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ERIC Documents Citations & Abstracts for Cognitive or Learning Styles (General)

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Cognitive Style [ERIC Descriptor, with heavily weighted status]
Review Literature [Document Type]

  EJ552763  PS527096
  Some Implications of Cognitive Styles on Young Children's Play.
  Saracho, Olivia N.
  Early Child Development and Care, v131 p19-30 Apr   1997
  Language: English
  Document Type: REVIEW LITERATURE (070);  JOURNAL ARTICLE (080)
  Cognitive styles are broad, systematic characteristics that influence 
people's responses in different situations.  Field dependence independence 
(FDI) is the cognitive style construct that has generated the most research.  
Describes the FDI characteristics in young children's social behaviors, 
including their social orientation, people-versus-object orientation, social 
factors, cognitive performance, social competence, and age and sex differences.(EV)
  Descriptors: Age Differences; Child Behavior; Cognitive Processes; *Cognitive 
Style; *Field Dependence Independence; Individual Characteristics; Personality 
Traits; *Play; Sex Differences; *Social Cognition; *Young Children
  Identifiers: Field Theory

  ED410029  PS025691
  The Search for Style: It All Depends on Where You Look.
  Tendy, Susan M.; Geiser, William F.
  EDRS Price - MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
  Language: English
  Document Type: REVIEW LITERATURE (070)
  This paper traces the history of 11 prominent learning style theorists from 
the 1970s to the present.  Several theorists focused on the student's cognitive 
processing style.  Manuel Ramirez attributed Mexican-American students' 
tendency toward field sensitivity to their socialization.  Charles Letteri 
classified learners as analytic, global, or combination processors.  Anthony 
Gregorc identified four styles of cognitive processing which combined concrete 
and abstract spatial and sequential and random temporal components.  Ronald R. 
Schmeck conceptualized cognitive style in a developmental fashion, proceeding 
from global to analytic.  David Kolb identified four learning modes, concrete 
experience, reflective observation, abstract conceptualization, and active 
experimentation; and for learning styles, accommodation, assimilation, 
converging, and diverging.  Joseph Hill defined learning style as the way an 
individual searches for meaning and considered cognitive processes, perceptual 
modalities, and sociological elements.  Harry Reinert focused on students' 
reactions to an auditory stimulus to enhance learning.  David Hunt examined 
sociological and emotional components of learning style, such as need for 
structure and peer- versus adult-orientation.  Kenneth Dunn and Rita Dunn 
developed a comprehensive model dealing with environmental, emotional, 
sociological, physical, and psychological learning style elements which 
provides information directly related to teaching strategies.  Bernice McCarthy 
developed a lesson plan model which provides a sequence of instruction to move 
students from concrete experience to reflective observation to abstract 
conceptualization to active experimentation.  The models complement and build 
on one another, but there is still considerable debate on the issue of matching 
the learner's style or altering it.  (Contains 31 references.) (KDFB)
  Descriptors: Affective Behavior; *Children; *Cognitive Processes; *Cognitive 
Style; Elementary Secondary Education; Field Dependence Independence; Learning 
Strategies; Social Influences; Socialization; Teaching Methods; *Theories
  Identifiers: Hill (Joseph); Historical Background; Hunt (David E); Kolb 
(David A); Ramirez (Manuel)

  EJ517204  UD518961
  A Survey of Gender and Learning Styles.
  Philbin, Marge; And Others
  Sex Roles: A Journal of Research, v32 n7-8 p485-94 Apr   1995
  ISSN: 0360-0025
  Language: English
  Investigates differences in learning styles between men and women.  Seventy-
two people of different ethnic groups responded to the Learning Style Inventory 
(D.  A. Kolb, 1976), 12 Educational Dialectical questions, and 1 question 
concerning learning experiences.  Findings reveal that men appear to find 
congruence between traditional education and their learning style while women 
do not.  (GR)
  Descriptors: *Cognitive Style; Comparative Analysis; Females; *Learning 
Experience; Males; *Sex Differences; Social Science Research
  Identifiers: Learning Style Inventory (Kolb)

  ED387067  HE028652
  Learning Styles: A Review of the Literature.
  Swanson, Linda J.
  Jul 1995
  EDRS Price - MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
  Language: English
  Document Type: REVIEW LITERATURE (070)
  In light of recent research suggesting links between learning style and 
culture, this review of the literature looked at the various definitions of 
learning style, reviewed a framework for categorizing the types of instruments 
used to assess learning style, and explored the literature on learning style 
research among diverse groups.  The study reviewed definitions of learning 
style versus cognitive style and explored learning style theories including 
personality models, an information processing model, and the social interaction 
model.  The study also explored research on learning styles among diverse 
groups at the postsecondary level and found that much of this research finds 
that learning styles may follow cultural patterns.  Exploration of the 
implications of the relationship between learning styles and cultural diversity 
for higher education instruction led to the conclusion that colleges and 
universities should conduct professional development activities on the use of 
learning styles in improving teaching and student development, that classroom 
research in this area should be promoted, that curricular experiences should 
help students learn how to learn, and that search committees should take 
candidates' understanding of teaching and learning practices into account.  
(Contains 32 references.) (JB)
  Descriptors: *Cognitive Style; *College Instruction; *Cultural Differences; 
Cultural Influences; Definitions; *Educational Research; Higher Education; 
Individual Differences; *Learning Processes; Learning Theories; Models
  Identifiers: Diversity (Student)

  ED386526  UD030593
  Multiculturalism and Learning Style. Teaching and Counseling Adolescents.
  Dunn, Rita; Griggs, Shirley A.
  ISBN: 0-275-94762-9
  Available From: Praeger Publishers, Greenwood Publishing Group, 88 Post Road 
West, Box 5007, Westport, CT 06881 ($55).
  Document Not Available from EDRS.
  Language: English
  Document Type: BOOK (010);  NON-CLASSROOM MATERIAL (055);  REVIEW
  This consideration of learning style and the minority student analyzes and 
synthesizes the research that reveals the similarities and differences among 
the learning styles of culturally diverse populations and describes how to 
teach and counsel adolescents with different learning styles.  Research 
suggests that students whose instruction is not responsive to their learning 
styles achieve significantly less than children whose instruction is responsive.  
The implications of the varied individual, rather than the cultural group, and 
the learning styles of multicultural students are discussed for both teaching 
and counseling.  The efforts of schools that have successfully reversed 
underachievement among culturally diverse students are described.  The research 
on which these conclusions are based involved the participation of more than 18 
professors and 60 doctoral students working collaboratively at St. John's 
University in New York.  The instrumentation designed to identify learning 
style and 21 elements of learning style are identified.  One table and 28 
figures illustrate the discussion.  A sample programmed learning sequence is 
illustrated with 45 instructional frames.  (Contains 369 references.) (SLD)
  Descriptors: Academic Achievement; *Adolescents; Cognitive Processes; 
*Cognitive Style; *Counseling; Cultural Differences; Disadvantaged Youth; 
Elementary Secondary Education; Identification; Individual Differences; 
Learning Strategies; *Minority Groups; *Multicultural Education; *Teaching 

  ED385652  UD030545
  Learning Styles of African American Children and NSTA Goals of Instruction.
  Melear, Claudia T.
  Apr 1995
  17p.; Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational 
Research Association (San Francisco, CA, April 18-22, 1995). Small type in 
crowded tables may not reproduce well.
  EDRS Price - MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
  Language: English
  Document Type: REVIEW LITERATURE (070);  EVALUATIVE REPORT (142); 
PAPER (150)
  The National Science Teachers Association (NSTA) policy statement on 
multiculturalism lists learning style as an important concern for science 
teachers.  Several recent studies have considered the learning styles of 
minority children.  Notable among them is the study of J. Hale (1986) that 
lists a number of characteristics of African-American children's learning 
styles.  Young African-American children are perceived as successful in their 
homes, churches, and communities and only demonstrate a failure pattern after a 
few years in schools designed by the dominant culture.  African-American 
children display culturally induced cognitions that should be considered in 
planning for their instruction.  Four learning styles described by Hale and 
others are: (1) person centered; (2) affective; (3) expressive; and (4) 
movement oriented.  Researchers are engaged in evaluating these learning 
styles in relation to the Myers Briggs Type Indicator, and they seem very 
promising for describing the learning styles of African-American children.  Two 
tables provide instruction strategies for science based on characteristics of 
African-American children and seven additional tables summarize study 
information.  (Contains 12 references.) (SLD)
  Descriptors: Academic Achievement; Affective Behavior; *Black Students; 
*Cognitive Style; *Cultural Awareness; Educational Policy; Elementary Secondary 
Education; *Minority Groups; *Multicultural Education; Personality Traits; 
Science Education; Student Characteristics; Teaching Methods
  Identifiers: African Americans; Myers Briggs Type Indicator; *National 
Science Teachers Association

  ED382722  UD030406
Learning Styles and Culturally Diverse Students: A Literature Review.
  Irvine, Jacqueline Jordan; York, Darlene Eleanor
  14p.; Chapter 27 in the "Handbook of Research on Multicultural Education," 
p484-97. See UD 030 379.
  Available From: Individual chapters not available separately.
  Document Not Available from EDRS.
  Language: English
  Document Type: REVIEW LITERATURE (070)
  The concept of learning styles is based on the theory that an individual 
responds to educational experiences with consistent behavior and performance 
patterns.  The complexity of the construct, the psychometric problems related 
to its measurement, and the enigmatic relationship between culture and the 
teaching and learning process means that the body of research on learning 
styles must be interpreted and applied carefully.  Analyses presented in this 
paper suggest that the widespread conclusions in the literature that African 
American, Hispanic American, and Indian students are field-dependent learners 
who prosper academically when taught with field-dependent teaching strategies 
are premature and conjectural.  Research does not support the supposition that 
members of a particular ethnic group have the same learning style.  The body of 
research does have implications for enhancing the academic achievement of 
culturally diverse students by reminding teachers to be alert to individual 
students' learning styles as well as their own actions and methods in reference 
to their students' cultural experiences and preferred learning environments.  
(Contains 102 references.) (SLD)
  Descriptors: Academic Achievement; American Indians; Blacks; *Cognitive Style; 
Cultural Background; *Cultural Differences; *Educational Research; Ethnic 
Groups; Hispanic Americans; *Learning Modalities; Literature Reviews; 
Measurement Techniques; *Personality Traits; Psychometrics
  Identifiers: African Americans; *Diversity (Student)

  EJ508260  EA530886
  The Culture/Learning Style Connection.
  Guild, Pat
  Educational Leadership, v51 n8 p16-21 May   1994
  ISSN: 0013-1784
  Available From: UMI
  Language: English
  Cultures have distinctive learning style patterns, but the great variation 
among individuals within groups requires educators to use diverse teaching 
strategies.  Researchers identify three kinds of information about culture and 
learning styles: observation-based descriptions of cultural groups of learners, 
data-based descriptions of specific groups, and direct discussion.  Accepted 
conclusions and debates are summarized.  (17 references) (MLH)
  Descriptors: *Cognitive Style; *Cultural Background; Elementary Secondary 
Education; *Individual Differences; *Learning Processes; *Research Needs; 
Socialization; *Teaching Methods

  EJ494980  HE533184
  Gender Differences in Learning Styles: A Narrative Review and Quantitative 
  Severiens, Sabine E.; Ten Dam, Geert T. N.
  Higher Education, v27 n4 p487-501 Jun   1994
  ISSN: 0018-1560
  Available From: UMI
  Language: English
  Document Type: REVIEW LITERATURE (070);  EVALUATIVE REPORT (142); 
  Research since 1980 on gender and learning styles of students over age 18 is 
reviewed for commonalities in theory and research methodology.  In addition, a 
quantitative meta-analysis was undertaken on two measures of learning style and 
study behavior to determine the direction and magnitude of gender differences 
in various samples.  (Author/MSE)
  Descriptors: *Adult Learning; *Cognitive Style; Comparative Analysis; Females; 
*Learning Strategies; Males; Postsecondary Education; *Sex Differences; *Study 

  EJ493142  FL524066
  Cognitive Learning Styles: Does Awareness Help? A Review of Selected 
  Jones, Sabine
  Language Awareness, v2 n4 p195-207   1993
  ISSN: 0965-8416
  Language: English
  Document Type: REVIEW LITERATURE (070);  JOURNAL ARTICLE (080)
  This article establishes the case for making students aware of their own 
language learning styles, so that they may gain some control over their own 
learning processes.  The specific focus is on the cognitive styles of field 
dependence and field independence, which are thought to be most relevant for 
foreign language learning.  (32 references) (MDM)
  Descriptors: *Cognitive Style; Field Dependence Independence; Language 
Attitudes; *Learning Processes; *Second Language Learning; *Student Attitudes; 
Teacher Student Relationship; *Teaching Styles

  EJ444015  CE523770
  An Overview of Learning Style Models and Their Implications for Practice.
  Freeman, Michael K.; Whitson, Donna L.
  Journal of Adult Education, v20 n2 p11-18 Spr   1992
  Available from Mountain Plains Adult Education Association, Ricks College, 
103 Auxiliary Services Bldg., Rexburg, ID 83460-8011.
  Language: English
  Document Type: JOURNAL ARTICLE (080);  REVIEW LITERATURE (070)
  Reviews models of learning style, cognitive style, and thinking style and 
makes recommendations: (1) style preferences are not unchangeable; (2) style 
refers to learner actions not ability; (3) learning should be considered 
broader than cognitive achievement; and (4) teachers should adopt a bilateral 
approach to influencing student actions.  (SK)
  Descriptors: Adult Education; Adult Educators; *Cognitive Style; *Models; 
Stimuli; *Teacher Behavior; *Teacher Student Relationship; *Thinking Skills

  ED360088  PS021614
  An Analysis of Gardner's Theory of Multiple Intelligence.
  Morgan, Harry
  41p.; Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Eastern Educational 
Research Association (1992).
  EDRS Price - MF01/PC02 Plus Postage.
  Language: English
  Document Type: REVIEW LITERATURE (070);  POSITION PAPER (120)
  The theory of multiple intelligence (MI) propounded by Gardner and Hatch 
suggests that human beings have seven distinct units of intellectual 
functioning, and that these units are actually separate intelligences with 
their own observable and measurable abilities.  These intelligences were 
identified as logical-mathematical, linguistic, musical, spatial, bodily-
kinesthetic, interpersonal, and intrapersonal.  These units, however, bear 
striking resemblance to cognitive style constructs and intelligence quotient 
factors identified by others in unified theories of intelligence.  In fact, MI 
theory merely adapts factors identified as primary abilities in factor analyses 
of data derived from intelligence tests and relabels them as intelligences.  A 
review of the literature on cognitive styles shows numerous compatibilities 
between styles of cognition and the MI intelligences.  For example, the logical-
mathematical intelligence is applied to individuals who are sensitive to 
logical or numerical patterns and have the ability to handle long chains of 
reasoning, and whose ideal career is as scientists or mathematicians.  These 
characteristics are compatible with the cognitive style identified as field-
independent, and also with numerical ability, one of the factors identified by 
intelligence factor analysis.  While single factor constructs of intelligence 
have certainly been invalidated by current research, the label of separate 
intelligences for aspects of cognition does not appear to be warranted.  
Critiques of each of the seven MI intelligences and 97 references are included.  
  Descriptors: *Cognitive Development; Cognitive Processes; *Cognitive Style; 
Criticism; *Epistemology; *Factor Analysis; Field Dependence Independence; 
Intelligence Quotient; Literature Reviews; *Psychological Characteristics; 
  Identifiers: Gardner (Howard); *Multiple Intelligences

  ED340506  PS020237
  Learning Styles. What Research Says to the Teacher Series.
  Reiff, Judith C.
  ISBN: 8106-1092-2
  Available From: NEA Professional Library, P.O. Box 509, West Haven, CT 06516 
(Stock No. 1092-2-00, $3.95).
  EDRS Price - MF01 Plus Postage. PC Not Available from EDRS.
  Language: English
  Document Type: REVIEW LITERATURE (070);  TEACHING GUIDE (052)
  Target Audience: Practitioners
  This monograph reviews several approaches for describing learning styles and 
the instructional implications of an emphasis on learning styles for teachers.  
Several reasons for the importance of understanding individual learning styles 
are provided; such understanding leads to: (1) reduction of teacher and student 
frustration; (2) higher student achievement and an improved self-concept; (3) 
accommodation of a variety of learners in a classroom; (4) the versatility that 
is crucial to learning; and (5) improved communication with administrators, 
parents, counselors, and other staff.  Cognitive, affective, and physiological 
learning styles are considered.  Approaches for describing cognitive styles 
include brain theories, conceptual tempo, field dependence/field independence, 
mind styles, modalities, and multiple intelligences.  Approaches for describing 
affective styles include conceptual systems theory and psychological types.  
Finally, approaches for describing physiological styles revolve around elements 
of learning styles which have been classified into four kinds of stimuli: 
environmental, emotional, sociological, and physical.  Six approaches for 
incorporating instruction that takes learning styles into account in the 
classroom are provided.  They are: (1) pedagogical intelligence; (2) Carol 
Hall's Living Classroom; (3) whole language; (4) Foxfire activities; (5) the 
4MAT System; and (6) the DICSIE (Describe, Interact, Control, Select, Instruct, 
Evaluate) Model.  It is concluded that teachers pass through several stages in 
their understanding of children's learning styles, and it is emphasized that 
administrative support, staff development, peer coaching, parent education, and 
personal determination and commitment are crucial in a positive learning 
styles classroom.  A bibliography of 172 references is appended.  (GLR)
  Descriptors: *Academic Achievement; *Cognitive Style; Elementary Secondary 
Education; High Risk Students; *Individual Differences; Learning Modalities; 
*Self Concept; Self Esteem; Teacher Behavior; *Teaching Methods; Teaching 
Styles; Whole Language Approach
  Identifiers: 4Mat System; DICSIE Model; *Flexibility (Teacher); Foxfire; 
Frustration; Living Classroom (Hall); Pedagogical Intelligence

  EJ449303  SO523433
  Cognitive Styles--An Overview and Integration.
  Riding, Richard; Cheema, Indra
  Educational Psychology: An International Journal of Experimental Educational 
Psychology, v11 n3-4 p193-215   1991
  ISSN: 0144-3410
  Language: English
  Target Audience: Teachers; Researchers; Practitioners
  Discusses research on cognitive styles and strategies.  Groups labels into 
two principle styles.  Describes the wholist-analytic style, examining whether 
an individual tends to process information in wholes or parts, and the 
verbalizer-imager style considering whether an individual is inclined to 
represent information during thinking verbally or in images.  (DK)
  Descriptors: Cognitive Psychology; *Cognitive Style; Field Dependence 
Independence; Higher Education; *Individual Characteristics; *Learning 
Strategies; Memory; *Nonverbal Learning; Problem Solving; Psychological Studies; 
*Verbal Learning
  Identifiers: Myers Briggs Type Indicator; Verbal Imagery Style; Visual 
Imagery; Wholist Analytic Style

  EJ443702  SO523100
  Square Pegs: Learning Styles of At-Risk Students.
  Hanson, J. Robert; And Others
  Music Educators Journal, v78 n3 p30-35 Nov   1991
  ISSN: 0027-4321
  Available From: UMI
  Language: English
  Target Audience: Teachers; Practitioners
  States that students who succeed tend to be thinkers rather than feelers.  
Discusses how teachers can discover their own learning styles and develop an 
approach that reaches every learner.  Suggests that music educators' teaching 
styles tend to mirror the learning styles of at-risk students and are missing 
from the remainder of the curriculum.  (DK)
  Descriptors: *Cognitive Style; Elementary Secondary Education; *High Risk 
Students; *Intuition; Learning Strategies; *Music Education; Personality Traits; 
*Teacher Student Relationship; *Teaching Styles
  Identifiers: Jung (Carl G); *Learning Patterns

  ED355634  EA024733
  Learning Style: Cognitive and Thinking Skills. Instructional Leadership 
  Keefe, James W.
  Available From: National Association of Secondary School Principals, 1904 
Association Drive, Reston, VA 22091.
  EDRS Price - MF01 Plus Postage. PC Not Available from EDRS.
  Language: English
  Target Audience: Policymakers
  Learning style is the foundation of successful teaching and teaching for 
thinking.  The recent conceptualization of the brain as a complex system for 
processing and storing information can be meaningful to educators.  Too many 
schools, however, rely on a rather mechanistic approach to learning.  Future 
school administrators must be taught to understand information processing as a 
part of learning.  Most early research into learning style was too preoccupied 
with finding the one perceptual mode that would best increase learning or 
retention.  In 1937, however, Allport coined the term "cognitive style," and 
research in this area expanded greatly after World War II.  In the 1950s the 
term "learning style" began to be used in discussing the dynamics of groups at 
work, and current efforts to explain the underlying processes of learning 
reflect three lines of research, the first emphasizing the cognitive style; the 
second stressing students self-perceptions; and the third resting heavily on 
personality theory.  In 1979, the National Association of Secondary School 
Principals (NASSP) helped establish the National Learning Styles Network to 
study developing learning styles research.  The Network proposed that all 
information must pass through an individual's information processing system to 
be learned, retained, and recalled.  The Task Force adopted a research model in 
which learning style encompasses cognitive, affective, and 
physiological/environmental dimensions.  The NASSP also developed the Learning 
Style Profile (LSP) designed to give teachers an easy way to determine 
learning styles in middle level and senior high school students.  The LSP 
diagnoses student's cognitive styles, perceptual response tendencies, and 
study/instructional preferences.  As a first-level diagnostic, the LSP can be 
used to create individual student profiles or group profiles that are useful in 
creating learning style-based instruction.  Sample questions from the LSP are 
included.  Contains 26 references.  (JPT)
  Descriptors: *Administrator Education; *Cognitive Processes; *Cognitive Style; 
High School Students; Instructional Leadership; Junior High School Students; 
*Learning Modalities; *Learning Strategies; Middle Schools; Secondary Education
  Identifiers: *Learning Style Profile (NASSP)

  ED342099  EA023702
  Learning Styles: Putting Research and Common Sense into Practice.
  ISBN: 0-87652-169-3
  Available From: American Association of School Administrators, 1801 North 
Moore Street, Arlington, VA 22209.
  EDRS Price - MF01/PC03 Plus Postage.
  Language: English
  Target Audience: Policymakers; Administrators; Teachers; Practitioners
  The instructional techniques currently in use in many classrooms across the 
country were developed to teach children the "basics" and to instill good 
working habits adaptable to the industrial age.  Although the term "learning 
style" first appeared in research literature in the 1950s, it did not burst 
upon the education scene significantly until the 1970s.  Recently, educators 
and researchers have combined their increasing interest in the nature and uses 
of intelligence with scientific knowledge about how the brain works.  In 
addition, there have been numerous cumulative studies on the effects of 
cultural, social, and physical contexts on learning.  The result is a much 
wider base for understanding how children learn.  This booklet discusses the 
movement from a focus on physical, observable behavior (external) to 
cognitive/affective factors (internal).  The document discusses several 
theories about learning styles, all of which focus on the student's individual 
characteristics and ways in which they process information.  Common problems in 
assessing the learning styles of students are addressed, as well as the most 
common assessment programs (Reading Style Inventory, NASSP Learning Style 
Profile, and the 4MAT System).  The last chapter answers questions educators 
may have about how to incorporate learning styles into their classrooms and 
discusses the best climate for style-based learning.  (43 references) (LAP)
  Descriptors: *Cognitive Style; Curriculum Development; *Curriculum Evaluation; 
Elementary Secondary Education; Learning Strategies; *Student Evaluation

  EJ418256  EC232007
  Comparison of Eleven Major Learning Styles Models: Variables, Appropriate 
Populations, Validity of Instrumentation, and Research behind Them.
  De Bello, Thomas C.
  Journal of Reading, Writing, and Learning Disabilities International, v6 n3 
p203-22 Jul-Sep   1990
  Theme Issue: Learning Styles-Based Instruction.
  Language: English
  Document Type: JOURNAL ARTICLE (080);  REVIEW LITERATURE (070)
  The paper presents an overview of 11 major models of individual learning 
styles comparing their elements, the populations for which they are 
appropriate, the reliability and validity of their instrumentation, and where 
they overlap and differ.  (Author/DB)
  Descriptors: *Cognitive Style; *Elementary Secondary Education; *Individual 
Differences; Models; Research and Development; Test Reliability; Test Validity; 
*Theories; Theory Practice Relationship

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