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ERIC Documents Database Citations & Abstracts for Grading Policies and Practices in Elementary Secondary Education

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Search Strategy:
Grading or Grades (Scholastic) [ERIC Descriptors]
Elementary Secondary Education or Elementary Education or Secondary Education [ERIC Descriptors]

  EJ556862  EA534185
  Can Grades Be Helpful and Fair?
  Bursuck, William D.; Munk, Dennis D.
  Educational Leadership, v55 n4 p44-47 Dec-Jan 1997-
  ISSN: 0013-1784
  Document Type: JOURNAL ARTICLE (080);  EVALUATIVE REPORT (142)
  Letter grades are still the most popular way of indicating student 
performance.  Both included (special-needs) and general-education 
students perceive the use of adaptations for some but not all 
students as unfair.  Although half of all general-education teachers 
use informal grading adaptations, few consider them fair.  Schools 
should develop a policy, include a menu of grading adaptations, 
explain the policy to teachers, and preserve confidentiality.  (MLH)
  Descriptors: Elementary Secondary Education; *Evaluation Criteria; 
*Grades (Scholastic); *Inclusive Schools; *Special Needs Students; 
*Student Attitudes; Student Evaluation; Teacher Attitudes; *Weighted 
  Identifiers: *Fairness

  EJ535706  EA532813
  Grades: The Final Frontier in Assessment Reform.
  Cizek, Gregory J.
  NASSP Bulletin, v80 n584 p103-10 Dec   1996
  ISSN: 0192-6365
  Document Type: EVALUATIVE REPORT (142);  JOURNAL ARTICLE (080)
  Lack of knowledge and interest in grading translates into a serious 
information breakdown in education.  Reforming classroom assessment 
and grading practices will require educators' commitment to 
professional development, classroom-relevant training programs, help 
from professional organizations and testing experts, a coordinated 
vision, consistently developed and applied policies, teacher 
collaboration, and revamped student attitudes toward grades.  (13 
references) (MLH)
  Descriptors: *Change Strategies; *Grading; *Professional 
Development; *Report Cards; Secondary Education; *Student Evaluation; 
*Teacher Responsibility

  EJ517915  EC612752
  Report Card Grading and Adaptations: A National Survey of Classroom 
  Bursuck, William; And Others
  Exceptional Children, v62 n4 p301-18 Feb   1996
  ISSN: 0014-4029
  Available From: UMI
  Document Type: JOURNAL ARTICLE (080);  RESEARCH REPORT (143)
  A national survey of elementary and secondary general education 
teachers (n=368, response rate of 52%) examined classroom grading 
practices, including grading adaptations for students with 
disabilities.  Results indicated that teachers found certain 
adaptations (pass-fail grades, portfolios, multiple grades, and 
grading for effort) useful for students both with and without 
disabilities.  (DB)
  Descriptors: Classroom Techniques; *Disabilities; Educational 
Practices; Elementary Secondary Education; Evaluation Methods; 
*Grading; Inclusive Schools; National Surveys; *Report Cards; 
*Student Evaluation; *Teacher Attitudes
  Identifiers: *Academic Accommodations (Disabilities)

  ED405358  TM026194
  Bibliography of Assessment Alternatives: Grading. Innovative
  Northwest Regional Educational Lab., Portland, OR. Test Center.
  Sep 1996
  Sponsoring Agency: Office of Educational Research and Improvement 
(ED), Washington, DC.
  Document Type: BIBLIOGRAPHY (131)
  This bibliography includes papers about grading and reporting, 
sample report card formats, training materials on grading and 
reporting, and first-person narratives from educators who have tried 
to reform the ways they grade students.  The first section of this 
annotated bibliography is a listing of the articles in alphabetical 
order by primary author, and the second section is an index using 
content descriptors developed for the paper.  Items in this 
bibliography may be borrowed free of charge in Alaska, Idaho, 
handling fee.  A shelf number is listed at the end of each annotation.  
Contains 50 annotated references.  (SLD)
  Descriptors: Annotated Bibliographies; *Educational Assessment; 
Elementary Secondary Education; Grades (Scholastic); *Grading; Higher 
Education; *Report Cards; *Scoring; *Student Evaluation; *Training; 
  Identifiers: United States (Northwest)

  ED398262  TM025216
  Hodgepodge Grading: Endorsed by Students and Teachers Alike.
  Cross, Lawrence H.; Frary, Robert B.
  Apr 1996
  15p.; Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the National Council 
on Measurement in Education (New York, NY, April 9-11, 1996).
  Document Type: RESEARCH REPORT (143);  CONFERENCE PAPER (150)
  Previous research clearly documents that teachers often award what 
S. M. Brookhart (1991) has referred to as a "hodgepodge grade of 
attitude, effort, and achievement." This paper reports on a survey of 
grading practices involving 310 middle and high school teachers of 
academic subjects in a single school system.  Also surveyed were 
7,367 middle and high school students from the same system.  The 
results largely validate the findings of earlier studies.  
Substantial majorities of the teachers reported "hodgepodge" grading 
practices.  More important, the students largely confirmed and 
supported the hodgepodge grading practices reported by their teachers.  
These results are contrasted with grading practices widely 
recommended in measurement texts followed by a discussion of how 
measurement specialists may be missing the mark in their efforts to 
communicate their views to teachers, school administrators, and the 
general public.  (Contains 4 tables and 11 references.) (Author)
  Descriptors: Academic Achievement; Educational Assessment; *Grades 
(Scholastic); *Grading; High Schools; *High School Students; Junior 
High Schools; *Junior High School Students; *Secondary School 
Teachers; Student Evaluation; Surveys; *Teacher Attitudes; Teacher 
Education; Theory Practice Relationship

  EJ523863  SP525057
  Coercion and the Ethics of Grading and Testing.
  Curren, Randall R.
  Educational Theory, v45 n4 p425-41 Fall   1995
  ISSN: 0013-2004
  Document Type: POSITION PAPER (120);  JOURNAL ARTICLE (080)
  Addresses two issues in the ethics of grading and testing.  The 
first is the charge that the practice of grading students is 
intrinsically coercive.  The second is the national debate about 
authentic assessment, educational standards, and standardized 
measures of educational outcomes.  The paper suggests there is an 
acceptable middle ground.  (SM)
  Descriptors: Elementary Secondary Education; *Ethics; Evaluation 
Methods; *Grading; Moral Values; *Performance Based Assessment; 
*Standardized Tests; *Student Evaluation; Testing
  Identifiers: Coercion Theory

  EJ513357  EA531106
  Formative and Summative Assessment: A Possible Alternative to the 
Grading-Reporting Dilemma.
  Reedy, Randy
  NASSP Bulletin, v79 n573 p47-51 Oct   1995
  ISSN: 0192-6365
  Document Type: EVALUATIVE REPORT (142);  JOURNAL ARTICLE (080)
  If evaluation is to communicate and promote student learning, it 
must be separated into formative and summative components.  A grading 
policy that provides nonthreatening feedback (via observation of 
student work, group evaluation activities, classroom participation, 
homework, reports, discussions, and portfolios) can help students 
concentrate on learning.  (19 references) (MLH)
  Descriptors: *Evaluation Methods; *Formative Evaluation; *Grading; 
Learning Processes; *Models; Secondary Education; *Student Evaluation; 
*Summative Evaluation

  EJ504999  EA530684
  Guidelines for Grading That Support Learning and Student Success.
  O'Conner, Ken
  NASSP Bulletin, v79 n571 p91-101 May   1995
  ISSN: 0192-6365
  Document Type: EVALUATIVE REPORT (142);  JOURNAL ARTICLE (080)
  Grading should be used to support learning and encourage student 
success.  Under proposed guidelines, teachers should limit the valued 
attributes to achievement, sample student performance, grade in 
pencil, relate grading procedures to intended outcomes, crunch 
numbers carefully, use absolute grading distribution standards, use 
quality assessment instruments, and describe grading practices to 
students.  (33 references) (MLH)
  Descriptors: *Academic Achievement; Elementary Secondary Education; 
*Evaluation Criteria; *Grading; *Guidelines; *Student Evaluation

  ED384613  TM023199
  Further Investigation of Teachers' Assessment Practices.
  Cizek, Gregory J.; And Others
  Apr 1995
  43p.; Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American 
Educational Research Association (San Francisco, CA, April 18-22, 
  Document Type: RESEARCH REPORT (143);  CONFERENCE PAPER (150)
  A sample of 143 midwestern elementary and secondary school teachers 
from a variety of practice settings responded to a survey and 
provided comments regarding their assessment and practices.  The 
study collected background (demographic) information on the teachers 
and information on some assessment-related practices, including: (1) 
the frequency with which teachers assign routine class assignments; 
(2) the types of marks used to report student performance; (3) the 
frequency and grading of major assignments and tests; (4) the source 
of classroom tests; (5) the kinds of marks used; (6) the methods used 
to combine marks; (7) the meaning of grades; (8) teachers' knowledge 
and perceptions regarding district grading policies; and (9) 
teachers' awareness of the grading policies of their peers.  It was 
found that assessment practices vary widely and unpredictably.  Few 
relationships were observed between teachers' assessment and grading 
practices and personal or background characteristics such as practice 
level, years of experience, gender, or familiarity with district 
policies.  Teachers generally claimed to use a variety of factors in 
assigning grades, and a majority of teachers surveyed indicated that 
they were unaware of both their districts' policies and their 
colleagues' practices.  Conclusions, recommendations, and 
implications of these findings are discussed.  (Contains 33 
references and 4 tables.) (Author)
  Descriptors: Educational Assessment; Educational Policy; 
*Educational Practices; *Elementary School Teachers; Elementary 
Secondary Education; Experience; Grades (Scholastic); *Grading; 
School Districts; *Secondary School Teachers; Sex Differences; 
Student Evaluation; Surveys; *Teacher Attitudes; Teacher 
Characteristics; Test Construction; *Testing

  EJ527450  EA530071
  Making the Grade: What Benefits Students?
  Guskey, Thomas R.
  Educational Leadership, v52 n2 p14-20 Oct   1994
  ISSN: 0013-1784
  Available From: UMI
  Document Type: EVALUATIVE REPORT (142);  REVIEW LITERATURE (070);  
  Researchers agree that grading and reporting are not essential to 
instruction; there is no best grading system; grading is inherently 
subjective; and grades have some value as rewards, but none as 
punishments.  Types of learning criteria and practical grading 
guidelines are outlined, along with a brief history of grading 
practices since the late 1880s.  (45 references) (MLH)
  Descriptors: *Academic Achievement; *Educational Benefits; 
Elementary Secondary Education; *Grading; Guidelines; *Learning

  EJ527454  EA530075
  Grading: The Issue Is Not How but Why.
  Kohn, Alfie
  Educational Leadership, v52 n2 p38-41 Oct   1994
  ISSN: 0013-1784
  Document Type: EVALUATIVE REPORT (142);  JOURNAL ARTICLE (080)
  Rather than challenging grades alone, educators should question the 
whole assessment enterprise.  The three rationales for grading 
(sorting, motivation, and feedback) are problematic, since they 
stress a demand (obligation), as opposed to a support, model.  Ideas 
for adopting supportive assessment and avoiding grading abuses are 
provided.  (19 references) (MLH)
  Descriptors: *Educational Objectives; Elementary Secondary 
Education; Feedback; *Grading; Labeling (of Persons); Motivation; 
*Problems; *Student Evaluation
  Identifiers: *Performance Based Evaluation

  EJ495739  TM518393
  Teachers' Grading: Practice and Theory.
  Brookhart, Susan M.
  Applied Measurement in Education, v7 n4 p279-301   1994
  ISSN: 0895-7347
  Document Type: EVALUATIVE REPORT (142);  JOURNAL ARTICLE (080)
  This article is organized into two parts: (1) a review of 
literature on teachers' grading practices, and (2) a discussion of 
the findings about teachers' grading practices in light of evaluation 
and motivation theory.  The discussion considers both research 
implications and practical recommendations.  (Author)
  Descriptors: Educational Assessment; *Educational Practices; 
Elementary Secondary Education; Evaluation Methods; *Grades 
(Scholastic); *Grading; Informal Assessment; Literature Reviews; 
*Motivation; *Student Evaluation; Theories

  EJ490760  CS748358
  Ten Measures Better than Grading.
  Malehorn, Hal
  Clearing House, v67 n6 p323-24 Jul-Aug   1994
  ISSN: 0009-8655
  Document Type: POSITION PAPER (120);  JOURNAL ARTICLE (080)
  Describes 10 methods of assessment that teachers can use alone or 
in combination: (1) multiple marking, (2) peer evaluation, (3) 
mastery learning, (4) contracted learning, (5) credit-no credit 
grading, (6) self-evaluation, (7) anecdotal records, (8) pupil 
profiles, (9) checklists, and (10) dossiers.  (FL)
  Descriptors: Educational Testing; Elementary Secondary Education; 
Evaluation Methods; Grades (Scholastic); *Grading; *Informal 
Assessment; Mastery Learning; Peer Evaluation; Self Evaluation 
(Individuals); *Student Evaluation

  ED367666  TM021103
  What Do Student Grades Mean? Differences across Schools. Education 
Research Report.
  Office of Educational Research and Improvement (ED), Washington, 
DC. Office of Research.  Jan 1994
  Document Type: SERIAL (022)
  In spite of widespread concerns about low academic achievement 
nationally, parents generally have expressed satisfaction with their 
own children's achievement and schools, largely because their 
children's grades suggest that they are doing well.  This report 
examines what student grades tell about achievement through the use 
of data from the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988 
(NELS:88).  Overall, the average grade today is a "B." Comparisons of 
schools in high-poverty areas and those in more affluent areas 
indicate that "B" students in high-poverty schools have about the 
same NELS:88 test scores as do students receiving "D" or lower in 
schools with the lowest concentrations of poor students.  "C" 
students in the poorest schools had about the same test scores as 
failing students in the most affluent schools.  While NELS:88 scores 
are only one indicator, other indicators also show the need to 
improve the quality of education in schools, particularly in poverty 
areas.  Parents need to ask how grades are determined, and whether 
the student is receiving an appropriately challenging education.  
(Contains 3 references.) (SLD)
  Descriptors: *Academic Achievement; Accountability; Comparative 
Analysis; Educational Change; Educationally Disadvantaged; 
*Educational Practices; Elementary Secondary Education; Grade 
Inflation; *Grades (Scholastic); *Grading; Longitudinal Studies; Low 
Income Groups; Parent Attitudes; *Parent Participation; Parent Rights; 
Poverty; School Districts; Scores; Student Evaluation; Test Results
  Identifiers: *National Education Longitudinal Study 1988

  EJ481351  EA529303
  Grading Practices and Policies: An Overview and Some Suggestions.
  Ornstein, Allan C.
  NASSP Bulletin, v78 n561 p55-64 Apr   1994
  ISSN: 0192-6365
  Available From: UMI
  Document Type: EVALUATIVE REPORT (142);  JOURNAL ARTICLE (080)
  Young students have little understanding of grades.  This article 
examines grading systems and standards and presents grading 
guidelines, beginning with grade five.  Teachers should explain 
grades to students; base grades on a predetermined set of standards 
and on students' progress, attitudes, and relative class standing; 
consider various sources; and change grades only when incorrect.  
  Descriptors: *Grading; *Guidelines; *School Policy; Secondary 
Education; *Standards; *Teacher Responsibility

  EJ478733  UD517785
  Giving Their Best: Grading and Recognition Practices That Motivate 
Students to Work Hard.
  Mac Iver, Douglas J.; Reuman, David A.
  American Educator: The Professional Journal of the American 
Federation of Teachers, v17 n4 p24-31 Win 199  1994
  ISSN: 0148-432X
  Available From: UMI
  Document Type: PROJECT DESCRIPTION (141);  RESEARCH REPORT (143);  
  Traditional assessment, grading, and student-recognition practices 
are partly responsible for the low levels of student effort pervading 
American schools.  Two improvement-focused systems for student 
accountability and recognition that have been field tested are 
presented: The Incentives for Improvement Program (Baltimore, 
Maryland) and the Windham Challenge Program (Willimantic, 
Connecticut).  (SLD)
  Descriptors: Academic Achievement; Accountability; Awards; 
*Educational Assessment; Educational Improvement; Educational 
Objectives; Elementary Secondary Education; Feedback; Field Tests; 
Goal Orientation; *Grading; *Incentives; Objectives; Outcomes of 
Education; *Recognition (Achievement); Scoring; *Standards; *Student 
Motivation; Teacher Student Relationship; Track System (Education)
  Identifiers: Connecticut; *Effort; Maryland (Baltimore)

  EJ475870  EA528942
  Grading and Marking Systems: What Are the Practices, Standards?
  Wendel, Frederick C.; Anderson, Kenneth E.
  NASSP Bulletin, v78 n558 p79-84 Jan   1994
  ISSN: 0192-6365
  Available From: UMI
  Document Type: EVALUATIVE REPORT (142);  JOURNAL ARTICLE (080)
  Principals are responsible for improving the grading and marking 
systems in their schools.  School administrators should provide 
leadership for designing, revising, and validating grading systems 
that meet sound measurement principles, are applied uniformly, and 
match local needs.  This article reviews definitions, operational 
principles, legal issues, and student achievement issues associated 
with grading.  (MLH)
  Descriptors: *Administrator Responsibility; *Definitions; 
Elementary Secondary Education; *Grading; *Legal Problems; *Standards; 
*Teacher Responsibility

  EJ452362  TM516761
  An NCME Instructional Module on Developing a Personal Grading Plan.
  Frisbie, David A.; Waltman, Kristie K.
  Educational Measurement: Issues and Practice, v11 n3 p35-42 Fall 
  ISSN: 0731-1745
  Target Audience: Teachers; Practitioners
  This paper assists teachers in developing grading practices that 
communicate students' achievements to their parents effectively and 
fairly.  A teacher's personal grading philosophy must be considered 
in developing a personal plan.  Procedural steps in establishing a 
plan are outlined, and the features of several common methods are 
compared.  (SLD)
  Descriptors: *Academic Achievement; *Classroom Techniques; 
Elementary School Teachers; Elementary Secondary Education; Grades 
(Scholastic); *Grading; Guides; Informal Assessment; Scoring; 
Secondary School Teachers; *Student Evaluation; *Teacher Developed 
Materials; Teacher Role

 ED343944  TM018122
  "Here's Another Arbitrary Grade for Your Collection": A Statewide 
Study of Grading Policies.
  Austin, Susan; McCann, Richard
  Mar 1992
  41p.; Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American 
Educational Research Association (San Francisco, CA, April 20-24, 
  EDRS Price - MF01/PC02 Plus Postage.
  In response to concerns about current grading policies and 
procedures, a study was undertaken to provide state leaders with 
descriptions of grading policies and procedures across high schools.  
A total of 144 districts (out of 292 in the state that was the focus 
of this study) responded.  Documents provided by the districts varied 
according to district, but included materials from school board, 
district administration, school, and department levels.  Analysis 
covered the following: (1) purposes of grades; (2) audiences for 
grades; (3) criteria for calculating grades; (4) grading-related 
practices; (5) directive nature of school board policies; (6) amount 
of building-level guidance on grading practices; and (7) staff 
development.  There was considerable variation across the districts, 
although documents from several districts did not clearly indicate 
what criteria should be used in determining grades and how those 
criteria should be applied.  Few districts appeared to give teachers 
adequate guidance to ensure consistent grading, and no district 
provided information about staff development to improve grading.  It 
appears that most systems develop policies and procedures that 
attempt to achieve all purposes for all stakeholders, and 
consequently achieve none very well.  Six tables present study 
findings, and one figure illustrates multiple grading criteria.  A 12-
item list of references and four appendices with supplemental 
information about policies are included.  (SLD)
  Descriptors: *Educational Policy; *Evaluation Criteria; Grades 
(Scholastic); *Grading; High Schools; High School Students; *School 
Districts; School Surveys; Staff Development; *State Surveys; 
*Student Evaluation; Testing Programs

  ED348357  SP033995
  Teachers' Evaluations of Student Work.
  Mead, James V.
  National Center for Research on Teacher Learning, East Lansing, MI.
  Jul 1992
  Sponsoring Agency: Office of Educational Research and Improvement 
(ED), Washington, DC.
  Document Type: RESEARCH REPORT (143)
  This study was conducted to examine the criteria elementary and 
secondary mathematics teachers use when assigning grades, the visible 
mark of a teacher's evaluation, when shown individual pieces of 
mathematics work.  Data come from the Teacher Education and Learning 
to Teach longitudinal study of preservice programs, various types of 
on-the-job induction programs, and inservice programs.  Respondents 
were asked one question, "What grade would you give this paper and 
why?" In a series of tables, the paper depicts both the allocation of 
grades given to the work and the criteria for assigning grades.  
Inferences that these teachers make about student understanding and 
effort are tabulated.  Results suggest: (1) grading student work is a 
neglected subject; (2) grading appears to be a distasteful and 
marginalized teacher activity; (3) grading practices have taken on a 
life of their own that justifies teacher educators' careful 
attention; (4) how a grade is going to be assigned represents a novel 
point of entry to a discussion of instructional purpose and design; 
and (5) teacher educators might consider providing a sustained 
treatment of grading practices and their rationale.  (LL)
  Descriptors: Elementary School Mathematics; Elementary Secondary 
Education; *Evaluation Criteria; *Grading; Higher Education; 
*Mathematics Teachers; Secondary School Mathematics; *Student 
Evaluation; Teacher Education Programs; Teacher Educators

  ED346145  TM018477
  An Investigation of Achievement and Nonachievement Criteria in 
Elementary and Secondary School Grading.
  Nava, Fe Josefa G.; Loyd, Brenda H.
  Apr 1992
  35p.; Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American 
Educational Research Association (San Francisco, CA, April 20-24, 
  Document Type: RESEARCH REPORT (143);  CONFERENCE PAPER (150)
  Criteria that teachers include in grading and the weight given each 
were investigated in a sample of 827 elementary school and high 
school teachers from 18 school districts.  A three-section survey was 
administered to the subjects.  Underlying dimensions of grading 
criteria were studied, and the relationship between including a 
specific criterion and its weight in a specific classroom context was 
examined.  Elementary school and high school teachers were compared 
for use of grading criteria.  Frequencies of teacher responses to 35 
grading criteria were tabulated.  Factor analysis and discriminant 
analysis identified teacher criteria.  Teachers indicated that they 
definitely included five criteria in grading (unit tests, quizzes, 
essays or papers, effort, and semester tests).  Six criteria were 
identified as probably included (projects, assignments, book reports, 
class participation, ability, and behavioral criteria), and four 
others were selected as "probably not" (spelling, grammar, 
handwriting, and aggressiveness).  Gender, parent involvement in 
school activities, and parent involvement in class activities were 
identified as definitely not to be included.  Four factors were 
identified as underlying dimensions of the grading criteria: (1) 
classroom behavior and characteristics enhancing the learning 
process; (2) measures of achievement and academic content; (3) 
student behavior and non-content academic skills; and (4) traits and 
factors external to the classroom.  Clear differences were seen 
between elementary school and secondary school teachers.  There are 
nine tables of study findings and a 12-item list of references.  
  Descriptors: *Academic Achievement; Achievement Tests; Classroom 
Techniques; Comparative Analysis; Discriminant Analysis; *Elementary 
School Teachers; Elementary Secondary Education; *Evaluation Criteria; 
Factor Analysis; Factor Structure; *Grading; *Secondary School 
Teachers; *Student Evaluation; Teacher Attitudes

  EJ398477  TM514669
  Classroom Standard Setting and Grading Practices.
  Terwilliger, James S.
  Educational Measurement: Issues and Practice, v8 n2 p15-19 Sum 
  Revision of a paper presented at the Annual Meetings of the 
American Education Research Association (New Orleans, LA, April 5-9, 
1988) and National Council on Measurement in Education (New Orleans, 
LA, April 6-8, 1988).
  Document Type: JOURNAL ARTICLE (080);  EVALUATIVE REPORT (142);  
  The process of assigning grades to students is analyzed, and a 
specific approach to grading is recommended that distinguishes 
between minimal and developmental objectives.  Criterion-referenced 
and norm-referenced concepts are used in the approach, which is best 
suited for secondary school or college.  (SLD)
  Descriptors: *Classroom Techniques; College Faculty; *Criterion 
Referenced Tests; *Educational Objectives; Evaluation Methods; 
*Grading; Higher Education; *Norm Referenced Tests; Secondary 
Education; Secondary School Teachers; *Student Evaluation
  Identifiers: *Standard Setting

  ED305748  EA020878
  Assessing and Grading Student Achievement. ERS Report.
  Robinson, Glen E.; Craver, James M.
  Educational Research Service, Arlington, Va.  1989
  Available From: Publication Sales, Educational Research Service, 
2000 Clarendon Boulevard, Arlington, VA 22201 (Stock No. 219-21776; 
$20.00 prepaid).
  Document Type: RESEARCH REPORT (143);  REVIEW LITERATURE (070)
  The primary purpose of this report is to describe the practices and 
procedures used by school districts to assess and grade student 
achievement.  In April of 1988, the Educational Research Service 
conducted a nationwide survey of the grading and reporting practices 
and procedures using a stratified random sample of public school 
districts.  The background history and overview of the literature of 
assessment and grading are presented in section I. Section II 
presents a general analysis of the survey data in graphic form.  
Section III presents the data in detailed tabular form.  Section IV 
summarizes the first three sections of the report.  Section V 
contains examples of school board policy statements that show the 
scope of district policy relating to the assessment and grading of 
student achievement.  Section VI includes reproductions of report 
cards showing the variety of approaches that school districts are 
currently using to report pupil progress.  Appended are 98 references.  
  Descriptors: Academic Ability; *Academic Achievement; Academic 
Records; Board of Education Policy; Elementary Secondary Education; 
*Grading; National Surveys; Public Schools; School Districts; School 
Surveys; *Student Evaluation

  ED292880  TM011331
  Classroom Standard Setting and Grading Practices.
  Terwilliger, James S.
  Apr 1988
  18p.; Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American 
Educational Research Association (New Orleans, LA, April 5-9, 1988).
  EDRS Price - MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
  Document Type: CONFERENCE PAPER (150);  POSITION PAPER (120)
  The assignment of grades to students is discussed, and a grading 
process is recommended.  The process begins with the separation of 
minimal and developmental objectives.  Minimal objectives represent 
course outcomes that all students are expected to achieve; 
developmental objectives are more complex goals toward which students 
strive, but which few fully achieve.  Student achievement can first 
be measured with respect to minimal objectives only, with a passing 
standard established.  Criterion-referenced tests are well-suited for 
this purpose.  Norm-referenced grading of separate instruments is to 
be used for developmental objectives.  The proposed system is 
probably best suited to secondary school and undergraduate college 
classrooms where there is a need to use five or more grade categories.   (SLD)
  Descriptors: Academic Achievement; Academic Standards; *Classroom 
Techniques; *Criterion Referenced Tests; *Grading; Higher Education; 
*Norm Referenced Tests; *Pass Fail Grading; Postsecondary Education; 
Secondary Education; Test Interpretation; Test Norms
  Identifiers: *Standard Setting

  EJ333027  EA519698
  Grading--Why Are School Policies Necessary? What Are the Issues?
  Thomas, William C.
  NASSP Bulletin, v70 n487 p23-26 Feb   1986
  Document Type: JOURNAL ARTICLE (080);  POSITION PAPER (120)
  Target Audience: Administrators; Practitioners
  Argues that current grading practices in some schools lack 
consistency in several critical areas, including criteria for 
failure, absolute or relative standards, and motivation of slower 
students.  Policies are suggested that will help educators develop 
fairer and more humane marking systems.  (TE)
  Descriptors: Academic Achievement; *Academic Standards; Achievement 
Rating; Elementary Secondary Education; Failure; *Grades (Scholastic); 
*Grading; Homogeneous Grouping; Report Cards; *School Policy; 
*Student Evaluation; Student Motivation

  ED279713  TM870158
  Inside High School Grading Practices. The Northwest Regional 
Educational Laboratory Program Report.
  Stiggins, Richard J.; And Others
  Northwest Regional Educational Lab., Portland, Oreg.
  30 Nov 1986
  37p.; Appended "Reasons for Discrepancies" pages contain small 
  Sponsoring Agency: Office of Educational Research and Improvement 
(ED), Washington, DC.
  Document Type: RESEARCH REPORT (143)
  This investigation was undertaken to provide insights as to how to 
improve the quality and relevance of teacher training in grading 
practices.  The study was designed, by looking at grading practices 
of 15 high school teachers via intensive case study methodology, to 
explore: (1) the nature and technical quality of assessment and 
grading practices; and (2) why professional training has had so 
little impact.  The researchers prepared a comprehensive framework of 
34 grading issues to serve as a basis for observing teachers' grading 
practices.  Information was gathered from each of the teachers in 
relation to the questions about grading practices.  Seven questions 
focused on basic assumptions or antecedents that feed actual grading 
practices; twenty dealt with grading practices themselves; and the 
remainder addressed issues of the effects of grading.  Discrepancies 
between best practices and actual practices were noted in 26 of the 
issues.  An analysis of possible causes for the discrepancies 
revealed that 21 of the 26 practices probably have multiple causes.  
Recommended practice may need to be reevaluated in light of the 
realities of the classroom, and training in sound grading practices 
for teachers and principals is needed.  (Results are presented for 
each issue, and reasons for discrepancies between recommended and 
actual practice are listed in chart form.) (LMO)
  Descriptors: Academic Achievement; *Classroom Techniques; 
*Evaluation Methods; Grades (Scholastic); *Grading; *High Schools; 
Research Methodology; *Secondary School Teachers; Standards; *Student 
Evaluation; Teacher Attitudes; Teacher Improvement

  EJ294772  CS729355
  Ten Better Measures than Giving Grades.
  Malehorn, Hal
  Clearing House, v57 n6 p256-67 Feb   1984
  Document Type: POSITION PAPER (120)
  Describes 10 methods of assessment that teachers can use alone or 
in combination: (1) multiple marking, (2) peer evaluation, (3) 
mastery learning, (4) contracted learning, (5) credit/no credit 
grading, (6) self-evaluation, (7) anecdotal records, (8) pupil 
profiles, (9) checklists, and (10) dossiers.  (FL)
  Descriptors: Educational Testing; Elementary Secondary Education; 
*Evaluation Methods; Grades (Scholastic); *Grading; *Informal 
Assessment; Mastery Learning; Peer Evaluation; Self Evaluation 
(Individuals); *Student Evaluation

  ED238143  EA016238
  A Study of the Letter Grade System and Its Effect on the 
  Burton, Fredrick
  Apr 1983
  11p.; Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American 
Educational Research Association (Montreal, Quebec, Canada, April 11-
15, 1983).
  Document Type: RESEARCH REPORT (143);  POSITION PAPER (120)
  Target Audience: Researchers; Practitioners
  This study explores and identifies patterns of teacher, student, 
parent, and administrator responses to letter grade evaluation 
systems.  The study examined four main points: rationales for letter 
grades, interpretations of grading procedures and process, the 
consequences of letter grades, and alternatives to letter grades.  
The study involved an open-ended questionnaire, formal and informal 
interviews, and a survey.  The researcher determined that letter 
grades influence the sustenance of traditional curriculum based on 
behaviorist theory with a resultant "trivialization" of content.  
Students associate their worth and value as human beings with their 
grades and focus their attention on finishing their work rather than 
on learning.  The letter grade system seems to support a school 
curriculum shackled by time.  (MD)
  Descriptors: Administrator Attitudes; Conventional Instruction; 
Curriculum; Elementary Secondary Education; *Grades (Scholastic); 
*Grading; Parent Attitudes; *Student Attitudes; *Student Evaluation; 
Surveys; *Teacher Attitudes; Value Judgment

  EJ204060  UD507096
  Education and Distributive Justice: Some Reflections on Grading 
  Deutsch, Morton
  American Psychologist, v34 n5 p391-401 May   1979
  Available From: Reprint: UMI
  Document Type: JOURNAL ARTICLE (080);  REVIEW LITERATURE (070);  
  This article focuses on the distribution of grades as symbols of 
educational merit.  The social function of the artificially created 
shortage of high marks is discussed and different characteristics of 
grading systems are considered.  The effects of cooperative and 
competitive distributive systems are summarized.  (Author/EB)
  Descriptors: Competitive Selection; *Educational Problems; 
Elementary Secondary Education; *Equal Education; *Evaluation 
Criteria; *Grades (Scholastic); Higher Education; Literature Reviews; 
Measurement Techniques; *Moral Values; Opinions; *Student Evaluation

  ED143673  TM006372
  Grading. NEA Professional Studies.
  Bellanca, James A.
  National Education Association, Washington, D.C.  1977
  98p.; Parts of document may be marginally legible due to print 
  Available From: National Education Association Order Dept., 
Academic Building, Westhaven, Connecticut 06516 (Stock Number 1603-3-
00, paperbound, $5.75; Stock Number 1612-2-00, clothbound, $9.85)
  Document Type: BOOK (010)
  A brief overview of the societal context for current grading 
practices forms the background for a discussion of alternatives to 
the assignment of letter or numerical grades to represent student 
performance.  According to the author, in order to meet the criteria 
for effective feedback, schools and colleges must undergo several 
fundamental attitude changes.  He proposes the following: (1) that 
only criterion-based, nonjudgmental feedback and individualized 
reporting methods which reinforce each child's self-image be used in 
grades K-8; (2) that each high school decide upon its own criteria 
for student placement in courses; (3) that clear, precise criteria 
for a high school diploma, based on demonstrated knowledge and skill 
mastery, be established; and (4) that each college and university 
should develop its entrance requirements based on a student's 
demonstrated ability to read, write, and analyze at a specified level 
determined by each college's faculty.  One section of this document 
concentrates on specific methods for changing the grading system.  
Several sample evaluation forms are appended.  (MV)
  Descriptors: Change Strategies; Educational Objectives; *
Elementary Secondary Education; Evaluation Criteria; *Evaluation 
Methods; *Grades (Scholastic); *Grading; Parent Teacher Conferences; 
*Report Cards; Self Evaluation; *Student Evaluation

  ED117193  TM005053
  The Continuing Controversy over Grades. TM Report 51.
  Warren, Jonathan R.
  ERIC Clearinghouse on Tests, Measurement, and Evaluation, 
Princeton, N.J.  Nov 1975
  Sponsoring Agency: National Inst. of Education (DHEW), Washington, 
  Available From: ERIC Clearinghouse on Tests, Measurement, and 
Evaluation, Educational Testing Service, Princeton, N.J. 08540 (free 
while supplies last)
  Document Type: RESEARCH REPORT (143)
  Although grades have been criticized for lack of reliability, end-
of course grades and grade-point averages are reliable enough for 
most uses.  The charge of unreliability applies only to grades on 
themes, tests, or other individual pieces of student work.  On the 
other side of the controversy, grades have been said to be essential 
to the learning process because they provide for the evaluation of 
student performance.  But performance is evaluated and its results 
reported to students independently of any grading system.  The 
justification for grades must lie elsewhere.  The critical issue in 
grading is the validity and usefulness of grades for the variety of 
purposes they are called on to serve--conveying information on 
student achievement, providing incentives for students to study, 
serving as selection criteria, providing material for administrative 
records, helping in the evaluation and monitoring of the 
instructional process, and assisting students in educational and 
occupational planning.  Until better information is available on the 
effectiveness of grades with respect to these various functions, the 
continued trading of unsupported assertions about them will be 
fruitless.  New approaches to grading, such as contract and criterion-
referenced grading, do not change the basic issues.  (Author/RC)
  Descriptors: Elementary Secondary Education; Evaluation Criteria; 
Grade Inflation; *Grades (Scholastic); Grading; Higher Education; 
Performance Contracts; Reliability; *Student Evaluation; *Validity
  Identifiers: Criterion Referenced Grading

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