistent 
and efficient feedback on students with behavior problems than 
traditional approaches.  The article details specific steps in 
designing a daily report card intervention, emphasizing how parents 
and teachers must work cooperatively to create and implement the 
intervention.  (SM)
  Descriptors: *Behavior Modification; *Classroom Techniques; 
Discipline; Elementary Education; *Parent Teacher Cooperation; 
Program Development; *Report Cards; *Student Behavior; Student 
Evaluation

  
  ED377241  TM022503
  Student-Led Portfolio Conferences.
  Paulson, F. Leon; Paulson, Pearl R.
  Aug 1994
  16p.
  Document Type: NON-CLASSROOM MATERIAL (055);  EVALUATIVE REPORT (142)
  In at least one Oregon school system, student-led conferences have 
begun to replace traditional report cards.  When conferences are well 
done, parents believe they have learned more about their child's 
learning and progress than they would through a traditional report 
card.  There is an important additional benefit in that students can 
rise to the occasion and take charge of their own learning in 
important ways.  A successful student-led conference is the 
culmination of careful planning and preparation that involves 
explaining the concept to teachers, students, and parents.  The 
experience of the Touchstone Learning Center in Lake Oswego (Oregon) 
illustrates the successful use of student-led conferences at the 
kindergarten level, with student groups rotating through stations 
demonstrating activities and materials.  Experiences of other Oregon 
schools demonstrate that the conferences are not difficult to manage, 
and that they have beneficial motivational impact on students, who 
are eager to present their portfolios to parents and to other 
interested people.  Appendixes present an organizing chart and a 
description of portfolio activities for seventh graders.  (Contains 7 
references.) (SLD)
  Descriptors: *Academic Achievement; *Educational Assessment; 
Elementary Secondary Education; Parent Child Relationship; *Parent 
Teacher Conferences; *Portfolio Assessment; Portfolios (Background 
Materials); *Report Cards; Student Evaluation; Student Motivation
  Identifiers: Oregon; *Performance Based Evaluation; *Student Led Activities

  
  ED375111  SP035488
  Helping Professionals Take Control of Assessment: An Exploratory 
Study of Recording and Reporting Achievement in New Zealand Schools.
  Faire, Mary
  Jul 1994
  8p.; Paper presented at the Conference of the Australian Teacher 
Education Association (24th, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia, July 5, 1994).
  Document Type: CONFERENCE PAPER (150);  RESEARCH REPORT (143)
  This study examined teachers' recording and reporting practices in 
conjunction with the recently published New Zealand Curriculum 
Framework (NZCF), which requires teachers to report the achievement 
of students in curriculum strands.  Teachers from 10 primary, 
intermediate, and secondary schools examined existing practices and 
worked to develop innovative approaches consistent with the NZCF.  
Findings revealed a trend for schools to be individual in designing 
new methods for recording and reporting.  While it was feasible for 
schools in some geographical areas to coordinate their recording and 
reporting practices, for others it was not.  Success in achieving 
consistency with the NZCF was dependent upon the involvement and 
leadership of the school principal or curriculum leader; teachers' 
knowledge of the new curricula; and available resources of time, 
finances, and personnel.  There was a great deal of effort devoted to 
involving students in the recording process, to enhance student 
motivation and learning.  There was widespread criticism of the 
national system for recording achievement in primary schools.  
Teacher development was a major outcome of the study, as teachers 
were researchers in the project and "owned" the changes that took 
place and because the study provided professional development 
opportunities.  (JDD)
  Descriptors: Academic Records; *Achievement Rating; *Compliance 
(Legal); Educational Change; Elementary Secondary Education; Foreign 
Countries; Government School Relationship; Inservice Teacher 
Education; *National Curriculum; Postsecondary Education; 
Professional Development; *Report Cards; Student Evaluation; Student Records
  Identifiers: *National Qualifications Framework (New Zealand)

  
  EJ469409  PS520831
  Writing Language Arts Report Cards: Eleven Teachers' Conflicts of 
Knowing and Communicating.
  Afferbach, Peter P.; Johnston, Peter H.
  Elementary School Journal, v94 n1 p73-86 Sep   1993
  ISSN: 0013-5984  
  Document Type: RESEARCH REPORT (143);  JOURNAL ARTICLE (080)
  Analyzed think-aloud protocols of elementary teachers as they 
composed language arts report cards.  Found that teachers wrote 
report cards for specific purposes (to motivate, inform, change 
behavior, etc.) and audiences (students, parents, teachers, 
administrators), and that these considerations influenced the 
information included on the report card.  (MM)
  Descriptors: *Audience Awareness; Elementary Education; *
Elementary School Teachers; Evaluation Problems; *Language Arts; 
*Protocol Analysis; *Report Cards; Student Evaluation; *Teacher 
Attitudes

  
  EJ469390  PS520812
  One on One.
  Boyd, Lanita Bradley
  Teaching Pre K-8, v24 n2 p60-61 Oct   1993
  ISSN: 0891-4588  
  Document Type: PROJECT DESCRIPTION (141);  JOURNAL ARTICLE (080)
  Emphasizes the importance of report card conferences, in which the 
teacher discusses with each student his or her performance during the 
marking period.  Such conferences can help (1) eliminate 
misunderstandings between parents and teachers that result from 
students' confusion about their grades; (2) boost student morale; and 
(3) create a better student-teacher relationship.  (MDM)
  Descriptors: *Conferences; Elementary Education; Elementary School 
Students; Elementary School Teachers; Grades (Scholastic); Morale; 
*Report Cards; Self Esteem; *Teacher Student Relationship

  
  EJ459287  CS745013
  Report Cards and Reading.
  Afflerbach, Peter
  Reading Teacher, v46 n6 p458-65 Mar   1993
  ISSN: 0034-0561  
  Document Type: JOURNAL ARTICLE (080);  POSITION PAPER (120)
  Asserts that the means by which student achievement in reading are 
reported should be a focus rather than an afterthought.  Discusses 
key questions related to developing report cards that serve a variety 
of audiences.  Provides guidance and models of report cards that are 
more closely aligned with the literacy curriculum than traditional 
report cards.  (PRA)
  Descriptors: *Audience Awareness; Elementary Education; Reading 
Achievement; *Report Cards; *Student Evaluation


  EJ454870  PS519830
  ERIC/EECE Report: Reporting to Parents.
  Goins, Brad
  Childhood Education, v69 n1 p56-57 Fall   1992
  ISSN: 0009-4056  
  Document Type: JOURNAL ARTICLE (080);  REVIEW LITERATURE (070)
  Fifteen recent documents and journal articles from the ERIC 
database concerning reporting to parents are summarized.  The 
documents and articles cover topics which include student portfolios, 
theme-based curriculum, writing and math assessment, parent-teacher 
conferences, and a national survey of report card entries.  (LB)
  Descriptors: Communication (Thought Transfer); Early Childhood 
Education; Elementary Education; Evaluation Methods; *Parent Teacher 
Conferences; *Parent Teacher Cooperation; *Portfolios (Background 
Materials); *Report Cards; *Student Records
  Identifiers: *Portfolio Approach

   
  ED340146  EA023821
  America 2000 Communities: Getting Started.
  Department of Education, Washington, DC.  Jan 1992
  55p.; For more information, call 1-800-USA-LEARN (1-800-872-5327); 
in the Washington metropolitan area: 401-2000.
  Document Type: NON-CLASSROOM MATERIAL (055)
  Target Audience: Community
  This booklet is intended to be a guide for local communities 
concerning the six National Education Goals articulated in 1990 on 
how to become an "America 2000 Community" in the context of that 
program.  There are four principal criteria for an America 2000 
Community: (1) Adopt the six National Education Goals; (2) Develop a 
community-wide strategy to meet them; (3) Design a report card to 
measure progress; (4) Plan for and support a "New American School." 
The booklet walks the reader through the National Education Goals, 
providing guidance on how to get started, tips for assembling a 
successful steering committee, and how to be designated an America 
2000 Community.  The emphasis is on local action.  Throughout the 
booklet there are quotations and sidebars providing advice from 
participants and coalitions around the country.  (WTB)
  Descriptors: Community Action; *Community Involvement; Elementary 
Secondary Education; *National Programs; Preschool Education; *Report 
Cards; *School Community Relationship
  Identifiers: *America 2000; *National Education Goals 1990; *New 
American Schools

  
  EJ448360  CS743909
  Report Cards: What Do They Mean during the Elementary School Years.
  Mehring, Teresa; And Others
  Reading Improvement, v28 n3 p162-68 Fall   1991
  ISSN: 0034-0510  
  Document Type: JOURNAL ARTICLE (080);  RESEARCH REPORT (143)
  Examines the consistency of grade assignment by elementary 
personnel, finding wide variations.  Shows greater consistency in 
assigning grades after training.  (SR)
  Descriptors: Educational Research; Elementary Education; *
Elementary School Teachers; *Grading; *Report Cards

  
  ED343107  CS010882
  Report Cards in Literacy Evaluation: Teachers' Training, Practices, 
and Values.
  Afflerbach, Peter; Sammons, Rebecca Bell
  Dec 1991
  18p.; Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the National Reading 
Conference (41st, Palm Springs, CA, December 3-7, 1991).
  Document Type: CONFERENCE PAPER (150)
  A study examined teachers' training, practices, and values for 
using the report card to communicate their knowledge of students' 
literacy achievement.  Subjects, 48 elementary, middle, secondary, 
and college preparatory teachers from 10 school districts in 5 
states, completed a questionnaire designed to elicit teachers' 
perspectives on the report cards they used for literacy assessment.  
Results indicated that: (1) few teachers reported receiving any 
training to write report cards; (2) few were involved in the 
development of the report cards they were required to use; (3) 
teachers reported writing report cards for a wide variety of purposes 
and audiences; and (4) the more the report card accommodated 
teachers' knowledge, the more it was valued.  Findings suggest that 
it may be difficult or impossible to build the ideal report card, 
within or across schools and districts.  (Two tables of data are 
included; the questionnaire is attached.) (RS)
  Descriptors: Educational Research; Elementary Secondary Education; 
*Grading; Literacy; *Report Cards; *Student Evaluation; *Teacher 
Attitudes; *Teacher Education
  Identifiers: Maryland; Massachusetts; Michigan; New York; Training 
Needs; Wisconsin

 
  ED330083  EA022806
  Responsive Education in the Middle Grades: Teacher Teams, Advisory 
Groups, Remedial Instruction, School Transition Programs, and Report 
Card Entries. Report No. 46.
  Mac Iver, Douglas J.; Epstein, Joyce L.
  Center for Research on Elementary and Middle Schools, Baltimore, 
MD.  Feb 1990
  48p.; Some tables may not reproduce adequately in paper copy.
  Sponsoring Agency: Office of Educational Research and Improvement 
(ED), Washington, DC.
  Document Type: RESEARCH REPORT (143)
  Target Audience: Policymakers; Practitioners
  This document analyzes data obtained from "Education in the Middle 
Grades," a national survey of practices and trends using a 
representative sample of principals in public schools that contain 
grade 7, to examine the use and effects of practices that many 
educators believe are especially responsive to the needs of early 
adolescents.  Practices examined include: (1) group advisory periods; 
(2) interdisciplinary teacher teams; (3) remedial instruction 
programs; (4) "school transition" activities; and (5) the formal 
recognition on report cards of student progress or effort regardless 
of performance level.  The results indicate that most responsive 
practices yield measurable but modest benefits, but they also suggest 
that to realize the benefits, a school must make sure that the 
practices are implemented properly.  A discussion of problems that 
might be encountered and of approaches that might be used by schools 
that contemplate adopting a responsive practices structure for the 
middle grades concludes the document.  Variables used in the 
regression analysis and seven tables are appended.  (19 references) (CLA)
  Descriptors: Educational Improvement; *Educational Practices; 
Educational Trends; Elementary Secondary Education; Grade 7; 
Interdisciplinary Approach; Junior High Schools; *Middle Schools; 
*Public Schools; *Remedial Programs; *Report Cards; Student School 
Relationship; *Team Teaching; Transitional Programs

  
  ED324124  PS019096
  A National Description of Report Card Entries in the Middle Grades.
Report No. 9.
  Mac Iver, Douglas J.
  Center for Research on Effective Schooling for Disadvantaged 
Students, Baltimore, MD.  Jul 1990
  18p.
  Sponsoring Agency: Office of Educational Research and Improvement 
(ED), Washington, DC.
  Document Type: RESEARCH REPORT (143)
  This study uses data from a national survey of principals of public 
schools with a 7th grade to document and analyze the variation in the 
types of marks and evaluations included on report cards issued to 
young adolescents in the United States.  The analyses examine the 
prevalence of report card entries of various types and the 
antecedents and consequences of using specific types of entries.  
Principals report that performance grades are widespread, handwritten 
comments and conduct grades are common, and progress and effort 
grades are rare.  Although grade span, region, size of grade 
enrollment, and urbanicity have some important connections to report 
card practices, there is considerable variation in practices among 
schools with similar grade spans, locations, or grade enrollments.  
Use of progress grades or handwritten comments on report cards is 
significantly associated with middle grades principals' reports of 
lower retention rates, lower projected dropout rates for males, and 
more successful middle grades programs.  It is suggested that the 
actual benefits to students when they receive comments on each report 
card from each teacher are probably greater than the average benefits 
reported here.  (Author/RH)
  Descriptors: *Dropout Rate; *Educational Practices; Enrollment; 
Geographic Regions; Grade 7; *Grade Repetition; Intermediate Grades; 
Junior High Schools; *Middle Schools; National Surveys; *Report Cards; 
School Organization; Student Characteristics; Urban Areas

  
  EJ378767  EA522634
  Pain Relief: Make Consistency the Cornerstone of Your Policy on 
Grading.
  Anderson, Kenneth E.; Wendel, Frederick C.
  American School Board Journal, v175 n10 p36-37 Oct 
  1988  
  Document Type: JOURNAL ARTICLE (080);  NON-CLASSROOM MATERIAL (055)
  An effective school board policy on grading needs to include the 
following six components: (1) philosophy; (2) definition of terms; 
(3) line of responsibility; (4) legal review; (5) academic 
achievement and behavioral skills reported separately; and (6) policy 
review.  (MLF)
  Descriptors: *Academic Achievement; Administrator Guides; *Board of 
Education Policy; Elementary Secondary Education; *Grades 
(Scholastic); *Grading; *Report Cards

  
  EJ370266  EA522192
  The Grading System: Does an "A" Really Equal Learning?
  Haley, Beverly
  NASSP Bulletin, v72 n507 p35-41 Apr   1988  
  Document Type: JOURNAL ARTICLE (080);  PROJECT DESCRIPTION (141)
  Good grades on a report card do not necessarily mean the material 
has been comprehended.  This article examines the relative worth of 
grades; extra credit assignments; categorizing students into A, B, or 
C boxes; and the role of parental pressures for higher grades.  
Grading systems should be subordinate to true learning motivation. (MLH)
  Descriptors: Expectation; *Failure; *Grades (Scholastic); *Labeling 
(of Persons); *Learning Motivation; *Parent Role; *Report Cards; 
Secondary Education
  Identifiers: *Extra Credit

  
  EJ345513  EC191168
  "The Daily Report Card."
  Fairchild, Thomas N.
  Teaching Exceptional Children, v19 n2 p72-73 Win   1987  
  Document Type: JOURNAL ARTICLE (080);  PROJECT DESCRIPTION (141);  
NON-CLASSROOM MATERIAL (055)
  Target Audience: Teachers; Practitioners
  Teachers can foster open communication and parental involvement 
through use of a daily reportcard system for students with academic 
or behavior problems.  Suggestions are provided for: gathering 
baseline data; identifying areas of concern; designing the report 
format; selecting reinforcers; conducting student conferences; 
implementing the system; following up; and phasing out.  (CB)
  Descriptors: Academic Achievement; *Behavior Problems; Elementary 
Secondary Education; *Feedback; *Learning Problems; Parent 
Participation; Parent Teacher Cooperation; *Report Cards; Student 
Behavior; *Student Improvement; Student Motivation
  Identifiers: *Daily Production Reports

  
  EJ282652  EC152058
  Assigning Report Card Grades to the Mainstreamed Child.
  Cohen, Sandra B.
  Teaching Exceptional Children, v15 n2 p86-89 Win   1983
  Available From: Reprint: UMI
  Document Type: JOURNAL ARTICLE (080);  POSITION PAPER (120)
  Problems involved in grading mainstreamed students are examined, 
and solutions are suggested, including communication between regular 
class and resource teachers, use of a combination of corrective 
feedback and quantitative scores, use of individualized education 
program performance objectives, and emphasis on intra-individual 
assessment.  (CL)
  Descriptors: *Disabilities; Elementary Secondary Education; 
*Feedback; *Grading; *Mainstreaming; *Report Cards; Student Evaluation

  
  EJ279577  EA516397
  Missiles, Marks, and the Middle Level Student.
  Vars, Gordon F.
  NASSP Bulletin, v67 n463 p72-77 May   1983
  Document Type: JOURNAL ARTICLE (080);  NON-CLASSROOM MATERIAL (055)
  An essential element of middle schools is a student evaluation 
procedure compatible with students' needs.  The key features of such 
a marking and reporting system are outlined.  (MLF)
  Descriptors: Educational Environment; *Grades (Scholastic); 
Intermediate Grades; *Middle Schools; *Nongraded Student Evaluation; 
*Report Cards; *Student Needs; *Student School Relationship


  ED250787  EA017294
  How Parents Find Out about Student Progress.
  Perkins, Jannine; Buchanan, Aaron
  Southwest Regional Laboratory for Educational Research and 
Development, Los Alamitos, Calif.  31 Jan 1983
  19p.
  Document Type: RESEARCH REPORT (143)
  Target Audience: Researchers
  To find out what kinds of information parents regularly get from 
schools on the progress of their children, the Southwest Regional 
Laboratory surveyed a sample of public school districts in 
California, Arizona, and Nevada.  Responses were received from 18 
school districts ranging in size from fewer than 300 students to more 
than half a million.  The information received indicates that school 
districts rely heavily on the traditional report card as their 
primary tool for student/parent communication, unless the student has 
special problems or the parents choose to take advantage of scheduled 
conferences.  Results of the inquiry are arranged according to three 
different types of parent report: regular report cards, other types 
of reporting, and parent-teacher conferences.  Under the section on 
report cards, a breakdown is provided of evaluation formats (letter 
grades, numeric marks, and threefold designations), and social 
development/growth or citizenship evaluation marks.  Other types of 
reporting include results of statewide or districtwide standardized 
tests and reports of pupil progress.  Parent-teacher conferences 
range from formal and regularly scheduled events based on specified 
topics to informal, random visits.  Finally, the uses of special 
letters or communications are briefly noted.  (TE)
  Descriptors: Academic Records; Achievement Rating; Behavior Rating 
Scales; Educational Testing; Elementary Secondary Education; Grades 
(Scholastic); *Grading; *Parent School Relationship; Parent Teacher 
Conferences; *Report Cards; *Student Evaluation; *Student Records; Surveys
  Identifiers: Arizona; California; Nevada; United States (Southwest)

  
  ED241166  PS014211
  An Initial Classification of Noncognitive Student Behavior Grading 
Items.
  Hevern, Vincent W.; Geisinger, Kurt F.
  Aug 1983
  43p.; Funded by a grant from the Graduate Studies Fund of the New 
York Province of the Society of Jesus.
  Document Type: RESEARCH REPORT (143);  CONFERENCE PAPER (150)
  Target Audience: Researchers
  Report-card marking items by which elementary school students' 
noncognitive classroom behaviors are graded were studied to establish 
a preliminary classification of behavioral assessment domains.  Two 
studies were conducted.  The first study employed a cluster-analytic 
approach to a pool of 136 noncognitive behavior-marking items that 
had been sorted and grouped into homogeneous sets by 16 psychologists 
and educators.  In the second study, a total of 59 elementary school 
teachers rated a 32-item subset of the larger marking item pool on 
three scales.  Specifically assessed were the degree to which items 
reflected (1) classroom or task-oriented adaptiveness, (2) 
interpersonal relationships and skills, and (3) personal adjustment 
and psychological self-concept.  Cluster-analytic and analysis of 
variance results suggested a general dichotomy in the classification 
of items: quality of task orientation versus quality of interpersonal 
relational skills.  Disagreement was found between the participants 
of the two studies in their classification of items dealing with 
students' self-regulatory behavior and acceptance or practice of 
normative patterns of socialized conduct.  (Areas for further 
empirical study are discussed.) (Author/RH)
  Descriptors: *Classification; Elementary School Teachers; 
Elementary Secondary Education; *Grading; Graduate Students; *Report 
Cards; Secondary School Teachers; *Student Behavior
  Identifiers: *Noncognitive Classroom Behaviors


  ED254328  PS014946
  Teachers, Parents, and the School: A Collection of Essays.
  Ediger, Marlow
  [1982
  14p.; Document may not reproduce well.
  Document Type: POSITION PAPER (120);  NON-CLASSROOM MATERIAL (055)
  Target Audience: Parents; Teachers; Practitioners
  The four essays in this collection provide guidelines for parents 
and teachers in educating children.  The first essay, "Parents, the 
Pupil, and the School Curriculum," describes selected ways parents 
may help pupils to achieve in the school curriculum.  "Objectives of 
the School, the Pupil, and Parents" discusses the need for teachers 
to plan educational objectives that include problem-solving skills, 
creative thinking, critical thinking, and the ability to get along 
well with others as well as to understand the subject matter.  
"Parent-Teacher Conferences and the Child" focuses on what questions 
parents might wish to ask about their child in a parent-teacher 
conference.  The final essay, "Report Cards, the Student, and
Parents," discusses the different possible interpretations of grades, 
the advantages and disadvantages to schools of issuing report cards, 
and the benefits of using parent-teacher conferences instead of 
report cards.  (CB)
  Descriptors: *Academic Achievement; Curriculum Development; 
*Educational Objectives; Educational Planning; Elementary Secondary 
Education; Grades (Scholastic); Guidelines; Parent Education; *Parent 
Responsibility; Parent Role; *Parent Student Relationship; *Parent 
Teacher Conferences; *Report Cards; Teacher Role

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